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Cover

The Urban World

Eleventh Edition

J. John Palen

Publication Date - October 2018

ISBN: 9780190903169

400 pages
Paperback
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $104.95

A comprehensive and accessible introduction to urban sociology, with more attention paid to issues of diversity than any other text on the market

Description

The Urban World, Eleventh Edition, provides a comprehensive, balanced, up-to-date, and cross-cultural look at cities and suburbs around the world. Offering a twenty-first-century view of the changing urban scene, the text covers evolving urban patterns and the changing nature of urban life. Combining expert scholarship with an accessible style, J. John Palen is one of America's leading urban sociologists. He adds fresh data and insights to each edition of his text.

New to this Edition

  • An examination of the impact of Hurricane Harvey on Houston and Hurricane Maria on Florida and Puerto Rico
  • A look at the potential effects of sea rise due to global warming on coastal cities like Miami
  • A substantially updated discussion of racial changes that includes material on Black Lives Matter, women in politics, and the #MeToo movement, and also how political changes during the Trump presidency affect women and people of color
  • Increased and updated material on Latinos, including a discussion of the Trump administration revocation of the Dream Act and President Trump's tweets criticizing Puerto Rican Americans' response to the extreme devastation caused by Hurricane Maria
  • New material on China's current construction of scores of mega-cities
  • A new discussion of the likelihood of India's population size surpassing China's by the early 2020s and the resulting physical and social consequences
  • Expanded material on the greening of American cities
  • Updated coverage of the futuristic cities being built by the oil-rich Mid-east gulf states

About the Author(s)

J. John Palen is Professor Emeritus at Virginia Commonwealth University.

Reviews

"The Urban World is better than other available texts. I use it because of its comprehensiveness, up-to-date topics and information, and overall clarity of style. It is well balanced in terms of subject matter and provides a perfect overview for a course in urban sociology."--Joyce A. Sween, DePaul University

"This book's forte is making both the political economy approach and the social psychological approach compatible. It is up to date but not trendy."--Robert Ross, Clark University

"The Urban World is noteworthy for the author's writing style. Palen writes in an engaging manner that is readable, accessible to students, and dynamic."--Judith Kelley, Curry College

Table of Contents

    List of Boxes
    Preface
    About the Author

    PART I: FOCUS AND DEVELOPMENT

    1. The Urban World

    Introduction
    The Process of Urbanization
    Urban Growth
    Megacities
    The Urban Explosion
    Defining Urban Areas
    Urbanization and Urbanism
    Urbanization
    Urbanism
    Organizing the Study of Urban Life
    Concepts of the City
    Urban Change and Confusion
    Rural Simplicity versus Urban Complexity

    Early Social Theories and Urban Change
    European Theorists
    The Chicago School
    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    2. The Emergence of Cities
    Introduction
    The Ecological Complex
    Political Economy Models
    First Settlements
    Agricultural Revolution
    Population
    Expansion
    Mesoamerica
    Interactions of Population, Organization, Environment, and Technology
    City Populations
    Evolution in Social Organization
    Division of Labor
    Kingship and Social Class

    Technological and Social Evolution
    Urban Revolution
    Survival of the City
    The Hellenic City
    Social Invention
    Physical Design and Planning
    Population
    Diffusion of People and Ideas

    Rome
    Size and Number of Cities
    Housing and Planning
    Transportation
    Life and Leisure
    European Urbanization until the Industrial City
    The Medieval Feudal System
    Town Revival
    Characteristics of Towns
    Plague
    Renaissance Cities

    Industrial Cities
    Technological Improvements and the Industrial Revolution
    The Second Urban Revolution

    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    PART II: AMERICAN URBANIZATION

    3. The Rise of Urban America

    Introduction
    Colonists as Town Builders
    Major Settlements
    New England
    The Middle Colonies
    The South
    Canada

    Colonial Urban Influence
    Cities of the New Nation: 1790-1860
    Rapid Growth
    Marketplace Centers

    The Industrial City: 1860-1950
    Technological Developments
    Spatial Concentration
    Twentieth-Century Dispersion

    Political Life
    Corruption and Urban Services
    Political Bosses
    Immigrants' Problems
    Reform Movements

    Urban Imagery
    Ambivalence
    Myth of Rural Virtue

    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    4. Ecology and Political Economy Perspectives
    Introduction
    Development of Urban Ecology
    Invasion and Succession
    Criticisms of Ecology
    Role of Culture
    Burgess's Growth Hypothesis
    Concentric Zones
    Limitations

    Sector and Multiple-Nuclei Models
    Urban Growth Outside North America
    The Postmodern City: The Los Angeles School
    Political Economy Models
    Political Economy Assumptions
    Examples of the Political Economy Approach
    The Baltimore Study
    Urban Growth Machines
    World Systems Theory and Globalization
    Challenges

