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Primary Sources | Secondary Sources | Music | DVD

Primary Sources

Apollod. 1.3.6: Birth of Athena.
3.12.3: The Palladium.
3.14.1: Athena and Poseidon.
3.14.6: Athena and Hephaestus.
Callim. Hymn 5.
Hdt. 1.19.1-1.19.3: Temple of Athena of Assesos.
Hes. Th. 886–900: Birth of Athena.
HH 28 Complete.
HH 11 Complete.
Hyg. 164: Athena’s Contest with Poseidon.
Luc. D. S. complete.
Ov. Met. 6.1-145: Arachne.
Paus. 1.24.5-1.24.7: Sculpture of the Parthenon.
1.28.2: Bronze Athena and Lemnian Athena on the Acropolis.
5.3.2: Sanctuary of Athena the Mother.
9.33.5-9.34.2: Temple of Athena at Alacomenae; the river Triton; temple of Itonian Athena; the priestess Iodama.

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Primary Sources | Secondary Sources | Music | DVD

Secondary Sources


Arnold, Matthew (1822–1888). “Palladium.” Poem.

Beard, Mary. The Parthenon. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. A survey for the general reader and student.

Lowell, James Russell (1819–1891). “Invita Minerva.” (“Minerva Unwilling”). Poem.

Mann, Heinrich (1871–1950). Minerva. Novel.

Scheid, John, and Jesper Svenbro. The Craft of Zeus: Myths of Weaving and Fabric. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996. The exploration of the metaphor of weaving and its symbolism.

Spenser, Edmund (1552?–1599). “Muiopotmos; or, The Fate of the Butterfly.” The contest between Athena and Poseidon recounted. Poem.

Wilde, Oscar (1854–1900). “Charmides.” Poem.

Yeats, William Butler (1865–1939). “Colonus’ Praise.” Stanza 2, the “Athene Stanza.” Poem.


Barber, Elizabeth Wayland, Women’s Work: The First 20,000 Years. New York: Norton, 1994. An appreciation of the importance and dignity of women’s skill in weaving and the worship of Athena.

Hurwit, Jeffrey M. The Athenian Acropolis, History, Mythology, and Archaeology from the Neolithic Era to the Present. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Neils, Jenifer, ed. Goddess and Polis: The Panathenaic Festival in Ancient Athens. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

———, ed. Worshipping Athena: Panathenaia & Parthenon. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996. A collection of essays divided into three sections: “Myth and Cult,” “Contests and Prizes,” and “Art and Politics.”

Shearer, Ann. Athene: Image and Energy. London: Penguin, 1998 (1996). Traces, from a feminist perspective, the continuing energy of Athena in literature, art, religion, and psycholgy.

St. Clair, William. Lord Elgin and the Marbles. The Controversial History of the Parthenon Sculptures. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Using official records previously withheld from the public, St. Clair describes the controversy concerning Elgin’s acquisition in the early 1800s and the damage done to the marbles while in the British Museum in the 1930s.

Vrettos, Theodore. The Elgin Affair. Arcade, 1997. A detailed recreation of the history from the beginning to the present day with a scrutiny of interested persons such as Napoleon, Lord Byron, and Lord Nelson.

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Primary Sources | Secondary Sources | Music | DVD


Arkenstone, David (1952–). “Athena.” Goddess. Enso ND-62804. An album in his Troika Series that includes other albums: Faeries, Kingdom of the Sun, and Shaman. Narada. This CD also pays tribute to Diana, Venus, and other goddesses. Arkenstone’s New Age music employs percussion, synthesizer, keyboard, and voice. Other works are Atlantis: A Symphonic Journey, Narada; Spirit of Olympia, Narada; and Myths and Legends, Gemini Sun Records.

Christiné, Henri (1867–1941), Phi-Phi. Max de Rieux et al. Orchestra, cond. Bervilly.  UN Label Universal Music. Musidisc France (Decca). Also Bourvil et al. Cond. Rys. EMI CDM 7 63342 2 (abridged version). An operetta about Pheidias (nicknamed Phi-Phi), which belongs more to the realm of myth than to history.

Scott, Stephen (1944–). Minerva’s Web, for grand piano, bowed and plucked by ten musicians; inspired by Ovid and thematically related to Scott’s The Tears of Niobe. The Colorado College New Music Ensemble. New Albion Records NA 026 CD (includes both works).

Strauss, Richard (1864–1949). Panathenäenzug. Rösel (piano). Staatskapelle Dresden, cond. Kempe. Strauss Orchestral Works. Musical Heritage Society 595931L. Subtitled “Symphonic Studies in the Form of a Passacaglia for Piano (left hand),” this rare work is inspired by the Athenian festival of the Panathenaea.

Xenakis, Iannis (1922–2001). La Déesse Athéna, for baritone, solo percussion, and ensemble. Larsen. Carnegie Mellon Philharmonic, cond. Izquierdo. Mode 58. Xenakis tells us the subject “is the founding of the first tribunal,” and the soloist must transcend his normal scalar range to include a falsetto soprano. Also included is Persephassa, about Persephone.

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Athens and Ancient Greece (Great Cities of the Ancient World). Questar Video QV2337. A tour of the Acropolis and Athens and other major sites: Olympia, Delphi, Mycenae, and Santorini.

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