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Cover

The Science of Personality

Second Edition

Lawrence A. Pervin

Publication Date - August 2002

ISBN: 9780195159714

528 pages
Paperback
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

Retail Price to Students: $164.99

This book offers students an up-to-date overview of the field and a picture of the challenges faced by personality psychologists.

Description

The Science of Personality, 2/e, focuses on the field of personality psychology as it is studied by researchers today. Offering students an up-to-date picture of the field and of the challenges faced by personality psychologists, it also explores how current research is put to use in the real world. The book examines the structure of personality--including traits, motives, and cognition--and the determinants of the unfolding of personality over time. In addition, it provides in-depth consideration of contemporary areas of such research as the self, unconscious processes, mind-body connections, and reasons why people do and do not change.
The Science of Personality, 2/e, addresses questions and issues relating to the field of personality psychology today, including:
· Which trait, motive, and cognitive units are fundamental to the study of personality? · How do genes and environments interact to produce an individual's personality? · To what extent is personality stable over time and across situations? · What is the nature of the self and to what extent does the concept of the self differ across cultures? · What is the relationship of thoughts and feelings to physical health?
Paying particular attention to recent developments in cross-cultural research, positive psychology, and biological foundations of personality, The Science of Personality, 2/e, is an ideal text or supplement for undergraduate courses in personality psychology and advanced personality.

Previous Publication Date(s)