    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    5. Metro and Edge City Growth
    Introduction
    Metropolitan Growth
    In-Movement: 1900 to 1950
    Out-Movement: 1950
    into the Twenty-First Century
    Commuting and Communication
    Canadian Urban Regions
    Post-industrial Central Cities
    Edge Cities
    Edgeless and Private Edge Cities
    Boomburgs
    Suburban Business Growth
    End of Malling of the Land
    Malls and "Street Safety"

    Non-metropolitan Growth
    Diffuse Growth
    National Society
    The Rise of the Sunbelt
    Population and Economic Shifts
    Regional Consequences
    Sunbelt Problems

    Movement to the Coasts
    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    6. The Suburban Era
    Introduction
    Suburban Dominance
    Emergence of Suburbs
    The Nineteenth Century
    Electric Streetcar Era: 1890-1920
    Annexation
    Automobile Suburbs: 1920-1950
    Mass Suburbanization:
    1950-1990
    Metro Sprawl: 1990-2010

    Causes of Suburban Growth
    Postwar Exodus
    Non-reasons

    Contemporary Suburbia
    Categories of Suburbs
    Persistence of Characteristics?
    Ethnic and Religious Variation
    High-Income Suburbs
    Gated Communities
    Common-Interest Developments
    Working-Class Suburbs
    Commercial Definitions

    Exurbs
    Rurban Areas
    Characteristics of Suburbanites
    Suburban Poverty
    The Myth of Suburbia
    Minority Suburbanization
    Suburban Diversity
    Black Flight
    Integration or Resegregation?

    Latino Suburbanization
    Asian Suburbanites
    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    Part III: Metropolitan Life

    7. Urban Culture and Lifestyles

    Introduction
    Social Psychology of Urban Life
    Early Formulations
    The Chicago School
    "Urbanism as a Way of Life"

    Re-evaluations of Urbanism and Social Disorganization
    Determinist Theory
    Compositional Theory

    Subcultural Theory
    Characteristics of Urban Populations
    Age
    Gender
    Race, Ethnicity, and Religion
    Declining Middle Class
    Urban Lifestyles
    Cosmopolites
    Unmarried or Childless
    Gay Households
    Ethnic Villagers
    Neighborhood Characteristics
    Deprived or Trapped

    A Final Note of Caution
    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    8. The Social Environment of Metro Areas: Strangers, Crowding, Homelessness, and Crime
    Introduction
    Dealing with Strangers
    Codes of Urban Behavior
    Altruism
    Neighboring
    Neighbors and Just Neighbors

    Defining Community
    Categories of Local Communities
    Density and Crowding
    Crowding Research
    Practical Implications

    Homelessness
    Characteristics of the Homeless
    Social Problems
    SRO Housing
    Urban Crime
    Crime and Perceptions of Crime
    Broken Windows Theory and Predictive Policing
    Crime and City Size
    Crime and Male Youth
    Crime and Race
    Crime Variations within Cities
    Crime in the Suburbs
    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    9. Diversity: Women, Ethnics, and African Americans
    Introduction
    Women in Metropolitan Life
    Female Domesticity
    Gendered Organization of Residential Space
    Feminist Housing
    Preferences
    Cohousing and Downsizing
    Current Housing Choices
    Gendered Public Spaces
    Workplace Changes
    White Ethnic Groups
    Immigration
    First-Wave Immigrants
    Second-Wave Immigrants
    Third-Wave Immigrants
    "Racial Inferiority" and Immigration

    African Americans
    Historical Patterns
    Population Changes
    Slavery in Cities
    "Free Persons of Color"
    Jim Crow Laws
    "The Great Migration"
    Moving South

    Urban Segregation Patterns
    Extent of Segregation
    Housing Discrimination

    Twenty-First-Century Diversity
    The Economically Successful
    The Disadvantaged

    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    10. Diversity: Latinos, Asians, and Native Americans
    Introduction
    New-Wave Immigrants
    Recent Immigration Impact on Cities
    Melting Pot or Cultural Pluralism
    Latino Population
    Legal Status
    Growth
    Diversity

    Mexican Americans
    Mexican Diversity
    Education
    Urbanization
    Housing and Other Patterns
    Political Involvement

    Puerto Ricans
    Asian Americans
    A "Model Minority"?
    Asian Residential Segregation
    The Case of Japanese Americans
    Internment Camps
    Japanese Americans Today

