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The Jew in the Modern World

A Documentary History

Third Edition

Paul Mendes-Flohr and Jehuda Reinharz

Publication Date - December 2010

ISBN: 9780195389067

944 pages
8 x 10 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $129.99


The last two centuries have witnessed a radical transformation of Jewish life. Marked by such profound events as the emancipation from the ghettoes of Europe, the Holocaust and the establishment of the State of Israel, Judaism's long journey through the modern age has been a complex and tumultuous one, leading many Jews to ask themselves not only where they have been and where they are going, but what it means to be a Jew in today's world.

Tracing the dramatic changes in Jewish religion, culture, and identity from the seventeenth century to 1948, The Jew in the Modern World, Third Edition, remains the most complete sourcebook on modern Jewish history available. Now thoroughly expanded and updated, this critically acclaimed volume of primary materials features previously unpublished and inaccessible sources concerning the Jewish experience in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa; women in Jewish history; American Jewish life; the Holocaust; and Zionism and the nascent Jewish community in Palestine on the eve of the establishment of the State of Israel. The documents are arranged chronologically in each chapter and are meticulously and extensively annotated and cross-referenced. Providing useful tables detailing Jewish demographic trends, this unique text is ideal for courses in modern Jewish history, Zionism and Israel, the Holocaust, or modern European history.

New to this Edition

  • Over 100 new documents address important issues to understanding modern Jewish history, including the status of women, and debates between traditional and secular Jews and the role of Zionism in modern Jewish life
  • Two entirely new chapters--Chapter 8, "Sephardi and Middle Eastern Jewry," and Chapter 12, "Jewish Identity Challenged and Redefined"--enhance the book's scope and chronology
  • Four new maps show the concentration of Jews throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East
  • The Appendix has been completely updated with the latest population figures

About the Author(s)

Paul Mendes-Flohr is Professor of Modern Jewish Thought in the Divinity School and an associate member of the department of history at the University of Chicago. He is the author or editor of numerous books and serves as the editor-in-chief, with Peter Schäfer and Bernd Witte, of the twenty-two-volume German edition of the collected works of Martin Buber.

Jehuda Reinharz is the Richard Koret Professor of Modern Jewish History at Brandeis University and President of the Mandel Foundation. He is the author, editor, or coeditor of numerous books, including Chaim Weizmann: The Making of a Statesman (OUP, 1993) and Chaim Weizmann: The Making of a Zionist Leader (OUP, 1985). His most recent book (with Yaacov Shavit) is Glorious, Accursed Europe (2010).

Previous Publication Date(s)

March 1995
May 1980


"The Jew in the Modern World is a crucially important sourcebook for the classroom and for the historian's library. If a student or historian of modern Jewish history is to own only one sourcebook, it ought to be this one."--Robin Judd, The Ohio State University

"The main strength of The Jew in the Modern World is the quality and range of the primary sources, which are unavailable elsewhere in this succinct, user-friendly format. In some cases, the sources in this book cannot be found anywhere else, at least in translation. It is perfect for use in classroom discussions and analytical assignments involving primary sources. The fact that a single volume covers the entire range of modern Jewish history makes it an easy choice when I am contemplating what to assign students for reading."--James Loeffler, University of Virgina

