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World in the Making

Volume Two since 1300

Second Edition

Author Bonnie G. Smith, Marc Van De Mieroop, Richard von Glahn, and Kris Lane

Publication Date - October 2022

ISBN: 9780197608364

752 pages
7 1/2 x 9 1/4 inches

In Stock

World in the Making examines the interactions of the world's peoples over time and space, showing the interplay between global developments and everyday lives.


Featuring a renowned author team and the best recent scholarship, World in the Making: A Global History explores both the global and local dimensions of world history. Abundant full-color maps and images, along with other special pedagogical features that highlight the lives and voices of the world's peoples, make this synthesis accessible and memorable for students--all at an affordable low price.

New to this Edition

  • Doing History. This new feature, located in the Review section at the end of each chapter, prompts students to consider the skills that world historians employ. Tied to the content in each chapter and organized around seven key concepts, Doing History shows students the reasoning processes historians use to construct the historical past.
  • New Features. The second edition presents several new Lives and Livelihoods, Seeing the Past and Reading the Past features, including gender roles in late colonial Mexico (Chapter 21); wartime propaganda (chapter 25); and the Cultural Revolution in China (Chapter 27).
  • New Counterpoint sections. Many instructors have incorporated the Counterpoint sections into their teaching. These new ones have been added to the second edition: Njinga: An African Queen Fights Back (Chapter 17), National Unity in an Age of Migration (Chapter 24).
  • New chapter opening vignettes and new scholarship. Chapter 16 incorporates the now widely accepted term "global biological exchanges." Chapter 17 provides expanded treatment of southwestern Africa. Chapter 19 opens with a vignette about the sixteenth-century Spanish visionary Lucrecia de León. Chapter 20 begins with the story of Zheng Zhilong, whose life captures the flux of the mid-seventeenth century in East and Southeast Asia. Chapter 22 now examines the 1760 popular uprising in Jamaica known as Tacky's Revolt. The contributions of Shamil, the Muslim leader and resister to Russian imperialism, are now included in Chapters 23 and 24. Chapter 26 includes discussion of Rukmini Lakshmipathi, the first woman marcher arrested in Gandhi's "Salt March." Chapter 27 offers a revised account how colonized peoples achieved their independence after World War II and presents new coverage of the global Cold War. Chapter 28 has been thoroughly rewritten to reflect recent developments.
  • Expanded Digital Resources. Oxford Learning Link "http://www.learninglink.oup.com" www.learninglink.oup.com makes available to adopters of World in the Making, offers a wealth of teaching resources, including an enhanced eBook, a test-item file, a computerized test bank, quizzes, PowerPoint slides, videos, and primary sources.
  • Oxford Learning Link Direct (OLLD) makes the digital learning resources for World in the Making available to adopters via a one-time course integration with their LMS.
  • Adopters also have the option of delivering the learning tools for World in the Making within a cloud-based platform, Oxford Learning Cloud (OLC).


  • Lives and Livelihoods features reinforce the book's superior social and cultural coverage and unique global/local approach.
  • Author teams of world history textbooks typically divide the work based on geographic specialty, but the author team of World in the Making define their subject matter by time period. This organization enables them to see connections or parallel developments that make societies part of world history-as well as the distinctive features that make them unique. This approach also ensures a unified perspective to the many stories that each part tells.
  • Counterpoint sections reveal that alternative histories have always existed alongside "master narratives."
  • Reading the Past and Seeing the Past features provide direct exposure to important voices and ideas of the past through written and visual primary sources.
  • Opening vignettes draw students into the atmosphere of the period and introduce the chapter's main themes.
  • Backstory sections remind students of where they last encountered the peoples discussed in the chapter.
  • Overview Questions frame the main issues to consider while reading, while Focus Questions guide students' comprehension and promote close reading and dynamic class discussion.

About the Author(s)

Bonnie G. Smith (AB Smith College, PhD University of Rochester) is Board of Governors Distinguished Professor of History Emerita, Rutgers University.

Marc Van De Mieroop (PhD Yale University, 1983) is Professor of History at Columbia University.

Richard von Glahn (PhD Yale University, 1983) is Professor of History at University of California, Los Angeles.

Kris Lane (PhD University of Minnesota, 1996) holds the France V. Scholes Chair in Colonial Latin American History at Tulane University in New Orleans.

