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Chapter Outline

This outline can be a helpful study tool to assist you in seeing the order and sequence of the chapter and the relationship of ideas.  Use it to take notes as you read and/or to add concepts presented in lecture.

  1. We spend more time in listening to others than in any other type of communication.
    1. Listening and hearing are not the same thing because listening requires attending, understanding, responding, and remembering.
    2. Listening is not a natural process, nor do all speakers receive the same message from the same spoken communication.
    3. Listening requires effort to separate mindless listening from mindful listening.
  2. Too often we employ faulty listening behaviors that prevent understanding.
    1. Pseudolistening imitates paying attention but is not the real thing.
    2. Selective listeners respond only to parts that interest them, and defensive listeners are distrustful and suspicious.
    3. Ambushers set traps to attack, and insulated listeners avoid selected topics.
    4. Insensitive listeners take remarks at face value, and stage hogs are conversational narcissists.
  3. There are several reasons for poor listening.
    1. Message overload, rapid thought, and all three types of noise make for poor listening.
    2. Faulty assumptions, talking instead of listening, and cultural and media influences hinder effective listening.
    3. Not every one listens the same way. There are content-oriented, people-oriented, action-oriented, and time-oriented listeners.
  4. When you want to understand another person, you use informational listening.
    1. The steps of informational listening include not arguing or prejudging prematurely, separating the message from the speaker, and searching for value.
    2. Other components of informational listening are looking for key ideas, asking sincere questions not counterfeit questions, paraphrasing, and taking notes.
  5. When you listen to judge the quality of the message with a view to accepting or rejecting it, you employ critical listening.
    1. Reserve judging credibility until you are certain you understand the message.
    2. Look for credible support by examining the speaker's evidence and reasoning. Examine the emotional appeals that may influence your ability to apply logic.
  6. The goal of one very important communication skill, supportive listening, is to build a relationship or help solve a problem.
    1. The types of supportive response commonly used include advising response,  judging response, analyzing statements, questioning, comforting, and prompting.
    2. Other supportive listeners might use reflecting combined with paraphrasing; but before choosing that type of response, they should always consider the situation, the other person, and personal strengths and weaknesses.

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