Table of Contents

    Preface to the Third Edition
    Preface to the Second Edition
    Preface to the First Edition
    1. How Profitable the Nation of the Jews Are (1655), MENASSEH BEN ISRAEL
    2. Reasons for Naturalizing the Jews in Great Britain and Ireland (1714), JOHN TOLAND
    3. Declaration Protecting the Interest of Jews Residing in the Netherlands (July 13, 1657), The Estates General of the Republic of the United Provinces
    4. Act of Suriname (August 17, 1665), British Colonial Commissioner
    5. The Appointment of Samson Wertheimer as Imperial Court Factor (August 29, 1703), EMPEROR LEOPOLD I
    6. The Plantation Act (March 19, 1740), The Houses of Parliament
    7. The Charter Decreed for the Jews of Prussia (April 17, 1750), FREDERICK II
    8. "The Jew Bill" (1753), The Houses of Parliament of Great Britain
    9. Concerning the Amelioration of the Civil Status of the Jews (1781), CHRISTIAN WILHELM VON DOHM
    10. Arguments Against Dohm (1782), JOHANN DAVID MICHAELIS
    11. Response to Dohm (1782), MOSES MENDELSSOHN
    12. Remarks Concerning Michaelis's Response to Dohm, MOSES MENDELSSOHN
    13. Edict of Tolerance (January 2, 1782), JOSEPH II
    14. Patent of Tolerance for Jews of Galicia (May 27, 1785), EMPEROR JOSEPH II
    15. Petition to the Hungarian Diet (June 1790), The Community of Jews Living in Hungary
    16. De Judaeis: Law Governing the Status of the Jews of Hungary (1791), LEOPOLD II
    17. An Essay on the Physical, Moral and Political Reformation of the Jews (1789), ABBÉ GRÉGOIRE
    1. The Writ of Excommunication Against Baruch Spinoza (July 27, 1656), The Sephardi Community of Amsterdam
    2. On the Election of the Jews, BARUCH SPINOZA
    3. Moses Mendelssohn Visits the Seer of Koenigsberg (1777)
    4. The Jews (1754), GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM LESSING
    5. A Parable of Toleration (1779), GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM LESSING
    6. Letter to Markus Herz (1777), IMMANUEL KANT
    7. The Right to be Different (1783), MOSES MENDELSSOHN
    8. Words of Peace and Truth (1782), NAPHTALI HERZ (HARTWIG) WESSELY
    9. A Sermon contra Wessely (1782), DAVID (TEVELE) BEN NATHAN OF LISSA
    10. Sermon on Wessely and the Edict of Tolerance (1782), EZEKIEL LANDAU
    11. The Stream of Besor (April 1783), HAMEASEF
    12. We Shall Not Be Deterred (1787), HAMEASEF
    13. Preface to Volume One of Shulamith (1806), JOSEPH WOLF
    14. Call for Religious Enlightenment (1808), SULAMITH
    15. On the Need for a German Translation of Scripture (1782), MOSES MENDELSSOHN
    16. On the Curtailment of Jewish Juridical Autonomy (1782), MOSES MENDELSSOHN
    17. On Self-Development and the Abolishment of Jewish Autonomy (March 19, 1792), DAVID FRIEDLAENDER
    18. Search for Light and Right: An Epistle to Moses Mendelssohn (1782)
    19. Postscript to "Search for Light and Right" (1782), DAVID ERNST MOERSCHEL
    20. Judaism Is the Cornerstone of Christianity (1783), MOSES MENDELSSOHN
    21. Judaism as Revealed Legislation (1783), MOSES MENDELSSOHN
    22. A Time Will Come When No One Will Inquire Who Is a Jew or a Christian (1789), JOHANN GOTTFRIED VON HERDER
    23. Leviathan (1792), SAUL ASCHER
    24. Notes Regarding the Characteristics of the Jews (1793), LAZARUS BENDAVID
    25. The Euthanasia of Judaism (1798), IMMANUEL KANT
    26. Open Letter to His Reverence, Probst Teller (1799), DAVID FRIEDLAENDER
    1. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (August 26, 1789), The French National Assembly
    2. Debate on the Eligibility of Jews for Citizenship (December 23, 1789), The French National Assembly
    3. Decree Recognizing the Sephardim as Citizens (January 28, 1790), The French National Assembly
    4. The Constitution of France (September 3, 1791), The French National Assembly
    5. The Emancipation of the Jews of France (September 28, 1791), The French National Assembly
    6. Letter of a Citizen to His Fellow Jews (1791), BERR ISAAC BERR
