Hume was a __________.
a. strict rationalist
b. strong idealist
c. innate idealist
Descartes's “evil deceiver” was employed to show that __________.
a. God is no deceiver
b. existence implies essence
c. all knowledge comes from experience
d. almost anything can be doubted
e. substance cannot change
Descartes applied a philosophical technique of __________.
a. methodological doubt
d. boring, silly writing
e. clear and distinct ideas
Before he introduced the evil deceiver, Descartes's dream argument had shown that __________.
a. I can doubt all of the information of my senses
b. I can doubt mathematical truths and extension
c. I think, therefore I am
d. the mind is a thinking thing
e. substance can be better known than quality
An idealist is unlikely also to be __________.
a. a materialist
b. a rational being
c. a metaphysician
d. a pedant
e. a Berkeleyan
“I think, therefore I am” served Descartes as __________.
a. a truth he cannot doubt
b. a merely grammatical remark
c. an aeschylean point from which to attack the sciences
d. a logical but not epistemological truth
e. the foundation of all skepticism
Descartes wrote, “Let us take, for example, this piece of wax: it has been taken quite freshly from the hive, and it has not yet lost the sweetness of the honey it contains; it still retains somewhat the odor of the flowers from which it has been culled; its color, its figure, its size are apparent; it is hard, cold, easily handled, and if you strike it with the finger, it will emit a sound. Finally all the things which are requisite to cause us distinctly to recognize a body, are met with in it. But notice that while I speak and approach the fire what remained of the taste is exhaled, the smell evaporates, the color alters, the figure is destroyed, the size increases, it becomes liquid, it heats, scarcely can one handle it, and when one strikes it, no sound is emitted. Does the same wax remain after this change?”
According to Descartes, “Does the same wax remain after this change?”
c. Yes, but we could not know that the same wax remains.
d. No, but we have reason to believe that the same wax remains.
e. We can't know whether the same wax remains.
Descartes used the wax argument to prove that __________.
a. we know mental things with greater clarity and distinctness than material things
b. we know bodily things with greater clarity and distinctness than mental things
c. universals are predicated of particulars
d. identity may change over time
e. objects are vague
Descartes's wax argument illuminates the concept of __________.
b. truth tables
c. rigorous proof
e. causal but not psychological continuity
Prior to the wax argument, Descartes used his “dream argument” to show that __________.
a. mathematical truths cannot be doubted
b. God existed
c. esse est percipi (to be is to be perceived)
d. almost anything could be doubted
e. God is no deceiver
Descartes doubted things in which two ways?
a. The dream argument and cause
b. Cause and evil genius
c. The dream argument and the “good God” argument
d. The dream argument and the “evil genius” argument
Kant believed that we __________ our experience in the sense that we provide rules and structures according to which we experience objects.
c. constitute or “set up”
Which two disciplines did Kant weave together into a single cohesive philosophy?
a. Rationalism and logic
b. Empiricism and aesthetics
c. Rationalism and empiricism
d. Aesthetics and logic
What type of reasoning did Locke advocate as the best method for making generalizations from experience?
According to __________, if all the people, animals, and anything capable of perception on Earth were to suddenly die, leaving no one left to perceive the rocks, mountains, and streams, then the Earth and everything on it would snap out of existence.
Which beliefs did Hume want “consigned to the flames”?
a. Those justified by reason
b. Those justified by experience
c. Those justified by science
d. Metaphysical beliefs, for example, God, material substance, causality, self