July 1989

Table of Contents

    1 INTRODUCTION: THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF PERSONALITY.
    THREE RESEARCH TRADITIONS
    The Clinical Approach to Personality
    Jean Charcot and His Students
    Sigmund Freud
    Henry Murray
    Carl Rogers and George Kelly
    The Clinical Approach: An Illustration
    Strenghts and Limitations of the Clinical Approach
    The Correlational Approach to Personality
    Sir Francis Galton and His Followers
    Raymond B. Cattell and Hans J. Eysenck
    The Five-Factor Model of Personality
    Two Illustrations of the Correlational Approach: The Development of Measures of Satisfaction with Life and of Optimism
    Strengths and Limitations of the Correlational Approach
    The Experimental Approach to Personality
    Wilhelm Wundt, Hermann Ebbinghaus, and Ivan Pavlov
    J. B. Watson, Clark Hull, and B. F. Skinner
    Cognitive Approaches
    The Experimental Approach: An Illustration
    Strengths and Limitations of the Experimental Approach
    Strengths and Limitations of the Three Approaches
    Shared Goals, Divergent Paths, and Agreement among Data Sources
    MAJOR CONCEPTS
    SUMMARY
    PART 1: UNITS OF PERSONALITY
    2 TRAIT UNITS OF PERSONALITY.
    THE TRAIT PSYCHOLOGY OF GORDON W. ALLPORT
    THE TRAIT PSYCHOLOGY OF RAYMOND B. CATTELL
    THE TRAIT PSYCHOLOGY OF HANS J. EYSENCK
    THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL (FFM)
    Validating Evidence
    Cross-Cultural Agreement on Factors
    Self-Ratings and Ratings by Others
    Connections to Biology: Genetics, Evolution, Neuroscience
    Diagnosis of Personality Disorders
    Predictive Utility
    EARLY TEMPERAMENT AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
    CONSISTENCY OF PERSONALITY AND THE PERSON-SITUATION CONTROVERSY
    Implications for the Prediction of Behavior
    A CRITICAL OVERVIEW OF TRAITS AND FACTOR ANALYSIS
    What Is a Trait?
    How Many Traits? Which Ones? Is That All There Is?
    The Method--Factor Analysis
    Description or Explanation?
    CONCLUSION
    MAJOR CONCEPTS
    SUMMARY
    3 COGNITIVE UNITS OF PERSONALITY.
    THE CONCEPT OF COGNITIVE STYLE
    TWO PRECOGNITIVE REVOLUTION THEORISTS: KELLY AND ROTTER
    Kelly's Personal Construct Theory
    Rotter's Social Learning Theory
    TWO POSTCOGNITIVE REVOLUTION THEORISTS: MISCHEL AND BANDURA
    Mischel's Cognitive Social Learning Theory
    Research Illustrating Situational Specificity
    Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
    Is a Trait-Social Cognitive Rapprochement Possible?
    ADDITIONAL COGNITIVE UNITS: SCHEMA, ATTRIBUTIONS, AND BELIEFS
    Schema
    Attributions-Explanations
    Beliefs
    COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    COGNITION AND CULTURE
    ANALYSIS OF COGNITIVE UNITS
    MAJOR CONCEPTS
    SUMMARY
    4 MOTIVATIONAL UNITS OF PERSONALITY.
    PITCHFORK-DRIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
    Freud's Drive Theory
    Stimulus-Response Theory
    Murray's Need-Press Model
    Festinger's Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
    CARROT-INCENTIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
    Historical Note
    Current Work in Goal Theory
    COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION: KELLY'S JACKASS
    Kelly's Emphasis on Anticipating Events
    Attributional Models
    Weiner's Attributional Model
    Dweck's Model of Implicit Beliefs about the Self and the World
    GROWTH, SELF-ACTUALIZATION THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
    ARE THERE UNIVERSAL HUMAN NEEDS OR MOTIVES?
    COMMENTS ON MOTIVATIONAL UNITS
    RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE UNITS OF PERSONALITY: TRAITS, COGNITIONS, AND MOTIVES
    MAJOR CONCEPTS
    SUMMARY
    PART 2: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
    5 THE NATURE AND NURTURE OF PERSONALITY.
    THE NATURE OF PERSONALITY: EVOLUTION AND GENETICS
    Three Founders: Darwin, Mendel, and Galton
    Evolutionary, Ultimate Explanations
    Male-Female Mate Preferences
    Male-Female Differences in Causes of Jealousy
    Evolutionary Explanations
    Genetic, Proximate Explanations
    Behavioral Genetics
    The Nature of Nurture: The Effects of Genes on Environments
    THE NURTURE OF PERSONALITY
    Shared and Nonshared Environments
    Does Parenting Matter? The Case for Familial Influence
    THE NATURE AND NURTURE OF PERSONALITY: UPDATE AND CONCLUSION
    MAJOR CONCEPTS
    SUMMARY
    6 CHARTING PEOPLE'S LIVES OVER TIME.
    STAGE THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
    Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development
    Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Development
    Critique of Stage Theories of Development
    LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF DEVELOPMENT
    Stability and Change in Personality Development
    Illustrative Longitudinal Studies
    Magnusson's Swedish Study of Individual Development and Adjustment (IDA)
    The Longitudinal Research of Jack and Jeanne Block
    The Minnesota Parent-Child Project
    Additional Longitudinal Evidence of Relative Stability and Relative Change
    STABILITY-CONTINUITY OF PERSONALITY: TWO OPPOSING POINTS OF VIEW
    SOME THOUGHTS ON STABILITY AND CHANGE IN PERSONALITY AND THE QUESTION OF PROCESS
    MAJOR CONCEPTS
    SUMMARY
    PART 3: TOPICS IN PERSONALITY RESEARCH
    7 THE UNCONSCIOUS.
    ILLUSTRATIVE PHENOMENA
    BRIEF HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
    THE DYNAMIC UNCONSCIOUS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS
    Evidence for the Mechanisms of Defense
    Explaining the Dynamic Unconscious
    THE COGNITIVE UNCONSCIOUS
    Unconscious Influences on Memory and Perception
    Unconscious Influences on Feelings, Attitudes, and Behaviors toward Others
    Chronically Accessible Constructs
    Summary
