We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Find out more
Cover

Understanding Human Communication

Fifteenth Edition

Author Ronald B. Adler, George Rodman, Athena du Pré, and Barbara Cook Overton

Publication Date - April 2023

ISBN: 9780197615645

544 pages
Looseleaf

Cutting-Edge Scholarship. Practical Skills. The Trusted Approach for Your Course.

Description

Understanding Human Communication addresses students' perception that they already know how to communicate--an issue faced by every faculty member. By artfully weaving cutting-edge academic research and theory into the clear, down-to-earth, and student-friendly narrative, the authors help students understand the complexity and depth of human communication and public speaking. The series of concepts builds logically through the chapter sequence, enabling students to further deepen their communication skills as they progress through the book. By accessing the text's integrated digital resources--contemporary and brief video clips; tutorials; and self-assessments---students will be able to see concepts applied in real scenarios, making their learning more meaningful.

New to this Edition

  • NEW Communication Strategies features offer practical guidance on various topics in ethics, communication literacy, diversity and inclusion, the workplace, and much more to help students build their communication skills.
  • NEW Public Speaking Practice prompts build students' confidence throughout the course before they create and deliver formal presentations.
  • NEW and updated Understanding Your Communication self-quizzes invite students to evaluate and improve their communication skills.
  • NEW strategies for career success appear throughout the text, and Chapters 10 and 11 are devoted to the topic.
  • Race, gender, disability, and culture are included in updated coverage throughout the book.
  • Civil discourse, social media, and virtual communication are key themes in the new edition.
  • A fresh, streamlined design assures that students are ready to focus, learn, and review.

Features

  • .

About the Author(s)

Ronald B. Adler is Professor of Communication, Emeritus, at Santa Barbara City College.

George Rodman is Professor in the Department of Television, Radio and Emerging Media at Brooklyn College, City University of New York.

Athena du Pré is Distinguished University Professor of Communication at the University of West Florida.

Barbara Cook Overton has a doctorate in health communication from Louisiana State University and a Master of Fine Arts in media production from the University of New Orleans.

Table of Contents

    CONTENTS

    Preface
    Acknowledgements
    About the Authors

    Part 1: Fundamentals of Human Communication

    Chapter 1: Communication: What and Why
    1.1 Characteristics of Communication
    Defining Communication
    Transactional Model of Communication
    1.2 Types of Communication
    Intrapersonal Communication
    Dyadic Communication
    Interpersonal Communication
    Small-Group Communication
    Organizational Communication
    Public Communication
    Mass Communication
    Social Media Communication
    1.3 Communication Competence
    There's No “Ideal” Way to Communicate
    Competence Is Situational
    Competence Is Relational
    Competent Communicators Are Empathic
    Competence Can Be Learned
    Competence Requires Effort
    Competent Communicators Self-Monitor
    Competent Communicators Are Committed
    1.4 Misconceptions About Communication
    Myth: Communication Requires Complete Understanding
    Myth: Communication Can Solve All Problems
    Myth: Communication Is Good
    Myth: Meanings Are in Words
    Myth: Communication Is Simple
    Myth: More Communication Is Always Better
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Communication Strategies: Maintaining a Healthy Relationship with Social Media
    Understanding Your Communication: What Type of Communicator Are You?
    Figures
    Figure 1.1 Transactional Model of Communication

    Chapter 2: Communicating with Social Media
    2.1 The Roles of Social and Mass Media
    Characteristics of Social Media
    Social Media Uses and Gratifications
    Masspersonal Communication
    2.2 Mediated Versus Face-to-Face Communication
    Message Richness
    Synchronicity
    Permanence
    2.3 Benefits and Drawbacks of Social Media
    Benefits of Social Media
    Drawbacks of Social Media
    2.4 Influences on Mediated Communication
    Gender
    Age
    2.5 Communicating Competently with Social Media
    Maintaining Positive Relationships
    Protecting Yourself
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Understanding Your Communication: What Type of Social Media Communicator Are You?
    Communication Strategies: Using LinkedIn for Career Success
    Communication Strategies: Evaluating (Mis)information
    Table and Figure
    Table 2.1 Common Types of Social Media Content
    Figure 2.1 Overlapping Boundaries Between Different Types of Media

