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Chapter 9

This outline can be a helpful study tool to assist you in seeing the order and sequence of the chapter and the relationship of ideas.  Use it to take notes as you read and/or to add concepts presented in lecture.

  1. A great deal of the information you have learned, the benefits your have gained, even your very identity, have come from group membership.
    1. A group is defined as a small collection of people who interact with each other, usually face to face over time, in order to reach goals.
    2. Virtual groups, which use mediated communication, meet more easily and more quickly than face-to-face groups and level status and gender differences faster.
    3. Group members are motivated by individual goals as well as group goals.
    4. Groups operate within a framework of common characteristics because of explicit rules and unstated social, procedural, and task norms.
    5. Roles define patterns of behavior within a group. These can be formal or informal task roles and social roles; frequently, persons occupying dysfunctional roles prevent group effectiveness.
    6. The interaction within a group could resemble an all-channel network, a chain network, or a wheel network. Success in a wheel network depends heavily on the skill of a gatekeeper.
  2. There are several approaches a group can use to make decisions. These include consensus, majority control, expert opinion, minority control, and authority rule.
    1. Individualistic versus collectivist cultural approaches clash the most noticeably in a group setting.
    2. Power distance and uncertainty avoidance are also cultural factors that play a role in decision making.
    3. Some cultures stress task orientation; and others have a high degree of social orientation.
    4. Members of some cultures seek short-term, quick payoffs; others defer gratification in pursuit of long-term goals.
  3. All groups have a leader or leaders, whether elected, designated, or assumed.
    1. Power is defined as the ability to influence others.
    2. The ability to influence others can be in the form of legitimate power, the power held by a nominal leader, coercive power, reward power, expert power, information power, or referent power.
    3. Trait theories of leadership incorporate social, goal-related and physical appearance skills, as well as intelligence and dependability,
    4. Groups are managed by means of an authoritarian leadership style, a democratic leadership style, the laissez-faire leadership style, or situational leadership.

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