Table of Contents

    List of Maps
    Studying with Maps
    Notes on Dates and Spelling
    About the Authors

    PART 2 Crossroads and Cultures 500-1450 CE

    CHAPTER 14 Collapse and Revival in Afro-Eurasia 1300-1450
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: Crisis and recovery in fourteenth- and fifteenth-century Afro-Eurasia.
    Fourteenth-Century Crisis and Renewal in Eurasia
    The "Great Mortality": The Black Death of 1347-1350
    Rebuilding Societies in Western Europe 1350-1492
    Ming China and the New Order in East Asia 1368-1500
    Islam's New Frontiers
    Islamic Spiritual Ferment in Central Asia 1350-1500
    Ottoman Expansion and the Fall of Constantinople 1354-1453
    Commerce and Culture in Islamic West Africa
    Advance of Islam in Maritime Southeast Asia
    The Global Bazaar
    Economic Prosperity and Maritime Trade in Asia 1350-1450
    China's Overseas Overture: The Voyages of Zheng He 1405-1433
    Commerce and Culture in the Renaissance
    COUNTERPOINT Age of the Samurai in Japan 1185-1450
    "The Low Overturning the High"
    The New Warrior Order
    Reading the Past: A Genoese Merchant on Commercial Prospects in a Saharan Oasis Town
    Lives and Livelihoods: Urban Weavers in India
    Seeing the Past: Leonardo da Vinci's Virgin of the Rocks
    Doing History: Argument


    CHAPTER 15 Empires and Alternatives in the Americas 1430-1530
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: The diversity of societies and states in the Americas prior to European invasion.
    Many Native Americas
    Tributes of Blood: The Aztec Empire 1325-1521
    Humble Origins, Imperial Ambitions
    Enlarging and Supplying the Capital
    Holy Terror: Aztec Rule, Religion, and Warfare
    Daily Life Under the Aztecs
    The Limits of Holy Terror
    Tributes of Sweat: The Inca Empire 1430-1532
    From Potato Farmers to Empire Builders
    The Great Apparatus: Inca Expansion and Religion
    Daily Life Under the Incas
    The Great Apparatus Breaks Down
    COUNTERPOINT The Peoples of North America's Eastern Woodlands 1450-1530
    Seeing the Past: An Aztec Map of Tenochtitlán
    Lives and Livelihoods: The Aztec Midwife
    Reading the Past: An Andean Creation Story
    Doing History: Making Connections

    CHAPTER 16 The Rise of an Atlantic World 1450-1600
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: European expansion across the Atlantic and its profound consequences for societies and cultures worldwide.
    Guns, Sails, and Compasses: Europeans Venture Abroad
    Motives for Exploration
    Technologies of Exploration
    Portugal Takes the Lead
    First Encounters: The European Voyages of Discovery 1492-1521
    Christopher Columbus in a New World
    From Independence to Servitude: The Encomienda System
    Columbus's Successors
    Global Biological Exchanges
    Spanish Conquests in the Americas 1519-1600
    The Fall of Aztec Mexico
    The Fall of Inca Peru
    The Conquest: Myths and Realities
    A New Empire in the Americas: New Spain and Peru 1535-1600
    American Silver and the Global Economy
    American Silver and Everyday Life
    Brazil by Accident: The Portuguese in the Americas 1500-1600
    Native Encounters and Foreign Competitors
    Bitter Sugar: Slavery and the Plantation Complex in the Early Atlantic World 1530-1600
    COUNTERPOINT The Mapuche of Chile: Native America's Indomitable State
    A Culture of Warfare
    Uprisings Against the Spanish
    Reading the Past: Tlatelolcan Elders Recall the Conquest of Mexico
    Seeing the Past: Malintzin and the Meeting Between Moctezuma and Cortés
    Lives and Livelihoods: Atlantic Sugar Producers
    Doing History: Perspectives