    7. Debate on Jewish Emancipation (August 22-31, 1796), National Assembly of Batavia
    8. Emancipation of Dutch Jewry (September 9, 1796), National Assembly of Batavia
    9. First Emancipation in Rome (February 1799), The Roman Republic
    10. Tearing Down the Gates of the Venetian Ghetto (July 10, 1797), PIER GIAN MARIA DE FERRARI
    11. Imperial Decree Calling for an Assembly of Jewish Notables (May 30, 1806), NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, EMPEROR OF FRANCE, KING OF ITALY
    12. Instructions to the Assembly of Jewish Notables (July 29, 1806), COUNT MOLÉ
    13. Reply on Behalf of the Assembly to Count Molé (July 29, 1806), ABRAHAM FURTADO
    14. Answers to Napoleon (1806), The Assembly of Jewish Notables
    15. Summons Convening the Parisian Sanhedrin (September 18, 1806), COUNT MOLÉ
    16. Doctrinal Decisions (April 1807), The Parisian Sanhedrin
    17. Reaction to Napoleon (c. 1814), The Hasidim of Poland
    18. The "Infamous Decree" (1808), NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
    19. Emancipation in Prussia (March 11, 1812), FREDERICK WILLIAM III
    20. Article 16 of the Constitution of the German Confederation (June 8, 1815), The Congress of Vienna
    21. The Paulus-Riesser Debate (1831), HEINRICH PAULUS AND GABRIEL RIESSER
    22. Civil Disabilities of the Jews (1831), THOMAS MACAULAY
    23. Emancipation Act (1832), Assembly of Lower Canada
    24. The Law Concerning the Fundamental Rights of the German People: Religious Equality (1848), The Frankfurt National Parliament
    25. The Jewish Relief Act (July 23, 1858), The Houses of Parliament
    26. The North German Confederation and Jewish Emancipation (July 3, 1869), WILHELM I
    27. Emancipation of Bavaria (April 22, 1871), WILHELM I
    1. Constitution of the Hamburg Temple (December 11, 1817), The New Israelite Temple Association
    2. The Light of Splendor (1818), ELIEZER LIEBERMAN
    3. These Are the Words of the Covenant (1819), The Hamburg Rabbinical Court
    4. A Reply Concerning the Question of Reform (1819), HATAM SOFER
    5. The Sword Which Avenges the Covenant (1819), MEYER ISRAEL BRESSELAU
    6. Last Will and Testament (1839), HATAM SOFER
    7. Mendelssohn's Biur Is Heretical (1865), RABBI MOSES SCHICK
    8. The Question of Patriotism (June 1844), The Reform Rabbinical Conference at Brunswick
    9. Hebrew as the Language of Jewish Prayer (1845), The Reform Rabbinical Conference at Frankfurt
    10. The Question of Messianism (1845), The Reform Rabbinical Conference at Frankfurt
    11. This Is Our Task (1853), SAMUEL HOLDHEIM
    12. The Rationale of Reform (1844), AARON CHORIN
    13. Open Rebuke (1845), SALOMON JEHUDA LEIB RAPPOPORT
    14. On Changes in Judaism (1845), ZECHARIAS FRANKEL
    15. Religion Allied to Progress (1854), SAMSON RAPHAEL HIRSCH
    16. The Manifesto of Ultra-Orthodoxy (1865), The Rabbinical Decision of the Michalowce Assembly
    17. The Secession of the Orthodox (1877), SAMSON RAPHAEL HIRSCH
    1. A Society for the Preservation of the Jewish People (1819), JOEL ABRAHAM LIST
    2. Statutes (l822), The Society for the Culture and Science of the Jews
    3. A Society to Further Jewish Integration (1822), EDUARD GANS
    4. On the Concept of a Science of Judaism (1822), IMMANUEL WOLF
    5. On Rabbinic Literature (1818), LEOPOLD ZUNZ
    6. Scholarship and Emancipation (1832), LEOPOLOD ZUNZ
    7. The Future of Jewish Studies (1869), MORITZ STEINSCHNEIDER
    8. Jewish Scholarship and Religious Reform (1836), ABRAHAM GEIGER
    9. A Sermon on the Science of Judaism (1855), SAMSON RAPHAEL HIRSCH
    10. Learning Based on Faith (1860), SAMUEL DAVID LUZZATO
    11. Mekize Nirdamim (1861), ELIEZER LIPMAN SILBERMANN
    12. Jewish Scholarship: New Perspectives (1901), MARTIN BUBER
    13. Documenting Jewish History in Eastern Europe (Februaury 25, 1927), SIMON DUBNOW ET AL.
    14. What Is Jewish Ethnography? (1929), KHAYIM KHAYES AND NAFTULI VAYNIG
