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Chapter Outline

  1. Starting Out: Epilepsy: “The Sacred Disease”

    • Hippocrates and epilepsy

  2. Alzheimer’s Disease: Burning Out with Age?

    1. Gradual Deterioration of High-Level Cognitive Function

    2. The Core Deficit of Alzheimer’s Disease

    3. Plaques and Tangles

      • -Neurofibrillary tangles

        -Tau proteins

    4. Comparing Functional Connectivity

    5. Are Plaques a Cause or Consequence of Alzheimer’s Disease?

    6. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Physical Activity on Alzheimer’s Disease

    7. Lowering the Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease

  3. Frontotemporal Dementia: Like a Cancer of the Soul

    1. The Consequence of Degeneration of the Frontal Lobe and Temporal Pole

    2. The Effect of Location of the Degeneration in Frontotemporal Dementia

    3. Differences Between Alzheimer’s Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia

    4. Semantic Dementia

    5. Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia

  4. Case Study: Ravel and “Bolero”

  5. Huntington’s Disease: A Genetic Rarity, in Two Senses

    1. Chorea

    2. How Huntington’s Disease Is Similar to Frontotemporal Dementia

    3. The Primary Affected Regions

    4. The Primary Symptoms

    5. Huntingtin Protein

    6. The Roles of Genetic and Environmental Factors in Neurological Diseases

    7. Neuroleptics

    8. Antipsychotics

  6. Tourette Syndrome: A Case of Involuntary Volition?

    1. The Classic Features of Tourette Syndrome

    2. Tourette Syndrome and ADHD

    3. Compulsions

    4. Obsessions

    5. Cortical Thinning

    6. Group A Streptococcus and How It Is Related to Tourette Syndrome

    7. Electrical Stimulation of the Supplementary Motor Area

    8. Treatment for Tourette Syndrome

  7. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Neurological or Psychiatric?

    1. Characterizations of OCD

    2. The Four Main Types of Obsessions/Compulsions

    3. Corticostriatal Processing Loops

    4. Measuring Brain Activity in Those with OCD

    5. Brain Damage to the Basal Ganglia

    6. Exposure and Response Prevention

    7. Habituation

    8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    9. Lesions to Relieve She symptoms of OCD

  8. Research Methods: Voxel-Based Morphometry

  9. Schizophrenia: A Dementia of the Young

    1. Loss of Contact with Reality

    2. Hallucinations

    3. Delusions

    4. Positive versus Negative Symptoms

    5. Thought Disorder

    6. Antipsychotics

    7. The Role of Genetics and the Environment in Schizophrenia

    8. The Dopamine Hypothesis

    9. The Glutamate Hypothesis

  10. Bipolar Disorder

    1. Two Defining States: Mania and Depression

    2. The Characteristics of Mania

    3. Suicide Rates

    4. The Link Between Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

    5. Lithium and Other Medications

    6. Areas of the Brain Affected by Both Bipolar Disorder and Frontotemporal Dementia

    7. Professions that Tend to Have a Greater Percentage of Bipolar Individuals

  11. Case Study: A Lifetime Studying, and Living with, Bipolar Disorder

  12. Depression: A Global Burden

    • What are the symptoms of depression?

    1. Impacts of Depression

      • Rank among disabling diseases

        Percentage of the global population

    2. Causes of Depression

      • The gene 5HTTLPR and its association with depression

        Women versus men

    3. Neurochemical Effects of Depression on the Brain

      • The monoamine hypothesis



        Monoamine oxidase

        Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

        Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)

    4. Functional Effects of Depression on the Brain

      • The subgenual cingulate

        Regions of the brain that are often overactive in depression

        Success in treating depression by focusing on the limbic areas linked to emotional states

    5. Treatment of Depression

      • The difference between psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and somatic therapy

        Cognitive-behavioral therapy versus medication

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