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Table of Contents

*=New to this Edition
Preface
Abbreviations
Credits

PART ONE. INTRODUCTORY
    1. WHAT IS THE OLD TESTAMENT?
    Box 1.1 Chapter and Verse
    The Jewish Canon
    * Box 1.2 The Dead Sea Scrolls
    The Christian Canons
    * The Study of the Bible
    Box 1.3 The Canons of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament
    A Look Back and Ahead

    2. THE PROMISED LAND: GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, AND IMPORTANCE
    Geography
    History
    Box 2.1 Timeline
    Importance
    A Look Back and Ahead
PART TWO. COSMIC ORIGINS
    3. CREATIONSGenesis 1-3
    The Book of Genesis
    Genesis 1 and the Sabbath
    Box 3.1 Genesis and Science
    Box 3.2 The Sabbath in Jewish and Christian Tradition
    Box 3.3 Myth and the Bible
    The Second Account of Creation (Gen 2.4B-3.24)
    Box 3.4 "God" and "The Lord (God)"
    Box 3.5 The Garden of Eden
    Box 3.6 Adam and Eve in Jewish and Christian Tradition
    A Look Back and Ahead

    4. THE FORMATION OF THE PENTATEUCH AND THE PRIMEVAL HISTORYGenesis 4-11
    The Traditional View
    The Development of Modern Interpretation
    A Summary of the Documentary Hypothesis
    The Formation of the Pentateuch
    Challenges to the Documentary Hypothesis
    Other Strategies for Interpreting the Pentateuch
    Primeval History
    J (the Yahwist Source)
    Box 4.1 Cain and Abel
    Box 4.2 Noah's Drunkenness
    Box 4.3 The Sons of God
    Box 4.4 The Tower of Babel
    Box 4.5 The Table of Nations
    P (the Priestly Source)
    The Flood
    Box 4.6 The DocumentaryHypothesis at Work
    A Look Back and Ahead
PART THREE. NATIONAL ORIGINS
    5. THE ANCESTORS OF ISRAELGenesis 12-50
    The Nature of the Narratives
    Box 5.1 Abram and Abraham, Sarai and Sarah
    Source Criticism
    Form Criticism
    Box 5.2 The Binding of Isaac
    Box 5.3 Circumcision
    Ancient Near Eastern Parallels
    Box 5.4 The Ugaritic Texts
    The Joseph Narrative
    The Ancestors of Israel
    Box 5.5 Abraham, Father of Believers
    History and the Ancestors of Israel
    The Religion of the Ancestors
    A Look Back and Ahead

    6. ESCAPE FROM EGYPTExodus 1-15
    The Book of Exodus
    Exodus 1-15
    Box 6.1 Legends of Rescue
    Box 6.2 The Divine Name Yahweh
    Box 6.3 The Hardening of Pharaoh's Heart
    Box 6.4 TheDevelopment of the Passover Celebration
    The Exodus and History
    * The Date of the Exodus
    The Exodus and the History of Religions
    A Look Back and Ahead

    7. FROM EGYPT TO SINAIExodus 16-24
    Itineraries
    Incidents on the Journey
    Box 7.1 Manna
    Box 7.2 The Location of Sinai
    At Sinai
    Covenant
    The Ten Commandments
    Box 7.3 The Status and Numbering of the Ten Commandments
    The Ratification of the Covenant
    A Look Back and Ahead

    8. LAW, RITUAL, AND HOLINESSExodus 20.22-23.33 and 25-40 and Leviticus
    Law in the Ancient Near East
    Box 8.1 Excerpt from the Code of Hammurapi
    The Covenant Code (Ex 20.22-23.33)
    The Ark, the Tabernacle, and the Priestly Vestments and Ordination
    Box 8.2 "An Eye for anEye"
    The Golden Calf
    Box 8.3 Forty Days and Forty Nights
    The Ritual Decalogue
    Sequel
    Box 8.4 An Ancient Hebrew Agricultural Calendar
    The Book of Leviticus
    Sacrifices (Lev 1-7)
    The Consecration Ceremonies and Their Aftermath (Lev 8-10)
    Purity and Impurity (Lev 11-15)
    The Day of Atonement (Lev 16)
    The Holiness Code (Lev 17-26)
    Box 8.5 Capital Punishment
    Women in Israelite Ritual and Law
    The Ethics of Leviticus
    A Look Back and Ahead

