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Self-Quiz

  1. Which of the following features is not characteristic of band societies?
      a. Their diet is broader than that of modern Americans
      b. They do not need to work much to meet basic subsistence needs
      c. Meat forms the majority of their diet
      d. They do not choose a permanent leader
      e. They are free from potentially disruptive contact with the world system
  2. In working among the Dobe Ju/'hoansi of the central Kalahari Desert of southern Africa, anthropologist Richard Lee's research helped to challenge a longstanding Western stereotype regarding foraging peoples. Lee's important contribution in this sense was in finding that such groups
      a. Were not at all lazy, because they were seen to work for many more hours than people in the West
      b. Ate anything they could find to survive
      c. Were able to collect substantial amounts of high-caloric food in relatively few hours per week
      d. Avoided the help offered by Lee to show him their spirit of independence
      e. Had incorporated farming into their subsistence activities and thus had plenty of nutritious food
  3. The field of economic anthropology
      a. Like neoclassical economic theory, has focused on explaining a capitalist market economy
      b. Includes some anthropologists who assume that individuals are first and foremost interested in their own well-being
      c. Is composed of anthropologists who have rejected the simplistic three-phase model of economic activity
      d. Has been unable to avoid claims of ethnocentrism given that the prevailing model holds that humans are fundamentally self-interested and materialistic
      e. None of the above
  4. Which of the following is not found within the context of market exchange?
      a. The exchange of goods calculated in terms of a standardized means of exchange
      b. Principles of supply and demand
      c. Impersonal commodity exchanges
      d. Family-based generalized reciprocity
      e. All of the above are found within the context of market exchange
  5. Generalized reciprocity
      a. Is no longer found after people are incorporated into systems with centralized social organization
      b. Develops after redistribution is eliminated from the marketplace
      c. Characterizes the exchange found in egalitarian societies
      d. Is characterized by an interaction between individuals where at least one party attempts to get something for nothing
      e. Is found when those involved in an exchange expect a return of equal value
  6. What is a mode of production?
      a. The social relations that link people through ongoing redistribution
      b. The institutions of a given society that exist in order to maintain an adequate work force to meet its needs
      c. The productive resources, including labor, technology, and land, of a given society
      d. The historically particular set of social relations that are organized to produce the labor required to fulfill a society's subsistence and energy needs
      e. The subsistence practices of a society, which range from foraging to industrial agriculture
  7. In a kin-ordered mode of production,
      a. Alienation is found only in the working class
      b. Most economic activity must take place outside the home, thus contributing to alienation
      c. Production, distribution, and consumption are social relations first and foremost
      d. Labor is performed by nonrelatives who are paid a wage
      e. The economic system is easily separated from other systems
  8. Not only the means of production but also the relations of production must be perpetuated through the reproduction of society from generation to generation. Which of the following is not true of this social reproduction as discussed in the text?
      a. The use of morality, religion, and metaphysics to explain and justify social arrangements
      b. The class in power holds on to an ideology that validates its power
      c. Those who are dominated may be highly critical of the rulers in private
      d. Access to resources is determined by the spirit of enterprise that drives the economy forward
      e. Traditions persist, but only because people labor to continually reproduce them
  9. Based on the discussion in the text, we can reasonably conclude that economic anthropologists are interested in two basic questions about society. Which of the following best describes one of those organizing questions?
      a. Why people would engage in such irrational behavior as the potlatch
      b. What motivates people in any given society to produce, distribute, and consume as they do
      c. Why groups like foragers continue to practice their way of life despite the fact that their lifestyle requires long, hard hours of subsistence activity
      d. What encourages the consumption of luxury goods among the poorest social classes
      e. None of the above
  10. Although the anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski was able to provide an explanation of social practices in particular cultures by relating them to basic human needs that these practices functioned to fulfill, his approach did not explain why all societies did not share the same patterns of consumption. Which of the following best describes the approach of a later generation of anthropologists to this shortcoming?
      a. Whereas Malinowski focused on external factors, those anthropologists influenced by evolutionary studies tended to emphasize internal states
      b. They asserted that the consumption pattern that prevailed in any given environment was a product of desires of the dominant social class
      c. They held that patterns of consumption found in particular environments depended in part on the external resources that were available and to which the group in question had to adapt
      d. They extended Malinowski's focus on basic human needs by adding the important dimension of gendered divisions of labor
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