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Primary Sources | Secondary Sources | Music | DVD

Primary Sources

Apollod. 1.4.3-1.4.5: Myths about Artemis.
3.4.4: Actaeon.
3.5.6: Niobe.
3.8.2: Callisto.
E.1.16-E.1.19: Hippolytus.
Callim. Hymn 3
Eur. Hipp. complete.
Hdt. 2.137.5-1.38.4: Temple of Bubastis/Egyptian Artemis.
2.155.1-2.156.6: The oracle of Leto, and temples of Apollo and Artemis in Egypt.
4.33.1-4.33.4: The Hyperboreans and Delos.
Hes. Th. 404    Read through 452: Hecate.
Hom. Il. 24.596-24.620: Achilles tells Priam the story of Niobe.
HH 27
HH 9
Hyg. 9: Niobe.
10: Chloris, the surviving daughter of Niobe.
53: Ortygia and the Birth of Artemis.
11: Names of Niobe’s children.
195: Orion.
177: Callisto becomes a constellation.
180: Actaeon.
181: Catalogue of Actaeon’s dogs.
Ov. Her. 4: Phaedra to Hippolytus.
Met. 2.496-507: Callisto.
Met. 3.138-252: Actaeon.
Met. 5.572-641: Arethusa and Alpheus.
Met. 6.146-312: Niobe.
Paus. 1.21.3: Niobe on Mt. Sipylus.
1.40.2-1.40.3: Bronze statue of Artemis Saviour.
2.30.1-2.30.3: Apollo, Artemis, Hecate, and Britomartis.
2.32.1-2.32.4: Precinct of and honors for Hippolytus.
5.7.2-5.7.3: Arethusa.
6.22.8-6.22.11: Myth of Artemis Elaphiaea.
7.18.8-7.19.10: Many myths about Artemis and her worship, including human sacrifice.
8.3.5-8.4.1: Callisto.
8.5.11-8.5.12: Worship of Artemis Hymnia.
8.23.4-8.23.7: Mysteries of Artemis and sanctuary of Strangled Artemis Condyleatis.
9.2.3-9.2.4: Actaeon.
Sen. Hipp. complete.
Strab. 6.2.4: Arethusa.
Theoc. 2: In which a follower of Hecate casts a spell either to win back the lover who spurned her or, if it fails, kill him.

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Primary Sources | Secondary Sources | Music | DVD

Secondary Sources


Cather, Willa (1873–1947). “The Marriage of Phaedra.” Short story.

Jeffers, Robinson (1887–1962). The Cretan Woman. Play.

O’Neill, Eugene (1888–1953). Desire under the Elms. Play.

Racine, Jean (1639–1699). Phèdre. Play.

Renault, Mary (1905–1983). The Bull from the Sea. Novel.

Rukeyser, Muriel. “Niobe Now,” in Nina Kossman, ed. Gods and Mortals: Modern Poems on Classical Myths. Ed. Nina Kossman. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 146–7.


Marinatos, Nanno. The Goddess and the Warrior: The Naked Goddess and Mistress of the Animals in Early Greek Religion. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Wall, Kathleen, The Callisto Myth from Ovid to Atwood: Initiation and Rape in Literature, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1988.

Zeitlin, Froma. Playing the Other: Gender and Society in Classical Greek Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Many of the essays are revisions of previously published material.

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Primary Sources | Secondary Sources | Music | DVD


Arkenstone, David. “Diana” in Goddess. New Age music. Troika. Enso ND-62804. Percussion, synthesizer, keyboard, and voices pay tribute to two other classical goddesses, Athena and Venus, and as well, Oya, Zorya, Kuan Yin, Gwenhwyfar, and Inanna.

Auric, Georges (1899–1983). Phèdre. Orchestre Phiharmonique du Luxembourg, cond. Tamayo. Timpani 1C1090. The “argument” for this ballet (a “choreographic tragedy”) is by Cocteau, who comments: “A myth is a myth because poets take it up again and prevent it from dying. No one can be unaware of the myth of Phaedra, the maiden of the Sun. By word or dance, let us glorify it.” The choreographer Serge Lifar had previously done a ballet, Hippolyte, with music by Vittorio Rieti.

Banter, Harald (1930–). Tod des Aktaeon (The Death of Aktaeon). North West German Philharmonic Orchestra, cond. Jurowski. Marco Polo 8.223860. Music from the ballet Diana soppresa (Diana Surprised). Includes Phädra.