    CHAPTER 17 Western Africa in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1450-1800
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: The rise of the Atlantic slave trade and its impact on early modern African peoples and cultures.
    Many Western Africas
    Landlords and Strangers: Peoples and States in West Africa
    Empire Builders and Traders
    Sculptors and Priest-Kings
    Land of the Blacksmith Kings: West Central Africa
    Farmers and Traders
    Smiths and Kings
    Strangers in Ships: Gold, Slavery, and the Portuguese
    From Voyages of Reconnaissance to Trading Forts 1415-1650
    The Portuguese and the Kingdom of Kongo
    Portuguese Strategy in Angola
    Northern Europeans and the Expansion of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1600-1800
    The Rise and Fall of Monopoly Trading Companies
    How the Slave Trade Functioned
    The Middle Passage
    Volume of the Slave Trade
    COUNTERPOINT Njinga: An African Queen Fights Back
    Lives and Livelihoods: West Africa's Gold Miners
    Seeing the Past: Art of the Slave Trade: A Benin Bronze Plaque
    Reading the Past: Alonso de Sandoval, "General Points Relating to Slavery"
    Doing History: Contextualization

    CHAPTER 18 Trade and Empire in the Indian Ocean and South Asia 1450-1750
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: The Indian Ocean trading network and the impact of European intrusion on maritime and mainland South Asia.
    Trading Cities and Inland Networks: East Africa
    Port Towns and Beginnings
    Indian Ocean Connections
    Links to the Interior
    Trade and Empire in South Asia
    Vijayanagara's Rise and Fall 1336-1565
    The Power of the Mughals
    Gunpowder Weapons and Imperial Consolidation 1500-1763
    Everyday Life in the Mughal Empire
    European Interlopers
    Portuguese Conquistadors 1500-1600
    The Dutch and English East India Companies 1600-1750
    COUNTERPOINT Aceh: Fighting Back in Southeast Asia
    The Differing Fortunes of Aceh and Melaka
    Aceh, "the Veranda of Mecca"
    Reading the Past: Portuguese Report of a Vijayanagara Festival
    Seeing the Past: Reflections of the Divine in a Mughal Emerald
    Lives and Livelihoods: Cinnamon Harvesters in Ceylon
    Doing History: Claims and Evidence

    CHAPTER 19 Consolidation and Conflict in Europe and the Greater Mediterranean 1450-1750
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: Early modern Europe's increasing competition and division in the face of Ottoman expansion.
    The Power of the Ottoman Empire 1453-1750
    Tools of Empire
    Expansion and Consolidation
    Daily Life in the Ottoman Empire
    Europe Divided 1500-1650
    Everyday Life in Early Modern Europe
    Protestant and Catholic Reformations
    Imperial Spain and Its Challenges
    The Seventeenth-Century Crisis
    European Innovations in Science and Government 1550-1750
    The Scientific Revolution
    The Emergence of Capitalism
    New Political Models: Absolutism and Constitutionalism
    COUNTERPOINT The Barbary Pirates
    Reign of the Sea Bandits
    The Barbary Wars
    Lives and Livelihoods: Ottoman Coffeehouse Owners and Patrons
    Seeing the Past: Gift Clocks for the Emperors of China
    Reading the Past: An Exiled European Muslim Visits the Netherlands
    Doing History: Sourcing and Situation

    CHAPTER 20 Expansion and Isolation in Asia 1450-1750
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: The general trend toward political and cultural consolidation in early modern Asia.
    Straddling Eurasia: Rise of the Russian Empire 1462-1725
    Consolidation in Muscovite Russia
    The Romanovs' New Frontiers
    China from Ming to Qing Rule 1500-1800
    Late Ming Imperial Demands and Private Trade
    Manchu Expansion and the Rise of the Qing Empire
    Everyday Life in Ming and Qing China
    The Flourishing of Art and Culture
    Japan in Transition 1540-1750
    Rise of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the Unification of Japan
    Everyday Life and Culture in Tokugawa Japan
    Emergence of a National Culture
    Korea, a Land in Between 1392-1750
    Capital and Countryside
    Everyday Life in Choson Korea
    Consolidation in Mainland Southeast Asia 1500-1750
    Political Consolidation
    Commercial Trends
    COUNTERPOINT "Spiritual Conquest" in the Philippines
    Arrival of the Spanish
    The Limits of "Spiritual Conquest"
    Lives and Livelihoods: Silk Weavers in China
    Seeing the Past: Blue-on-White: Ming Export Porcelain
    Reading the Past: Scenes from the Daily Life of a Korean Queen
    Doing History: Argumentation