    9. IN THE WILDERNESSNumbers
    The Book of Numbers
    Preparations for the Journey
    Law, Ritual, and Purity
    The Chronology and Geography of the Wanderings
    Rebellions in the Wilderness
    Box 9.1 Miriam
    Opposition on the Journey
    Box 9.2 Excerpt from theDeir Alla Texts
    Preparations for the Entry into the Land
    A Look Back and Ahead

    10. THE END OF THE JOURNEY TO THE PROMISED LANDDeuteronomy
    The Book of Deuteronomy
    Box 10.1 The Shema
    The Origins of Deuteronomy
    Box 10.2 The Meanings of "Torah"
    The Deuteronomic School
    Moses in the Pentateuch
    A Look Back and Ahead

    11. JOSHUA AND THE CONQUEST OF THE LAND OF CANAANJoshua
    The Deuteronomistic History
    The Book of Joshua
    Box 11.1 Shechem in Biblical Tradition
    A Look Back and Ahead

    12. THE EMERGENCE OF ISRAEL IN THE LAND OF CANAANJudges
    The Book of Judges
    Box 12.1 The Judges of Israel in the Book of Judges
    Box 12.2 The Moabites and the Ammonites
    Box 12.3 The Song of Deborah
    Box 12.4 ThePhilistines
    History and the Israelite Confederation
    A Look Back and Ahead
PART FOUR. KINGS AND PROPHETS
    13. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MONARCHY1 Samuel
    The Books of Samuel
    1 Samuel
    Box 13.1 Positive Assessments of Saul
    History
    A Look Back and Ahead

    14. THE REIGN OF DAVID2 Samuel, 1 Kings 1-2
    2 Samuel
    Box 14.1 David as Poet
    Box 14.2 Jerusalem
    * History
    A Look Back and Ahead

    15. THE REIGN OF SOLOMON1 Kings 1-11 and Psalm 89
    The Books of Kings
    1 Kings 1-11
    Box 15.1 Solomon in Later Traditions
    * History
    The Ideology of the Davidic Monarchy
    Box 15.2 The Royal Ideology in Later Traditions
    A Look Back and Ahead

    16. THE DIVIDED KINGDOMS OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH FROM THE LATETENTH TO THE EARLY EIGHTH CENTURIES BCE1 Kings 12-2 Kings 14 with an Introduction to Prophecy
    History
    Box 16.1 Chronology of the Late Tenth to Mid-Eighth Centuries BCE
    Institutions and Society
    Prophets and Prophecy
    Box 16.2 Prophets in Later Traditions
    The Legends of Elijah and Elisha
    Box 16.3 Elijah in Later Traditions
    A Look Back and Ahead

    17. THE NORTHERN KINGDOM OF ISRAEL IN THE EIGHTH CENTURY BCE2 Kings 14-17, Amos, and Hosea
    History
    Box 17.1 Chronology of the Eighth Century BCE
    Prophetic Books
    Amos
    Box 17.2 The Day of the Lord
    Hosea
    Box 17.3 Prophetic Attacks on Rituals
    Box 17.4 Marriage in Ancient Israel
    A Look Back and Ahead

    18. THE KINGDOM OF JUDAH IN THE EIGHTH AND EARLY SEVENTHCENTURIES BCE2 Kings 15-20, 2 Chronicles 29-32, Isaiah 1-39, and Micah
    History
    Box 18.1 Chronology of the Eighth and Seventh Centuries BCE
    Isaiah
    The Siege of Jerusalem in 734 BCE
    Box 18.2 The Identity of Immanuel
    The Assyrian Invasion of Judah in 701 BCE
    Box 18.3 Sennacherib's Attack on Jerusalem (701 BCE) according to the Assyrian Annals
    Box 18.4 Hezekiah's Tunnel
    Micah
    A Look Back and Ahead