    15. Science of Judaism, Its Achievements and Prospects (1971), GERSHOM SCHOLEM
    2. An Apology for the Jewish Nation (1762), ISAAC DE PINTO
    3. Reply to de Pinto (c. 1762), FRANçOIS-MARIE AROUET (VOLTAIRE)
    4. A State Within a State (1793), JOHANN GOTTLIEB FICHTE
    5. On the Danger to the Well-Being and Character of the Germans Presented by the Jews (1816), JAKOB FRIEDRICH FRIES
    6. Our Visitors (1816), K. B. A. SESSA
    7. Aspects of the Jewish Situation Requiring Correction (1819), LEOPOLD ZUNZ
    8. The Jewish Mirror (1821), HARTWIG VON HUNDT-RADOWSKY
    9. The Damascus Affair (1840)
    10. Appeal to All Israelites (1860), Alliance Israélite Universelle
    11. Our First Thirty-Five Years (1895), The Alliance Israélite Universelle
    12. The Jewish Problem (1843), BRUNO BAUER
    13. On the Jewish Problem (1844), KARL MARX
    14. Jewry in Music (1850), RICHARD WAGNER
    15. The Victory of Judaism over Germandom (1879), WILHELM MARR
    16. The Question of the Jew Is a Question of Race (1881), KARL EUGEN DUEHRING
    17. Judaism: Race or Religion? (1883), ERNEST RENAN
    18. The Jews: Kings of the Epoch (1845), ALPHONSE TOUSSENEL
    19. The Jews: Oppressed or Oppressors? (1877), FYODOR DOSTOIEVSKY
    20. Jewish France (1886), EDOUARD-ADOLPHE DRUMONT
    21. What We Demand of Modern Jewry (1879), ADOLF STOECKER
    22. A Word About Our Jewry (1880), HEINRICH VON TREITSCHKE
    23. Another Word About Our Jewry (1880), THEODOR MOMMSEN
    24. Of the People of Israel (1882), FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE
    25. The Racists' Decalogue (1883), THEODOR FRITSCH
    26. J'accuse (1898), ÉMILE ZOLA
    27. The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899), HOUSTON STEWART CHAMBERLAIN
    28. The Rabbi's Speech: The Promise of World Domination (1872), ERMANN GOEDSCHE
    29. Protocols of the Elders of Zion (c. 1902)
    30. An Expert Opinion in Support of the Ritual Blood Accusation (1911), IVAN ALEXEYEVITCH SIKORSKY
    1. A People That Dwells Apart (1892), HAROLD FREDERIC
    2. Statutes Concerning the Organization of Jews ( December 9, 1804), ALEXANDER I
    3. Statutes Regarding the Military Service of the Jew (August 26, 1827), NICHOLAS I
    4. Delineation of the Pale of Settlement (April 1835), NICHOLAS I
    5. The May Laws (May 3, 1882), ALEXANDER III
    6. The Need for Enlightenment (1840), S. J. FUENN
    7. A Jewish Program for Russification (1841), Maskilim to the Governors of the Pale
    8. Awake My People! (1866), JUDAH LEIB GORDON
    9. For Whom Do I Toil? (1871), JUDAH LEIB GORDON
    10. The Tip of the Yud (1875), JUDAH LEIB GORDON
    11. The New Hasidim (1793), SOLOMON MAIMON
    12. Excommunication of the Hasidim (April 1772), The Rabbinical Leaders of Vilna
    13. How I Became a Hasid (c. 1850), BARUCH MORDECAI ETTINGER
    14. The Volozhin Yeshivah (1909), RABBI DAVID MOSES JOSEPH OF KRYNKI
    15. The Musar Yeshivah (c. 1910), HIRSCH LEIB GORDON
    16. The Modern Yeshivah of Lida (1907), ISAAC JACOB REINES
    17. Russian Must Be Our Mother Tongue (1861), OSIP ARONOWICH RABINOWICH
    18. Program (February 8, 1864), Society for the Promotion of Culture Among Jews
    19. Yiddish Is a Corrupt Jargon (1828), ISAAC DOV LEVINSOHN
    20. Hebrew-Our National Fortress (1868), PERETZ SMOLENSKIN
    21. My Soul Desired Yiddish (1862), MENDELE MOYKHER SFORIM
    22. European Culture Destroyed My Family (1909), PAULINE WENGEROFF
    23. The Jewish Question in Eastern Europe (1877), AARON LIEBERMANN
    24. The Plight of the Jews of Rumania (1878), Congress of Berlin
    25. Awaiting a Pogrom in Vilna (1882)
    26. The Massacre of Jews at Kishinev (June 1, 1903), N. TCHAYKOVSKY
    27. The City of Slaughter (1903), HAIM NAHMAN BIALIK
    28. The Beilis Trial (1913), The New York Times
    29. To America or the Land of Israel? (1881), JUDAH LEIB LEVIN
    30. On the Latest Wave of Emigration (1891), HAZFIRAH
    31. Appeal to the Jews in Russia (1891), BARON MAURICE DE HIRSCH
    32. Cultural Autonomy (1901), SIMON DUBNOW