    Native Americans
    Nonurban Orientation
    Movement to Cities

    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    PART IV: METRO ISSUES, HOUSING, SPRAWL, AND PLANNING

    11. Cities and Change
    Introduction
    The Urban Crisis: Thesis
    Urban Revival: Antithesis
    A Political Economy Look at the Urban Crisis
    Twenty-First-Century City Developments
    New Patterns
    Central Business Districts
    Mismatch Hypothesis
    Downtown Housing
    Fiscal Health
    Crumbling Infrastructure
    Neighborhood Revival

    Gentrification
    Government and Revitalization
    Who Is Gentrifying?
    Why Is Gentrification Taking Place?
    Displacement of the Poor

    Decline of Middle-Income Neighborhoods
    Successful Working-Class Revival
    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    12. Housing Policies, Sprawl, and Smart Growth
    Introduction
    Housing in the Twenty-First Century
    Mobility
    Housing Costs
    Changing Households
    Return Nesters
    Changing Federal Role
    Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Programs
    Subsidizing Segregation
    Upper- and Middle-Class Housing Subsidies
    Back to the City?

    Urban Redevelopment Policies
    Critique of Urban Renewal
    Phasing Out Public Housing
    Urban Homesteading
    Rent Vouchers: Section 8
    Hope VI Projects
    Tax Credits
    Designing for Safety
    Growth Control

    Suburban Sprawl
    Auto-Driven Sprawl
    Amount of Sprawl
    Costs and Consequences

    Smart Growth
    Advantages
    Legislation

    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    13. Planning, New Towns, and New Urbanism
    Introduction
    Ancient Greece and Rome
    Renaissance and Later Developments

    American Planning
    Washington, DC
    Nineteenth-Century Towns
    Early Planned
    Communities
    Parks
    The City Beautiful Movement
    Tenement Reform

    Twentieth and Twenty-First Century Patterns
    The City Efficient
    Zoning and Beyond
    Master Plans to Equity Planning
    Crime Prevention through Environmental Design

    European Planning
    Planning and Control of Land
    Housing Priorities
    Transportation
    Urban Growth Policies
    The Dutch Approach

    New Towns
    British New Towns
    New Towns in Europe

    American New Towns
    Public-Built New Towns
    Federal Support for New Towns
    Private New Towns: Reston, Columbia, and Irvine
    Research Parks

    New Urbanism or Traditional Neighborhood Developments
    Celebration
    Creating Community
    Limitations

    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    PART V: WORLDWIDE URBANIZATION

    14. Developing Countries

    Developing Countries
    Megacities
    Plan of Organization
    Common or Divergent Paths?

    Developing-Country Increases
    Rich Countries and Poor Countries
    Global Cities
    Characteristics of Third World Cities
    Youthful Age Structure
    Multinationals
    The Informal Economy
    Squatter Settlements
    Primate Cities
    Overurbanization?

    The Twenty-First Century
    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    15. Asian Urban Patterns
    Introduction
    Asian Cities
    Indigenous Cities
    Colonial Background Cities

    India
    Delhi
    Mumbai (Bombay)
    Kolkata (Calcutta)
    Prognosis

    China
    Treaty Ports
    Forced
    Movement from Cities
    Rural to Urban Migration
    Special Economic Zones
    Shanghai
    Beijing
    Hong Kong

    Japan
    Extent of Urbanization
    Current Patterns
    Tokyo
    Planning
    Planned New Towns
    Suburbanization

    Southeast Asia
    General Patterns
    Singapore
    Other Cities

    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    16. African and Latin American Urbanization
    Introduction
    Africa
    Challenges
    Responses
    Regional Variations

    Urban Development
    Early Cities
    Colonial Period
    Indigenous African Cities
    Contemporary Patterns
    Social Composition of African Cities
    Ethnic and Traditional Bonds
    Status of Women
    Differences from the Western Pattern

    Latin America: An Urban Continent
    Spanish Colonial Cities
    Colonial Organization
    Physical Structure

    Recent Developments
    Urban Growth
    Economic Change
    Brazil
    Urban Characteristics
    Crime
    Shantytowns
    The Future of Settlements
    Maquiladoras
    Myth of Marginality
    A Success Story
    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    PART VI: CONCLUSION

    17. Toward the Urban Future

    Recapitulation
    Urban Concentration
    Deconcentration
    Concentration Again?

    Issues and Challenges
    Urban Funding
    People versus Places
    Changing Metropolitan Population
    Suburban Changes
    Social Planning Approaches
    Three Approaches to Social Planning
    Social Planning and Technology

    Planning for the Future City
    Past Planned Utopias
    New World Class Cities
    Las Vegas
    Quality-of-Life Planning
    Middle-Range Planning
    Bike Sharing
    Smart Cities
    Metropolitan Political Systems

    A Working City
    Toward a Metropolitan Future
    Summary
    Key Concepts
    Review Questions

    Name Index
    Subject Index

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