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Primary Sources | Secondary Sources | Music | DVD

Primary Sources

Apollod. 1.1.1-1.1.7: Creation.
1.7.5-1.7.6: Endymion.
Aristoph. Birds 685-707: Eros and Creation.
Hes. Theog. 1–210: This section deals with the early generation of the gods and the castration of Uranus. If you like, read the entire Theogony now, rather than just the recommended selections as they are listed. Th. 453–506:  Birth of Zeus.
Hom. Od. 12.127-141: Helius’ flocks on the island of Thrinacia. Od. 12.260-425: The story of Helius’ flocks and Odysseus’ men to be studied in Chapter 20.
HH 5
HH 14
HH 30
HH 31
HH 32
218-238: Eos and Tithonus.
Hyg. 139: The Curetes.
152(a): Phaëthon.
154: Phaëthon [according to Hesiod].
156: Catalogue of Children of Helius.
182: Catalogue of the Daughters of Oceanus.
Ov. Met. 1.5-88: The Creation.
Met. 1.750-2.380: Phaethon.
Met. 4.190-270: Helius and Leucothoë [23].
Paus. 5.1.3-5.1.5: Endymion.
Pind. O. 7.54-74: Helius and the island of Rhodes.
Plat. Tim. 26e-48e: A religious and philosophical discussion of God and the creation of the Universe.
Strab. 11.4.7: Selene, priests, and human sacrifice.

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Secondary Sources


Auden, W. H. (1907–1973). “Ode to Gaea.” Poem.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832). “An Luna” (To Luna). Poem. See Lehmann, Liza, “Endymion,” song for soprano and orchestra, a setting of the poem by Longfellow.

Keats, John (1795–1821). “Endymion.” Poem.

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth (1807–1882). “Endymion.” Poem.

Pound, Ezra (1885-1972). The Pisan Cantos. Canto 82. Poem.

Raine, Kathleen. “Phaeton,” in Nina Kossman, ed., Gods and Mortals:  Modern Poems on Classical Myths. Ed. Nina Kossman.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. 143-4.

Spenser, Edmund (1552?–1599). The Fairie Queen.  Oceanus and Tethys (4.11.18). Epic.

Swinburne, Algernon Charles (1837-1909). “Hyperion.” Poem.


Caldwell, Richard S. Origins of the Gods: A Psychoanalytic Study of Greek Theogonic Myth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. Identifies aspects of psychoanalytic theory relevant for Greek myth and interprets the themes of origin and success, as found in Hesiod’s Theogony.

Clay, Jenny Strauss. The Politics of Olympus: Form and Meaning in the Major Homeric Hymns. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Hathorn, Richmond Y. Greek Mythology. Beirut: American University Press of Beirut, 1977. A good resource to accompany the study of the subject.

Kerényi, Carl. The Gods of the Greeks. London: Thames, 1951.

Lamberton, R. Hesiod. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.

See the bibliography at the end of Chapter 4 for additional sources.

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Primary Sources | Secondary Sources | Music | DVD


Britten, Benjamin (1913–1976). “Phaethon,” for solo oboe from Six Metamorphoses after Ovid, Various artists. Oboe Classics.  The album is subtitled Anatomy of a Masterpiece, with performances by George Caird, Joy Boughton, and Nicholas Daniel. Also . Zubicky. Simax PSC-1022. The other metamorphoses are Pan, Niobe, Bacchus, Narcissus, and Arethusa.

Converse, Frederick Shepherd (1871–1940). Endymion’s Narrative: Romance for Orchestra. Inspired by Keats, “Endymion, A Poetic Romance.” The Louisville Orchestra, First Edition Encores, cond. Mester. Albany Records TROY 030-2. Includes Chadwick, Euterpe: Concert Overture for Orchestra.

Dittersdorf, Carl Ditters von (1793–1799). Symphony in D Major, “The Fall of Phaëthon.” (1793–1799). Six Symphonies after Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Cantelina, cond. Shepherd. Chandos CHAN 8564/65. The other five symphonies are subtitled “The Four Ages of Man,” “The Transformation of Actaeon into a Stag,” “The Rescuing of Andromeda by Perseus,” “The Petrification of Phineus and His Friends,” “The Transformation of the Lycian Peasants into Frogs.”