    33. Decisions on the Nationality Question (1899, 1901, 1905, 1910), THE BUND
    34. The Helsingfors Program (1906), All-Russian Zionist Conference
    35. Czernowitz Conference of the Yiddish Language (1908)
    36. Women in the Bund and Poalei Zion (1937), MANYA SHOHAT
    37. Critical Remarks on the National Question (1913), V. I. LENIN
    38. The Jews Are Not a Nation (1913), JOSEPH STALIN
    39. Emancipation by the March Revolution (1917), The Provision Government
    40. The Liquidation of Bourgeois Jewish Institutions (1918), YEVSEKTSIYA
    41. Minorities Treaty (June 28, 1919), The Allies and the Republic of Poland
    42. Hungary Violates the Minorities Treaty (1921), LUCIEN WOLF
    43. The Position of Hungarian Jewry (c. February 1939), The Jewish Community of Budapest
    44. Appeal to the Jewish Workers and Toilers (1920), A Group of Jewish Soldiers of the Red Army
    45. Constitution of the Republic of Poland (1921)
    46. Why Did We Create the Minorities Bloc? (1922), YITZHAK GRUENBAUM
    47. Birobidzhan: A Jewish Autonomous Region (1928)
    48. We, Polish Jews . . ., JULIAN TUWIM
    1. A Call for Sephardi Enlightenment (1778), DAVID ATTIAS
    2. The Crémieux Decree (October 24, 1870)
    3. The Jews Under Italian Rule (circa 1906), MORDECHAI HA-KOHEN
    4. The Privileges and Immunities of the Non-Muslim Communities (1856), SULTAN 'ABÜMECID
    5. Petition for British Citizenship (November 18, 1918), The Jewish Community of Baghdad
    6. Travail in an Arab Land (1792), SAMUEL ROMANELLI
    7. A Critique of Popular Moroccan Jewish Culture (1891), YISHAQ BEN YA'IS HALEWI
    8. Letter to the Jewish Community of Marakech (1892), STELLA CORCOS
    9. Need for Alliance Schools in Algeria (1901), MOISE NAHON
    10. Traditional Schools in Constantinople: A Critique (1906), MOISE FRESCO
    11. General Instructions for Teachers (1903), Alliance Israélite Universelle
    12. Beginnings of Westernization and Reform in the Mellah: Fe (1913), AMRAM ELMALEH
    13. French Naturalization of Moroccan Jews (1923), Y. D. SEMACH
    14. French to Replace the Local "Jargon" Casablanca (1898), M. NAHON
    15. The Survival of Judeo-Spanish: Constantinople (1908), MOISE FRESCO
    16. The Multiplicity of Languages in an Alliance School in Constantinople (1913), A. BENVENISTE
    17. Response to Darwin, MORDECAI HA-KOHEN
    18. Sigmund Freud on Moses and His Torah (1939), ABRAHAM SHALOM YAHUDA
    19. A "Feminist" Look at the Women of Fez (1900), N. BENCHIMOL
    20. Responsum on Women's Suffrages, BEN-ZION UZZIEL
    21. A Jewish Egyptian Patriot Calls for Deemphasizing Religion in His Country's Public Life for the Sake of National Unity (1912), MURAD FARAJ
    22. A Baghdad Rabbi Decries the Decline of Traditional Morals (1913), SIMEON AGASI
    23. De-Judaization Among the Jews of Tunisia and the Steps Needed to Fight It (1929), L. LOUBATON
    24. The Koran and Other Scriptures (1893), YAAQUB (JAMES) SANU'
    25. The Third Redemption (1843), YEHUDA ALKALAI
    26. A Letter to Theodor Herzl (1897), Bar Kokhba Jewish Society, Cario
    27. A Call to Alexandrian Jewry to Celebrate the San Remo Recognition of the Balfour Declaration (1920), Zéire Zion Society, Alexandria
    28. Iraqi Zionists Complain About Their Lack of Representation in the Jewish Agency and of Ashkenazi Bias (1925), The Mesopotamian Zionist Commitie, Baghdad
    29. Disavowal of Zionism and Pledge of Loyalty to the Arab Cause (1929), Damascus Jewish Youth Association
    30. An Iraqi Jewish Notable Expresses His Reservations on Zionism (1922), MENAHEM S. DANIEL
    31. Events in the East and Their Repercussions on the Jewish Communities (1936), EZRA MENDA
    32. The Report of the Iraqi Commission of Inquiry on the Farhud (1941)
    33. Abrogation of the Crémieux Decree by the Vichy Regime (1940)
    34. A Vichy Offi cial Discusses a German Proposal to Require Jews to Wear the Yellow Star in Tunis (1943)
    35. A New Year's Sermon (1942), MOISE VENTURA
