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Chapter 12

This outline can be a helpful study tool to assist you in seeing the order and sequence of the chapter and the relationship of ideas.  Use it to take notes as you read and/or to add concepts presented in lecture.

  1. A good speech is like a good building. It requires a plan, a blueprint.
    1. Working outlines, formal outlines, or speaking notes solidify ideas and structurally reinforce the impact of the content.
    2. There should be a logical basic speech structure that makes use of time patterns, space patterns, topic patterns, problem–solution patterns, or cause–effect patterns.
    3. Transitions keep your message moving forward and show the relation of one part of the speech to the next.
  2. How you start and how you finish are vital for the effectiveness of your speech.
    1. The introduction should capture attention, preview main points, set the mood and tone of the speech, and demonstrate the importance of your topic.
    2. The conclusion should restate the thesis, review main points, and provide a memorable ending.
    3. Avoid a rambling uncertain beginning and a finale that ends abruptly, rambles on, introduces main points, or apologizes for weaknesses.
  3. Organize the main points in a clear, logical manner that is reinforced with supporting material.
    1. Supporting material clarifies, helps make interesting, makes memorable, and proves.
    2. Available resources include but are not limited to definitions, examples, statistics, analogies, comparisons and contrasts, anecdotes, quotations, and testimony through either narration or citation.

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