    CHAPTER 21 Transforming New Worlds: The American Colonies Mature 1600-1750
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: The profound social, cultural, and environmental changes in the Americas under colonial rule.
    The World That Silver Made: Spanish America 1570-1750
    Governing and Profiting from the Colonies
    Everyday Life in Spanish America
    Gold, Diamonds, and the Transformation of Brazil 1695-1800
    Boom Times for Colonial Brazil
    Everyday Life in Golden Age Brazil
    Bitter Sugar, Part Two: Slavery and Colonialism in the Caribbean 1625-1750
    Pirates and Planters
    The Rise of Caribbean Plantation Societies
    Growth and Change in British and French North America 1607-1750
    Experiments in Commercial Colonialism
    Everyday Life in the Northern Colonies
    COUNTERPOINT The Maroons of Suriname
    From Persecution to Freedom
    Suriname's Distinctive Maroon Culture
    Seeing the Past: De Chino Cambujo e India, Loba
    Lives and Livelihoods: Caribbean Buccaneers
    Reading the Past: A Swedish Traveler's Description of Quebec
    Doing History: Developments and Processes


    CHAPTER 22 Atlantic Revolutions and the World 1750-1830
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: The Atlantic revolutions and their short- and long-term significance.
    The Promise of Enlightenment
    A New World of Ideas
    Enlightenment and the Old Order
    Popular Revolts in an Age of Enlightenment
    Revolution in North America
    The British Empire and the Colonial Crisis 1764-1775
    The Birth of the United States 1775-1789
    The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire
    From Monarchy to Republic 1789-1792
    War, Terror, and Resistance 1792-1799
    Napoleon's Reign 1799-1815
    Muhammad Ali and the Revolutionary Spirit in Egypt
    Revolution Continued in the Western Hemisphere and Beyond
    Revolution in Haiti 1791-1804
    Revolutions in Latin America 1810-1830
    New Ideologies and Revolutionary Legacies
    COUNTERPOINT Religious Revival in a Secular Age
    Christianity's Great Awakening
    Government and Religion Allied
    Seeing the Past: Portrait of Catherine the Great
    Lives and Livelihoods: The Cowboy Way of Life
    Reading the Past: Phillis Wheatley, "On Being Brought from Africa to America"
    Doing History: Making Connections

    CHAPTER 23 Industry and Everyday Life 1750-1900
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: The Industrial Revolution and its impact on societies and cultures throughout the world.
    The Industrial Revolution Begins 1750-1830
    The Global Roots of Industrialization
    Great Britain: A Culture of Experimentation
    World Trade and the Rise of Industry
    The Technology of Industry
    Industrialization After 1830
    Industrial Innovation Gathers Speed
    Challenges to British Dominance
    Industrialization in Japan
    Economic Crises and Solutions
    The Industrial Revolution and the World
    The Slow Disintegration of Qing China
    Competition in West and South Asia
    A New Course for Africa
    Industry and Society
    The Changing Middle Class
    The New Working Class
    The Sexual Division of Labor
    The Culture of Industry
    Industry and Thought
    Industry and the Arts
    COUNTERPOINT African Women and Slave Agriculture
    Women and Farming in Africa
    Enslaved Women in the North American South
    Lives and Livelihoods: Builders of the Trans-Siberian Railroad
    Seeing the Past: Japan's Industrious Society
    Reading the Past: Mexican Women on Strike
    Doing History: Perspectives

    CHAPTER 24 Nation-States and Their Empires 1830-1900
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: The rise of modern nation-states and their competition for empire.
    Modernizing Nations
    "What Is a Nation?"
    Latin American Nation-Building
    The Russian Empire's New Course
    A Unified Italy and a United Germany
    Expansion and Consolidation of the United States
    Dramatic Change in Japan
    Outsiders in the Nation
    Racial and Ethnic Difference
    The Struggle for Citizens' Rights
    Building Empires
    Imperialism: What Is It?
    Takeover in Asia
    Europeans Scramble for Africa
    Japan's Imperial Agenda
    Technology, Environment, and the Imperial Advantage
    Societies in an Age of Nations and Empires
    Changing Conditions of Everyday Life
    A Mixture of Cultures
    COUNTERPOINT National Unity in an Age of Migration
    Migrants and Diasporas
    Reading The Past: The Russian People Under Serfdom
    Lives and Livelihoods: Indentured Servitude
    Seeing the Past: The Korean Flag
    Doing History: Developments and Processes