    19. JUDAH IN THE SEVENTH AND EARLY SIXTH CENTURIES BCE: THE END OF ASSYRIAN DOMINATION AND THE FALL OF JERUSALEM2 Kings 21-25, 2 Chronicles 33-36, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Jeremiah
    History
    Box 19.1 Chronology of the Seventh and Early Sixth Centuries BCE
    Box 19.2 Ashurbanipal's Library
    Box 19.3 Megiddo andArmageddon
    The Book of Zephaniah
    The Book of Nahum
    The Book of Habakkuk
    Jeremiah
    Box 19.4 Jeremiah and the Lost Ark
    Box 19.5 Jeremiah and the History of Bookmaking
    A Look Back and Ahead
PART FIVE. EXILE AND RETURN
    20. AFTER THE FALL: JEWS IN JUDAH AND BABYLONLamentations, Psalm 137, Obadiah, and Ezekiel
    History
    The Book of Lamentations
    Box 20.1 Acrostic Poems
    The Judeans in Babylonia
    Psalm 137
    The Book of Obadiah
    Ezekiel
    Box 20.2 Yahweh as Violent Husband
    A Look Back and Ahead

    21. RETURN FROM EXILEEzra 1-2 and Isaiah 34-35 and 40-55
    History
    Box 21.1 Chronology of the Sixth Century BCE
    The Priestly Source of the Pentateuch
    The Exilic Edition of the Deuteronomistic History
    Isaiah 40-55
    Box 21.2 The Development of Monotheism
    Box 21.3 Female Images of God
    A Look Back and Ahead
PART SIX. RECONSTRUCTION, CONSOLIDATION, AND CHALLENGE
    22. THE RESTORATION: JUDAH IN THE LATE SIXTH AND FIFTH CENTURIES BCEEzra 3-10, Nehemiah, Haggai, Zechariah, Isaiah 24-27 and 56-66, Joel, and Malachi
    History
    Box 22.1 Chronology of the Mid-Sixth to the Fourth Centuries BCE
    Box 22.2 Aramaic
    Ezra 3-6
    The Book of Haggai
    Zechariah 1-8
    Isaiah 56-66
    The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
    Box 22.3 The Elephantine Papyri
    Apocalyptic Literature
    The "Isaiah Apocalypse" (Isa 24-27)
    Zechariah 9-14
    The Book of Joel
    The Book of Malachi
    A Look Back and Ahead

    23. RETELLING THE STORY1-2Chronicles, Psalms, and Proverbs
    The Books of Chronicles
    Box 23.1 Samaria and the Samaritans
    The Book of Psalms
    Box 23.2 Parallelism
    Music in Ancient Israel
    A Look Back and Ahead

    24. THE WISDOM OF THE SAGES: PRESERVATION AND CHALLENGEProverbs, Job, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon with an Introduction to Wisdom Literature
    * Wisdom Literature
    * The Book of Proverbs
    The Book of Job
    Box 24.1 The Satan
    Box 24.2 "I Know that my Redeemer Liveth"
    Box 24.3 Behemoth and Leviathan
    Box 24.4 Job's Wife and Daughters
    The Book of Ecclesiastes
    The Development of Beliefs in Life after Death in Ancient Israel
    The Song of Solomon
    A Look Back and Ahead

    25. HEROES IN FOREIGN LANDS: POSTEXILIC LITERATURE ANDDIASPORIC IDENTITY (Ruth, Jonah, Esther, and Daniel)
    The Book of Ruth
    The Book of Jonah
    The Book of Esther
    Box 251 The Festival of Purim
    The Book of Daniel
    Box 25.2 Angels and Demons
    Box 25.3 "Son of Man"
    Box 25.4 Outline of the Visions of Successive Kingdoms in the Book of Daniel
    A Look Back and Ahead
APPENDIX: THE APOCRYPHAL/DEUTEROCANONICAL BOOKS
Revisions of and Additions to Biblical Books
Historiographic Literature
Historical Fiction
Wisdom Literature
Other Compositions

Chronology
General Bibliography
Glossary
Weights and Measures
Index



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