Bernier, Nicolas (1664–1734). Hippolyte et Aricie. Cantata for soprano, violin, bass viol, and harpsichord. Nicolas, Mejean, Plubeau, and Weiss. Pierre Verany PV792113. Hippolytus, who rejects Phaedra for Aricia, is killed by a sea monster amid a terrifying storm. Aricia is ready to die with her beloved when both are saved by a god. Recording includes The Portrait of Urania.

Bowles, Paul (1910–1999). Hippolytos and Salome. Largo 5131. Music for productions of Euripides’ Hippolytos and Wilde’s Salome originally written for synthesizer. The selections on this recording are rearranged for a small instrumental group.

Britten, Benjamin (1913–1976). “Arethusa,” and “Niobe,” for solo oboe, from Six Metamorphoses after Ovid. Various artists. Oboe Classics.  The album is subtitled Anatomy of a Masterpiece, with performances by George Caird, Joy Boughton, and Nicholas Daniel. Also, Zubicky. Simax PSC-1022. The other metamorphoses are Phaethon, Pan, Bacchus, and Narcissus.

———. Phaedra. Dramatic cantata for mezzo-soprano and small orchestra; a setting of lines from Robert Lowell’s translation of Racine. Baker et al. English Chamber Orchestra, cond. Britten. Chandos CHAN 9254/5. Includes The Rape of Lucretia; Hunt et al. Hallé Orchestra, cond. Nagano. Erato 0630-12713-2. Includes The Rescue of Penelope.

Cavalli, Francesco (1602–1676). La Calisto. Opera. Piscitelli et al. Gioioso Players, cond. Moretti. Stradivarius STR-13606/07; Bayo et al. Concerto Vocale, cond. Jacobs. Harmonia Mundi HMC 901515.17. An important subplot revolves around Diana’s love for Endymion.

Charpentier, Marc-Antoine (1643–1704). Actéon. Opera. Visse et al. Les Arts Florissants, cond. Christie. Harmonia Mundi HM 90.1095.

Cornacchioli, Giacinto (1599–after 1673). Diana Schernita. Called the first comic opera. Laurenza et al. I Solisti Cantori, cond. De Filippi. Bongiovanni GB 2228-2. The major characters are Cupid, Diana, Endymion, and Pan.

Cavalli, Francesco (1602–1676). L’Orione. Opera. Forte, Polverelli, et al. Orchestra Barocca di Venezia, cond. Marcon. Mondo Musica MFON 22249. Based on the myth of Diana and Orion.

Dittersdorf, Carl Ditters von (1793–1799). Symphony in G Major, “The Transformation of Actaeon into a Stag.” Six Symphonies after Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Cantelina, cond. Shepherd. Musical Heritage Society MHS 522223A (originally Chandos CHAN 8564/65.) The other five symphonies are subtitled: “The Four Ages of Man,” “The Fall of Phaëëthon,” “The Rescuing of Andromeda by Perseus,” “The Petrification of Phineus and His Friends,” and “The Transformation of the Lycian Peasants into Frogs.”

Fénelon, Philippe (1952–). Mythologie II. Orion from Mythologies, for chamber ensemble. Ensemble Fa, cond. My. Thésis THC 82057. The other three Mythologies are I, La Colère d’Achille; III, Helios; IV, Ulysse. Each is programmatic.

Honegger, Arthur (1892–1955). Phèdre. Suite drawn from music composed for the Phèdre of d’Annunzio. The U.S.S.R. Ministry of Culture Orchestra, cond. Rozhdestvensky. Olympia OCD 212, also Melodiya MCD 212.

Lehmann, Liza, “Endymion,” song for soprano and orchestra, a setting of the poem by Longfellow. Watson and Bedford. Naxos 8.557118.

Milhaud, Darius. (1892–1974). Trois Opéras-Minute: L’enlèvement d’Europe, L’abandon d’Ariane, and La délivrance de Thésée. Ensemble Ars Nova, cond. Siranossian. Arion ARN 68195; Capella Cracoviensis, cond. Rickenbacher. Koch 3-1139-2. The last of these very short operas is about Phaedra’s pursuit of Hippolytus, who is enamored of Aricia.

Paisiello, Giovanni. Fedra. Opera. Udovich et al. Orchestra Sinfonica, cond. Questa. Nuova Era 2271/72. The libretto is an adaptation of the text for Ippolito ed Aricia, composed by Traetta, and inspired by Rameau’s opera.

Philidor, François-André-Danican. (1726–1795). Carmen Saeculare. Cantata for chorus. La Grande écurie et la Chambre du Roy, cond. Malgoire. Erato 2292-45609-2. Musical setting of the Latin text of Horace’s hymn to Apollo and Diana.