    Chapter 3: The Self, Perception, and Communication
    3.1 Communication and the Self
    Self-Concept
    Self-Esteem
    Personality
    Reflected Appraisal
    Social Comparison
    Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
    3.2 Perceiving Others
    Selection
    Organization
    Interpretation
    3.3 Problematic Perceptual Tendencies
    Categorizing People
    Clinging to First Impressions
    Paying More Attention to Negative Impressions than to Positive Ones
    Judging Yourself More Charitably than You Judge Others
    Overgeneralizing
    Gravitating to the Familiar
    3.4 Perceptual Skill Builders
    Emotional Intelligence
    Perception Checking
    3.5 Communication and Identity Management
    Public and Private Selves
    Facework
    Why Manage Identities?
    Identity Management and Honesty
    Characteristics of Identity Management
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Communication Strategies: Keeping It Real on Social Media
    Communication Strategies: Ways to Reverse Self-Defeating Thinking
    Communication Strategies: Focus on Individuality Rather than Stereotypes
    Understanding Your Communication: How Emotionally Intelligent Are You?
    Communication Strategies: Should You Humblebrag in Job Interviews?
    Communication Strategies: Work Lessons from Undercover Boss
    Figure
    Figure 3.1 The Figure-Ground Principle

    Chapter 4: Communication and Culture
    4.1 Understanding Cultures and Cocultures
    Salience
    In-Group and Out-Group
    4.2 How Cultural Values and Norms Shape Communication
    Individualism and Collectivism
    High and Low Cultural Context
    Uncertainty Avoidance
    Power Distance
    Talk and Silence
    4.3 Cocultures' Influence on Communication
    Intersectionality Theory
    Race and Ethnicity
    Sex and Gender
    Religion
    Disability
    Political Viewpoints
    Age/Generation
    4.4 Becoming an Effective Intercultural Communicator
    Contact with a Diverse Array of People
    Tolerance for Ambiguity
    Open-Mindedness
    Knowledge and Skill
    Patience and Perseverance
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Understanding Your Communication: How Much Do You Know About Other Cultures?
    Communication Strategies: Talking About Race
    Communication Strategies: Communicating Respectfully About Gender
    Communication Strategies: Discussing Politics Responsibly on Social Media
    Communication Strategies: Coping with Culture Shock
    Tables
    Table 4.1 Individualistic Versus Collectivistic Cultures
    Table 4.2 High- and Low-Context Communication
    Table 4.3 Differences Between Low and High Uncertainty Avoidance
    Table 4.4 Differences Between Low and High Power Distance
    Part 2: Communication Elements

    Chapter 5: Language
    5.1 The Nature of Language
    Language Is Symbolic
    Words Have Varying Interpretations
    Meaning Is Negotiated
    Language Is Governed by Rules
    5.2 The Power of Language
    Gender References
    Names
    Accents
    Assertive and Collaborative Language
    5.3 Language and Misunderstandings
    Abstract Language
    Equivocal Language
    Relative Words
    Slang
    Jargon
    Euphemisms
    5.4 Troublesome Language
    Confusion About Facts, Inferences, and Opinions
    Lies and Evasions
    Emotive Language
    Microaggressions
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Understanding Your Communication: How Do You Use Language?
    Communication Strategies: Balancing Assertive and Collaborative Language
    Communication Strategies: Expressing Yourself Clearly
    Communication Strategies: Distinguishing Between Facts and Opinions
    Communication Strategies: Engaging in Microresistance
    Figure
    Figure 5.1 Triangle of Meaning

    Chapter 6: Listening
    6.1 The Value of Listening
    6.2 Misconceptions About Listening
    Myth: Listening and Hearing Are the Same Thing
    Myth: Listening Is a Natural Process
    Myth: All Listeners Receive the Same Message
    Myth: People Have One Listening “Style”
    Myth: Women are More Supportive Listeners Than Men
    Myth: The Majority of Listening Happens Offline
    6.3 Overcoming Challenges to Effective Listening
    Message Overload
    Noise
    Cultural Differences
    6.4 Faulty Listening Habits
    Pretending to Listen
    Tuning In and Out
    Missing the Underlying Point
    Dividing Attention
    Being Self-Centered
    Talking More than Listening
    Avoiding the Issue
    Being Defensive
    6.5 Listening to Connect and Support
    Allow Enough Time
    Be Sensitive to Personal and Situational Factors
    Ask Questions
    Listen for Unexpressed Thoughts and Feelings
    Encourage Further Comments
    Reflect Back the Speaker's Thoughts
    Consider the Pros and Cons When Analyzing
    Reserve Judgment, Except in Rare Cases
    Think Twice Before Offering Advice or Solutions
    Offer Comfort, If Appropriate
    6.6 Listening to Learn, Analyze, and Critique
    Task-Oriented Listening
    Analytical Listening
    Critical Listening
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Understanding Your Communication: What Are Your Listening Strengths?
    Communication Strategies: Listening in a Virtual Space
    Communication Strategies: Active Listening
    Communication Strategies: When Is a Question Not a Question?

