We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Find out more

Chapter 8

This outline can be a helpful study tool to assist you in seeing the order and sequence of the chapter and the relationship of ideas.  Use it to take notes as you read and/or to add concepts presented in lecture.

  1. Every communication relationship has a feeling, a mood, an emotional tone referred to as communication climate.
    1. Positive confirming messages verify value, increasing recognition, acknowledgment, and endorsement.
    2. Disconfirming messages deny value via disagreement, aggression, rejection, disputing, ignoring, or disregarding.
    3. Communication climates take on a life of their own either in positive reinforcement or negative escalatory conflict spirals. Avoidance spirals can also be destructive.
  2. The Gibb categories, contrasting defense-arousing versus actions aimed at reducing a threat, can create increasingly positive or negative climates.
    1. One challenge is evaluative communication, "you" language, against descriptive communication, "I" language.
    2. Another compares a controlling message versus problem orientation, and behavior manipulation strategy versus honest spontaneity.
    3. Neutrality indicates indifference, whereas empathy implies acceptance of feelings.
    4. Superiority triggers defensiveness, whereas equality signals worth; and certainty is unyielding, in contrast to provisionalism, which introduces and acknowledges practical considerations.
  3. Communication conflicts arise in all relationships as an expressed struggle between at least two parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce rewards, and interference from the other parties as they seek to achieve their goals.
    1. Conflict is expressed via nonassertion, direct aggression, passive aggression, indirect communication, and assertion.
    2. A complete assertive message, the most effective response, includes behavioral description, interpretation, description of feelings, description of consequences, and statement of intentions.
    3. Gender influences and cultural attitudes are reflected in our approach to conflict.
    4. Computer-mediated communication fosters conflict through use of delay, disinhibition, and permanence.
  4. The resolution of conflicts has four possible outcomes: win—lose, lose—lose problem solving, compromise, and win—win problem solving.
    1. Win—win is the solution that satisfies the needs of everyone involved.
    2. Win—win requires the following steps: identify your problem and unmet needs, make a date, describe your problem and needs, check back with your partner, solicit partner's needs, check understanding, negotiate, and follow up.

Legal Notice | Privacy Policy | Cookie Policy
Please send comments or suggestions about this Website to custserv.us@oup.com