Eaton, John (1935–). “Aphrodite Rising” from A Greek Vision, for soprano and flute. Charleston and Morgan. Indiana School of Music IUSM-04. A poem about the birth of Aphrodite and of beauty. The other two of the three poems by Angelos Sikelianos in A Greek Vision are entitled “Sparta” and “Return.” Other selections of Eaton’s music on this disc are From the Cave of the Sybil, Ajax, and The Cry of Clytemnestra.

Fénelon, Philippe (1952–). Mythologie III. Helios, from Mythologies, for chamber ensemble. Ensemble Fa, cond. My. Thésis THC 82057. The other three Mythologies are I. La Colère d’Achille; II. Orion; IV. Ulysse. Each is programmatic.

Haydn, Franz Joseph (1732–1809). The Creation. Oratorio. Seefried et al. Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, cond. Markevitch. Deutsche Grammophon (Double Series) 437380-2. The orchestral introduction is a representation of Chaos.

Lloyd Webber, William S. (1914–1982). Aurora. London Philharmonic Orchestra, cond. Maazel. Philips 420 32–2. Tone poem by the father of Lord Andrew.

Lully, Jean-Baptiste (1631–1687). Phaëton. Crook et al. Les Musiciens du Louvre. Erato 4509-91737-2. Operatic elaboration of Ovid.

Magnard, Albéric (1865–1914). Du Crépuscule à L’Aurore. Symphonic poem. Orchestre Philharmonique de Liege, cond. Bartholomée. Ricercar 030005. Includes Hymne à Vénus.

Mondonville, Jean-Joseph Cassanéa de (1711–Titon et L’Aurore. Fouchécourt et al. Les Musiciens du Louve, cond. Minkowski. Erato 2292-45715-2. This opera about Tithonus and Aurora has a prologue concerned with Prometheus and the creation of mortals.

Nielson, Carl (1865–1931). Helios. Overture. Chicago Symphony Orchestra, cond. Martinon. (RCA Classics.) BMG 74321 40492-2. Musical depiction of the sun rising and setting in the Aegean.

Rameau, Jean Philippe (1683–1764). Cyclope, for piano. Petrov. Melodiya MCD 122. This percussive, exciting solo may well depict a Cyclops busy at his forge.

Saint-Saëns, Camille (1835–1921). Phaéton. Symphonic poem. Orchestre National de France, cond. Ozawa. Includes Le Rouet de Omphale (The Spinning Wheel of Omphale), inspired by an episode in the legend of Heracles.

Schubert, Franz (1797–1828). “Aus ‘Heliopolis,’ I.” 251. Fischer-Dieskau and Moore. Deutsche Grammophon 437 215-2. Vol. 1. Song about Helius the sun.

Sibelius, Jean (1865–1957). The Oceanides. Tone-poem. Scottish National Orchestra, cond. Gibson. Chandos CHAN 8395/6. Includes The Dryad.

Strauss Jr., Johann (1825–1899). Aurora. Polka. CSSR State Philharmonic Orchestra, cond. Walter. Marco Polo 8.223212 (Strauss Jr. Edition, Vol. 12). Written for a ball of the Viennese Artists’ Association, whose motto was Aurora musis amica, “Dawn, a friend to the Muses.”

Wakeman, Rick, and Ramon Remedios. A Suite of the Gods. Relativity/President 88561-1026-2. New Age songs for tenor, keyboards, and percussion, which are entitled “Dawn of Time,” “The Oracle,” “Pandora’s Box,” “Chariot of the Sun,” “The Flood,” “The Voyage of Ulysses,” and “Hercules.”

Winter, Paul. Missa Gaia (Earth Mass). New Age music. Paul Winter Consort. Living Music LD 0002. Inspired by universal ecological concerns expressed both in text and in music within the context of the Christian Mass. Sections entitled “Return to Gaia” and “Dance of Gaia” are a modern celebration of the Earth, highlighting connotations in the Greek concept of all-embracing Gaia.

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