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Chapter 2

Sound Elements

Sound Example 2.1 Four short tone sequences, corresponding to Figure 2.3, panels A"D (p. 23).

2.1A Original melody
2.1B Exact transposition
2.1C Same contour lure
2.1D Different contour lure

Sound Example 2.2 A short piano passage, followed by the same passage with the acoustic signal time-reversed. Note the change in timbre (p. 29).

Sound Example 2.3 Eight tabla drum sounds, corresponding to Table 2.1 (cf. Sound Example 2.7 for corresponding vocables). Each sound is repeated three times (pp. 35, 36, 63).

2.3A Drum "Tin"
2.3B Drum "Tun"

2.3C Drum "Kat"
2.3D Drum "Ghe"

2.3E Drum "Tra"
2.3F Drum "Kra"

2.3G Drum "Ta"
2.3H Drum "Dha"

Sound/video Example 2.4 Movie of a professional tabla player uttering a sequence of tabla vocables, and then playing the corresponding drum sequence. The drumming is shown first at normal speed, then at half speed, then at quarter speed, and then at full speed again (p. 37).

The performer is Nayan Ghosh. Video recording made in Mumbai, India, in April 2002 thanks to the help of Anuradha Pal. Note that many other videos of tabla playing are freely available via YouTube and Google Video.

Sound Example 2.5 A short passage in Jukun, a discrete level tone language from Nigeria. The passage is a female native speaker (Victoria Juma) reading the beginning of a translation of "The North Wind and the Sun" (p. 46).

Sound Example 2.6 A sentence of British English, corresponding to Figures 2.21a, 2.21b, and 2.21c (pp. 61, 62, 63).

Sound Example 2.7 Examples of eight tabla drum vocables (cf. Sound Example 2.3 for the corresponding drum sounds). Each sound is repeated three times (p. 63).

2.7A Spoken "Tin"
2.7B Spoken "Tun"

2.7C Spoken "Kat"
2.7D Spoken "Ghe"

2.7E Spoken "Tra"
2.7F Spoken "Kra"

2.7G Spoken "Ta"
2.7H Spoken "Dha"

Sound Example 2.8 A sentence of sine wave speech, and the original sentence from which it was created (p. 76).

2.8A Sine wave speech
2.8B Clear speech

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