    CHAPTER 25 Wars, Revolutions, and the Birth of Mass Society 1900-1929
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: The wars and revolutions of the early twentieth century and their role in the creation of mass culture and society.
    Imperial Contests at the Dawn of the Twentieth Century
    Clashes for Imperial Control
    Growing Resistance to Foreign Domination
    From Revolutions and Local Wars to World War
    Revolutionaries and Warriors: Mexico, China, and the Balkans
    Fighting World War I
    Citizens at War: The Home Front
    Revolution in Russia and the End of World War I
    The Russian Revolution
    Ending the War: 1918
    Postwar Global Politics
    The Paris Peace Conference, 1919-1920
    Struggles for Reform and Independence
    Protest Amid Postwar Imperial Expansion
    An Age of the Masses
    Mass Society
    Culture for the Masses
    Mobilizing the Masses
    COUNTERPOINT A Golden Age for Argentineans
    A Flourishing Economy and Society
    Golden Age Culture
    Seeing the Past: Wartime Propaganda
    Reading the Past: Léopold Sédar Senghor, "To the Senegalese Soldiers Who Died for France"
    Lives and Livelihoods: The Film Industry
    Doing History: Contextualization

    CHAPTER 26 Global Catastrophe: The Great Depression and World War II 1929-1945
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: The causes and outcomes of the Great Depression and World War II.
    1929: The Great Depression Begins
    Economic Disaster Strikes
    Social Effects of the Great Depression
    Poverty and Protest
    Militarizing the Masses in the 1930s
    The Rise of Stalinism
    Japanese Expansionism
    Hitler's Rise to Power
    Democracies Mobilize
    Global War 1937-1945
    Europe's Road to War
    The Early Years of the War 1937-1943
    War and the World's Civilians
    From Allied Victory to the Cold War 1943-1945
    The Axis Defeated
    Postwar Plans and Uncertainties
    COUNTERPOINT Nonviolence and Pacifism in an Age of War
    Traditional Tactics: The Example of Nigerian Women
    Gandhi and Civil Disobedience
    Reading the Past: "Comfort Women" in World War II
    Lives And Livelihoods: Soldiers and Soldiering
    Seeing the Past: Technological Warfare: Civilization or Barbarism?
    Doing History: Sourcing and Situation

    CHAPTER 27 The Emergence of New Nations in a Cold War World 1945-1970
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: The political transformations of the postwar world and their social and cultural consequences.
    World Politics and the Cold War
    The New Superpowers
    The Global Cold War Unfolds 1945-1962
    The People's Republic of China 1949
    Proxy Wars and Cold War Alliances
    The End of Empire and the Birth of Nations
    The End of Empire in Asia
    The Struggle for Independence in the Middle East
    New Nations in Africa
    World Recovery in the 1950s and 1960s
    Advances in Technology and Science
    The Space Age
    A New Scientific Revolution
    Expanding Economic Prosperity
    Building and Rebuilding Communism
    Cultural Dynamism amid Cold War
    Confronting the Heritage of World War
    Cold War Culture
    Liberation Culture
    COUNTERPOINT The Bandung Conference, 1955
    Shared Goals
    Divisive Issues
    Lives and Livelihoods: Cosmonauts and Astronauts
    Seeing the Past: African Liberation on Cloth
    Reading the Past: The Cultural Revolution in China
    Doing History: Argument

    CHAPTER 28 A New Global Age 1989 to the Present
    The Major Global Development in this Chapter: The causes and consequences of intensified globalization.
    Ending the Cold War Order
    A Change of Course in the West
    The Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Bloc
    Regions and Nations in a Globalizing World
    North Versus South
    Advancing Nations in the Global Age
    Pacific Nations Soar
    Global Livelihoods and Institutions
    Global Networks and Changing Jobs
    Beyond the Nation-State
    Global Culture
    The Challenges of Globalization
    Environmental Challenges
    Population and Public Health
    Worldwide Migration
    Terrorism Confronts the World
    Global Economic Crisis and the Rise of Authoritarian Politicians
    COUNTERPOINT Defending Local Identity in a Globalizing World
    Ethnic Strife and Political Splintering
    Movements to Protect Tradition
    Reading the Past: Testimony to South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission
    Seeing the Past: The Globalization of Urban Space
    Lives and Livelihoods: Readers of the Qur'an
    Doing History: Claims and Evidence