In what ways is the letter to the Romans unique among the Pauline epistles? In particular, you should ask who the recipients were, what their relationship to Paul was, and why he was writing to them (in contrast, for example, to the other letters).
Many people take Romans 1:16-17 to be the fundamental theme of this letter. What do these verses indicate about Paul's "gospel" and its significance?
What are the major themes that Paul develops through Romans 1-8? According to these chapters, why do people need to be justified before God, how does God bring justification, and how does the Jewish law figure into this act of justification?
Compare and contrast the judicial and participationist models of salvation.
In Romans 9-11, why do you suppose Paul is so intent on showing that God did not go back on his promises to Israel when he brought salvation to the Gentiles? In Paul's opinion, where did the people of Israel go wrong in their relationship with God? What good thing, in Paul's judgment, can come of Israel's rejection of God's salvation in Christ?
Why should believers in Christ behave ethically, loving one another and "fulfilling" the law, if salvation comes completely apart from the law?
In Romans, how does Paul show the equality of Jews and Gentiles before God?
Rhetorically speaking, how does Paul frame his letter to the Romans? How does this rhetorical strategy work?