    Chapter 7: Nonverbal Communication
    7.1 Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication
    Nonverbal Communication Is Unavoidable
    Nonverbal Communication Is Ambiguous
    Nonverbal Cues Convey Emotion
    Nonverbal Cues Help Manage Identities
    Nonverbal Cues Affect Relationships
    7.2 Functions of Nonverbal Communication
    Substituting
    Complementing
    Accenting
    Regulating
    Contradicting
    Deceiving
    7.3 Types of Nonverbal Communication
    Body Movements
    Voice
    Appearance
    Touch
    Space
    Time
    7.4 Influences on Nonverbal Communication
    Culture
    Gender
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Communication Strategies: Making the Most of Nonverbal Communication at Work
    Understanding Your Communication: How Worldly Are Your Nonverbal Communication Skills?
    Communication Strategies: Deception Detection Hacks

    Part 3: Interpersonal Communication

    Chapter 8: Understanding Interpersonal Communication
    8.1 Characteristics of Interpersonal Communication
    What Makes Communication Interpersonal?
    Content and Relational Messages
    8.2 Interpersonal Relationship Building
    How People Choose Relational Partners
    Metacommunication
    Self-Disclosure
    Interpersonal Communication Online
    8.3 Communicating with Friends and Family
    Friendships Have Unique Qualities
    Friendships Develop with Communication
    Friendships Can Build Bridges
    Family Relationships
    8.4 Communicating with Romantic Partners
    Stages of Romantic Relationships
    Love Languages
    8.5 Relational Dialectics
    Connection Versus Autonomy
    Openness Versus Privacy
    Predictability Versus Novelty
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Communication Strategies: Questions to Ask Yourself Before Self-Disclosing
    Communication Strategies: How to Be a Good Friend
    Understanding Your Communication: What Kind of Friendship Do You Have?
    Communication Strategies: How to Make Friends with a Wide Range of People
    Communication Strategies: Strengthening Family Ties
    Communication Strategies: Meeting an Online Date for the First Time
    Understanding Your Communication: What Is Your Love Language?
    Communication Strategies: Managing Dialectical Tensions
    Figures
    Figure 8.1 Social Penetration Model
    Figure 8.2 The Johari Window
    Figure 8.3 Knapp's Stages of Relational Development

    Chapter 9: Managing Conflict
    9.1 Understanding Interpersonal Conflict
    Expressed Struggle
    Interdependence
    Perceived Incompatible Goals
    Perceived Scarce Resources
    9.2 Communication Climates
    Confirming and Disconfirming Messages
    How Communication Climates Develop
    9.3 Conflict Communication Styles
    Nonassertiveness
    Indirect Communication
    Passive Aggression
    Direct Aggression
    Assertiveness
    9.4 Negotiation Strategies
    Win-Lose
    Lose-Lose
    Compromise
    Win-Win
    9. 5 Cultural Approaches to Conflict Communication
    Individualism and Collectivism
    High and Low Context
    Emotional Expressiveness
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Communication Strategies: Managing Conflict in Online Classes and Teams
    Communication Strategies: Rules for Fighting Fair
    Understanding Your Communication: What's the Forecast for Your Communication Climate?
    Communication Strategies: Dealing with Sexual Harassment
    Communication Strategies: Protecting Yourself from an Abusive Partner
    Understanding Your Communication: How Assertive Are You?
    Communication Strategies: Negotiating with a Bully
    Tables
    Table 9.1 Distancing Behavior
    Table 9.2 Choosing the Most Appropriate Method of Conflict Resolution
    Part 4: Communicating in Groups, Teams, and Organizations