    COMPARISON OF THE DYNAMIC AND COGNITIVE VIEWS OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
    IMPLICATIONS FOR THE USE OF SELF-REPORT MEASURES
    CONCLUSIONS
    MAJOR CONCEPTS
    SUMMARY
    8 THE CONCEPT OF THE SELF.
    WHY STUDY THE CONCEPT OF THE SELF?
    THE WAXING AND WANING OF INTEREST IN THE SELF: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELF
    The Self as Separate from Other People and Objects: Self-Perception
    The Development of Self-Consciousness
    Summary of the Developmental Perspective
    THREE VIEWS OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE SELF
    The Phenomenological Theory of Carl Rogers
    The Psychoanalytic Concept of the Self
    Sullivan's Interpersonal School of Psychiatry
    Object Relations Theory
    Social Cognitive View of the Self
    Motivational Processes Relevant to the Self: Self-Verification and Self-Enhancement
    Comparison of the Social Cognitive and Psychoanalytic Views of the Self
    INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE SELF AND SELF-PROCESSES
    Bandura's Self-Efficacy Concept
    Carver and Scheier's Control Theory and Private versus Public Self-Consciousness
    Higgin's Theory of Self-Guides
    Self-Esteem
    NEUROSCIENCE AND THE SELF
    CULTURE AND THE SELF
    FINAL REFLECTIONS ON THE SELF
    MAJOR CONCEPTS
    SUMMARY
    9 THE PATH FROM THINKING TO ACTION.
    RATIONAL CHOICE BEHAVIOR: EXPECTANCY X VALUE THEORY
    Tolman's Model of Purposive Behavior
    Lewin's Level of Aspiration Research
    Rotter's Expectancy-Value Model
    THE STASIS AND FLOW OF BEHAVIOR: TOWARD A THEORY OF GOALS
    GOALS, SELF-REGULATION, AND ACTION: PROGRAMS OF RESEARCH
    Bandura's Model of Goals-Standards and Self-Regulation
    Personal Projects, Personal Strivings, and Life Tasks
    Little's Research on Personal Projects
    Emmons's Research on Personal Strivings
    Cantor's Research on Life Tasks
    Approach-Avoidance Goals and Promotion-Prevention Focus
    Common Elements, Differences, and Unanswered Questions
    BREAKDOWNS IN SELF-REGULATION AND THE PROBLEM OF VOLITION
    MAJOR CONCEPTS
    SUMMARY
    10 EMOTION, ADAPTATION, AND HEALTH.
    AFFECT WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF TRADITIONAL PERSONALITY THEORY
    Psychoanalytic Theory
    Phenomenological Theory: Carl Rogers
    Trait Theory
    Social Cognitive, Information-Processing Theory
    A Central Role for Affect in Personality
    BASIC EMOTIONS THEORY
    TWO EMOTION-MOTIVATION SYSTEMS
    THE BIOLOGY OF EMOTION
    CULTURE AND EMOTION
    EMOTION REGULATION, COPING WITH STRESS, AND ADAPTATION
    Emotion Regulation
    Stress and Coping
    Coping and the Mechanisms of Defense
    EMOTION, ADAPTATION, AND HEALTH
    Optimism and Health: The Power of Positive Thinking
    Neuroticism and Negative Affectivity
    Suppression versus Expression of thoughts and Emotions
    Wegner's Research on the Effects of Thought Suppression
    Pennebaker's Research on the Effects of the Inhibition and Disclosure of Emotion
    Summary
    CONCLUSION
    MAJOR CONCEPTS
    SUMMARY
    11 MALADAPTIVE PERSONALITY FUNCTIONING AND PROCESSES OF CHANGE.
    DESCROPTION, EXPLANATION, AND PRESCROPTION
    TRAIT THEORY
    Eysenck's Trait Theory
    The Five-Factor Model (FFM) and Personality Disorders
    Two Illustrative Applications
    Applications to Problematic Interpersonal Behavior
    Description, Explanation, and Prescription and the Five-Factor Model
    The Trait Model of Personality Disorders: Summary
    PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
    Psychopathology
    Object Relations Theory
    Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Comparison with Trait Theory
    Object Relations, Attachment, and Depression
    Therapeutic Change
    Description, Explanation, and Prescription and the Psychoanalytic Model
    SOCIAL COGNITIVE/INFORMATION-PROCESSING APPROACHES
    Kelly's Personal Construct Theory
    Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
    Beck's Cognitive Theory and Therapy
    Outcome Research
    Cognitive Therapy: Past, Present, and Future
    Social Cognitive Mechanisms in Psychopathology
    Description, Explanation, and Prescription and the Cognitive Model
    ISSUES RELEVANT TO THE ANALYSIS OF MALADAPTIVE FUNCTIONING AND THERAPEUTIC CHANGE
    Situation, Domain Specificity
    System Functioning
    Emphasis on Unconscious Influences
    Cognition, Affect, and Behavior
    Changes Produced and Processes of Change
    COMPARISON OF THE ALTERNATIVE MODELS
    BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS OF MALADAPTIVE PERSONALITY FUNCTIONING AND PERSONALITY CHANGE
    MAJOR CONCEPTS
    SUMMARY
    12 PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT.
    THE ASSESSMENT OF MEN BY THE STAFF OF THE OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES
    TYPES OF PERSONALITY DATA
    A RETURN TO CONSIDERATION OF RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
    SOME QUESTIONS RELEVANT TO PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT
    Relations between Self and Observer Ratings
    The Potential for Deception
    The Relation of Fantasy to Behavior, of Explicit Measures to Implicit Measures
    Utility for Prediction
    Diversity and Personality Assessment
    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY THEORY AND PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT
    CONCLUSION
    MAJOR CONCEPTS
    SUMMARY
    13 CONCLUSION: CURRENT ISSUES AND THE PROSPECTS FOR THE SCIENCE OF PERSONALITY.
    A DEFINITION OF PERSONALITY
    RESEARCH STRATEGIES
    SPECIFICITY VERSUS GENERALITY
    NATURE AND NURTURE, GENES AND CULTURE
    MALLEABILITY-FIXITY, STABILITY-CHANGE
    RANGE OF CONVENIENCE AND FOCUS OF CONVENIENCE; BANDWIDTH AND FIDELITY
    SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY THEORY AND RESEARCH
    CURRENT AREAS OF INTEREST
    PROSPECTS FOR THE FUTURE
    SUMMARY