Puccini, Giacomo (1858–1924). “Hymn to Diana.” Something classical from Puccini, but dedicated to the fraternity of Italian hunters! Domingo and Rudel. CBS MK 44981.

Rameau, Jean-Philippe. (1683–1764). Hippolyte et Aricie. Opera indebted to Racine's Phèdre. Fouchécourt et al. Les Musiciens du Louvre, cond. Minkowski. Archiv 445 853-2.

Respighi, Ottorino (1879–1936). Aretusa, for mezzo-soprano with orchestra. Subrata. Czecho-Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra, cond. Adriano. Marco Polo 8.223347. A setting of Shelley’s poem “Arethusa.”

Schubert, Franz (1797–1828). “Hippolits Lied” (“Song of Hippolytus”) and “Der zürnenden Diana” (a passionate eulogy “To Wrathful Diana”). Hampson, McLaughlin, and Johnson. Hyperion CDJ33014; Fischer-Dieskau and Moore. Deutsche Grammophon 437 215-2. Vols. 1 and 2.

Scott, Stephen (1944–). The Tears of Niobe, for grand piano, bowed and plucked by ten musicians; inspired by Ovid and thematically related to Scott’s Minerva’s Web. The Colorado College New Music Ensemble. New Albion Records NA 026 CD (includes both works).

Szymanowski, Karol (1882–1937). Mythes, for violin and piano. Gadzina and Paderewski. Koch Schwann 3-1152-2; Mordkovitch and Gusak-Grin. Chandos CHAN 8747. The three myths are “La Fontaine d’Arétuse,” “Narcisse,” and “Dryades et Pan.”

Takemitsu, Toru (1930–1996). Orion and Pleiades, for violincello and orchestra. Watkins. BBC National Symphony Orchestra, cond. Otaka. One of a series of works by Takemitsu, inspired by the constellations; another is Cassiopeia, for percussion and orchestra.

Thomas, Edward (1924–), Desire under the Elms. An American folk opera based on the play by Eugene O’Neill. Hadley et al. London Symphony Orchestra, cond, Manahan. Naxos 8.669001-02.

Traetta, Tommaso (1727–1779). Ippolito ed Aricia. Opera. Manzotti, Ciofi et al. Orchestra Internazionale d’Italia, cond. Golub. Dynamic CDS 257/1- 4. Inspired by the opera of Rameau, and the plays by Racine and Euripides.

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Primary Sources | Secondary Sources | Music | DVD


“Diana and Actaeon,” pas de deux. Ballet. Music by Riccardo Drigo. Choreography by Rudolf Nureyev, after Marius Petipa, with Nureyev and Svetlana Beriosova in Rudolf Nureyev / Erik Bruhn—Their Complete Bell Telephone Hour Performances, 1961–1967. The Bell Telephone Hour Orchestra, cond. Donald Voorhees. VAI. Also in Essential Ballet Performances of the Kirov Ballet. Farukh Ruzimatov with Larisa Lezhina. Philips.

Desire under the Elms. Film based on Eugene O’Neill’s play. Sophia Loren, Anthony Perkins, Burl Ives, et al. Directed by Delbert Mann.  Paramount. An interesting adaptation with strong performances.

La Calisto. Opera by Francsco Cavalli. Bayo et al. Concerto Vocale, cond. Jacobs. Harmonia Mundi. An important subplot revolves around Diana’s love for Endymion.

Phaedra. Film made in 1962 that reinterprets the Hippoytus legend in a powerful way that has won widespread appeal. Melina Mercouri and Anthony Perkins, et al. Directed by Jules Dassin. United Artists.

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. One is the temple of Artemis at Ephesus and another, the statue of Zeus at Olympia, both illustrated and narrated by Pierce Brosnan with theatrical flair for a general audience. Directed by Rolf Forsberg. Questar DVD Collection.

Sylvia. The Royal Ballet, with Darcey Bussell et al. Orchestra of the Royal Opera house, cond. Bond. Opus Arte. Music by Léo Delibes. Choreography by Frederick Ashton. Fortunately, this production is faithful to Greek mythology and is not updated. The original production was by Louis Mérant in 1876, but it was the 1952 revival by Ashton that made the work popular. Sylvia is a follower of Diana, and in the love story that evolves, Eros, Orion, and Endymion also play roles. Also Aurélie Dupont et al. Corps de Ballet et Orchestre de l’Opéra National de Paris, cond. Paul Connelly; included is an interview with John Neumeier, the choreographer. American Ballet Theatre at the Met—Mixed Bill. The pas de deux from Sylvia (choreographed by George Balanchine), danced by Martine van Hamel and Patrick Bissell. Kultur.

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