    Chapter 10: Communicating for Career Success
    10.1 Communication Skills Are Essential
    10.2 Setting the Stage for Career Success
    Developing a Good Reputation
    Managing Your Online Identity
    Cultivating a Professional Network
    10.3 Preparing Job Search Materials
    Create a Portfolio of Your Work
    Write a Confidence-Inspiring Cover Letter
    Construct a High-Quality Resume
    Follow Application Instructions
    Keep Organized Records of Your Interactions
    10.4 Taking Part in a Job Interview
    Preparing for an Interview
    Participating in a Job Interview
    10.5 Adapting to a New Work Environment
    Culture in the Workplace
    Patterns of Interaction
    Communication and Workplace Etiquette
    Working Remotely
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Communication Strategies: Building a Career-Enhancing Network
    Communication Strategies: Answering “What Is Your Greatest Weakness?”
    Communication Strategies: Creating a Job Interview Presentation
    Communication Strategies: Responding to Common Interview Questions
    Communication Strategies: Interviewing by Phone or Video
    Figures
    Figure 10.1 Sample Cover Letter
    Figure 10.2 Sample Resume
    Figure 10.3 Organizational Communication Networks

    Chapter 11: Teamwork and Leadership
    11.1 Communicating Well as a Follower
    Be Proactive
    Seek Feedback
    Support Others
    If Something Isn't Right, Speak Up
    Handle Challenges Calmly
    11.2 Communicating in Groups and Teams
    What Makes a Group a Team?
    Motivational Factors
    Rules and Norms in Small Groups
    Individual Roles
    11.3 Making the Most of Group Interaction
    Recognize Stages of Team Development
    Enhance Cohesiveness
    Manage Meetings Well
    Use Meeting Technology Effectively
    Use Discussion Formats Strategically
    11.4 Group Problem Solving
    Advantages of Group Problem Solving
    A Structured Problem-Solving Approach
    11.5 Communicating Effectively as a Leader
    Leadership Can Be Learned
    Power Comes in Many Forms
    Leadership Approaches Vary
    Good Leadership Is Situational
    Transformational Leadership
    11.6 Leaving a Job Graciously
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Understanding Your Communication: How Good a Follower Are You?
    Communication Strategies: Working with a Difficult Boss
    Communication Strategies: Getting Slackers to Do Their Share
    Communication Strategies: Dealing with Difficult Team Members
    Communication Strategies: Making the Most of a Brainstorming Session
    Communication Strategies: Maximizing the Effectiveness of Multicultural Teams
    Communication Strategies: Ways to Reach a Group Decision
    Communication Strategies: Demonstrating Your Leadership Potential
    Understanding Your Communication: What's Your Leadership Style?
    Figures
    Figure 11.1 Roles That Team Members Play
    Figure 11.2 The Managerial Grid

    Part 5: Public Communication

    Chapter 12: Preparing and Presenting Your Speech
    12.1 Getting Started
    Choosing Your Topic
    Defining Your Purpose
    Writing a Purpose Statement
    Stating Your Thesis
    12.2 Analyzing the Speaking Situation
    The Listeners
    The Occasion
    12.3 Gathering Information
    Online Research
    Library Research
    Interviewing
    Survey Research
    12.4 Managing Communication Apprehension
    Facilitative and Debilitative Communication Apprehension
    Sources of Debilitative Communication Apprehension
    Overcoming Debilitative Communication Apprehension
    12.5 Presenting Your Speech
    Choosing an Effective Type of Delivery
    Practicing Your Speech
    12.6 Guidelines for Delivery
    Visual Aspects of Delivery
    Auditory Aspects of Delivery
    12.7 Sample Speech
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Communication Strategies: Adapting With Integrity
    Communication Strategies: Evaluating Websites
    Understanding Your Communication: Speech Anxiety Symptoms
    Communication Strategies: Practicing Your Presentation
    Figure
    Figure 12.1 Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values

    Chapter 13: Speech Organization and Support
    13.1 Building Your Speech
    Your Preliminary Notes
    Your Working Outline
    Your Formal Outline
    Your Speaking Notes
    13.2 Principles of Outlining
    Standard Symbols
    Standard Format
    The Rule of Division
    The Rule of Parallel Wording
    13.3 Organizing Your Outline into a Logical Pattern
    Time Patterns
    Space Patterns
    Topic Patterns
    Problem-Solution Patterns
    Cause-Effect Patterns
    Monroe's Motivated Sequence
    13.4 Beginnings, Endings, and Transitions
    The Introduction
    The Conclusion
    Transitions
    13.5 Supporting Material
    Functions of Supporting Material
    Types of Supporting Material
    Styles of Support: Narration Versus Citation
    Plagiarism Versus Originality
    13.6 Sample Speech
    Speech Outline
    Annotated Bibliography
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Communication Strategies: Building a Full-Sentence Speech Outline
    Communication Strategies: Nontraditional Patterns of Organization
    Understanding Your Communication: Main Points and Subpoints
    Communication Strategies: Effective Conclusions
    Communication Strategies: Organizing Business Presentations
    Figures
    Figure 13.1 Preliminary Notes
    Figure 13.2 Formal Outline
    Figure 13.3 Speaking Notes

    Chapter 14: Informative Speaking
    14.1 Types of Informative Speaking
    By Content
    By Purpose
    14.2 Informative Versus Persuasive Topics
    Type of Topic
    Speech Purpose
    14.3 Techniques of Informative Speaking
    Define a Specific Informative Purpose
    Create Information Hunger
    Make It Easy to Listen
    Use Clear, Simple Language
    Use a Clear Organization and Structure
    14.4 Using Supporting Material Effectively
    Emphasizing Important Points
    Generating Audience Involvement
    Using Visual Aids
    Using Presentation Software
    Alternative Media for Presenting Graphics
    Rules for Using Visual Aids
    14.5 Sample Speech
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Understanding Your Communication: Are You Overloaded?
    Communication Strategies: Techniques of Informative Speaking
    Communication Strategies: The Pros and Cons of Presentation Software
    Figures
    Figure 14.1 Diagram
    Figure 14.2 Word and Number Chart
    Figure 14.3 Pie Chart
    Figure 14.4 Adaptation of Pie Chart
    Figure 14.5 Misleading Bar Chart
    Figure 14.6 Bar Chart with Data Clarified
    Figure 14.7 Line Chart
    Figure 14.8 Flow Chart: Am I Mansplaining?
    Figure 14.9 Bar Chart with Only Positive Options
    Figure 14.10 Frog Thoughts
    Figure 14.11 Climbing a Mountain
    Figure 14.12 Stages of Grief
    Figure 14.13 Venn Diagram
    Figure 14.14 Cover Pages
    Figure 14.15 Word Cloud
    Figure 14.16 Actual Frog Thoughts

    Chapter 15: Persuasive Speaking
    15.1 Characteristics of Persuasion
    Persuasion Is Not Coercive
    Persuasion Is Usually Incremental
    Persuasion Is Interactive
    Persuasion Can Be Ethical
    15.2 Categorizing Persuasive Attempts
    By Type of Proposition
    By Desired Outcome
    By Directness of Approach
    By Type of Appeal: Aristotle's Ethos, Pathos, and Logos
    15.3 Creating a Persuasive Message
    Set a Clear, Persuasive Purpose
    Structure the Message Carefully
    Use Solid Evidence
    Avoid Fallacies
    15.4 Adapting to the Audience
    Establish Common Ground
    Organize According to the Expected Response
    Neutralize Potential Hostility
    15.5 Building Credibility as a Speaker
    Competence
    Character
    Charisma
    15.6 Sample Speech
    MAKING THE GRADE
    KEY TERMS
    PUBLIC SPEAKING PRACTICE
    ACTIVITIES
    Features
    Communication Strategies: You Versus the Experts
    Communication Strategies: Recognizing Cultural Differences in Persuasion
    Understanding Your Communication: Persuasive Speech
    Communication Strategies: Persuasion in the World of Sales
    Figures and Tables
    Table 15.1 Unethical Communication Behaviors
    Figure 15.1 Latitudes of Acceptance, Rejection, and Noncommitment
    Figure 15.2 Aristotle's Rhetorical Triad
    Figure 15.3 Sample Structure for a Persuasive Speech
    Table 15.2 Other Common Fallacies

    Notes
    Glossary
    Credits
    Index

Related Titles