    36. The Iraqi Law Permitting Jews to Emigrate with the Forfeiture of Nationality (1950)
    1. Petition to Expel the Jews from New Amsterdam (September 22, 1654), PETER STUYVESANT
    2. Reply to Stuyvesant's Petition (April 26, 1655), Dutch West India Company
    3. Rights of the Jews of New Amsterdam (March 13, 1656), Dutch West India Company
    4. The Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776)
    5. The Virginia Act of 1785
    6. The Constitution of the United States of America (1789)
    7. Message of Welcome to George Washington (August 17, 1790), The Hebrew Congregation of Newport, Rhode Island
    8. A Reply to the Hebrew Congregation of Newport (c. August 17, 1790), GEORGE WASHINGTON
    9. An Observant Jewish Woman in America (1791), REBECCA SAMUEL
    10. A Country Where Religious Distinctions are Scarcely Known (1815), RACHEL MORDECAI LAZARUS
    11. Proclamation to the Jews (September 15, 1825), MORDECAI MANUEL NOAH
    12. American Is Not Palestine (March 29, 1841), REBECCA GRATZ
    13. Jewish Publication Society of America (1845), ISAAC LEESER
    14 Off to America! (May 6, 1848), L. KOMPERT
    15. The Confirmation of Girls (1854), ISSAC MEYER WISE
    16. Dedication of Hebrew Union College (1875), DAVID PHILIPSON
    17. The Pittsburgh Platform (1885), Conference of Reform Rabbis
    18. The Beginning of the Jewish Theological Seminary (1886), H. PEREIRA MENDES
    19. The Orthodox Jewish Congregational Union of America (June 8, 1898)
    20. The Concordance of Judaism and Americanism (1911), KAUFMANN KOHLER
    21. The Manhattan Beach Affair (1879), NEWYORK HERALD
    22. The Jews Make Me Creep (1896, 1901, 1914), HENRY ADAMS
    23. Leo Frank Lynched (August 1915), New York Times
    24. Jewish Immigration into the United States: 1881-1948
    25. The Russian Jew in America (July 1898), ABRAHAM CAHAN
    26. THE Bethlehem Judea Colony, South Dakota (1883), The Am Olam Movement
    27. Women Wage-Workers (September 1893), JULIA RICHMAN
    28. Sweatshops in Philadelphia (1905), CHARLES S. BERNHEIMER
    29. The Economic Condition of the Russian Jew in New York City (1905), ISAAC M. RUBINOW
    30. The International Ladies Garment Workers' Union and the American Labor Movement (1920), FORVERTS
    31. Zionism and the Jewish Women of America (1915), HENRIETTA SZOLD
    32. The Division Between German and Russian Jews (1915), ISRAEL FRIEDLAENDER
    33. The American Jewish committee (January 12, 1906), LOUIS MARSHALL
    34. The Galveston Project (October 25, 1907), JACOB H. SCHIFF
    35. American Judaism Will Not Be Ghettoized (1908), DAVID PHILIPSON
    36. Yiddish and the Future of American Jewry (1915), CHAIM ZHITLOWSKY
    37. English and Hebrew Must Be the Languages of American Jewry (1904), SOLOMON SCHECHTER
    38. A Republic of Nationalities (February 13, 1909), JUDAH L. MAGNES
    39. Zionism Is Consistent with American Patriotism (June 1915), LOUIS D. BRANDEIS
    40. Catholic Israel (c. 1896), SOLOMON SCHECHTER
    41. The Reconstruction of Judaism (1920), MORDECAI M. KAPLAN
    42. The Beginnings of Secular Jewish Schools (1918-1920)
    43. The American Yeshiva (1926), BERNARD REVEL
    44. A Statement of Policy (May 1915), The Anti-Defamation League
    45. Temporary Suspension of Immigration (1920), Congressional Committee on Immigration
    46. The International Jew: The World's Problem (1920), HENRY FORD
    47. A Protest Against Antisemitism (January 16, 1921)
    48. Social and Economic Change Reflected in Jewish School Enrollment (1936)
    49. The Columbus Platform (1937), Conference Of Reform Rabbis
    50. The American Jewish Conference (January 1943)
    51. A Statement of Policy (1944), American Council of Judaism
    52. An Exchange of Views (1950), DAVID BEN-GURION AND JACOB BLAUSTEIN
    1. Manifesto (1882), The Bilu
    2. Auto-Emancipation (1882), LEO PINSKER
    3. Hovevei Zion (1884), ZALMAN EPSTEIN
    4. Rishon Le-Zion (1882), JOSEPH FEINBERG
    5. The Revival of Hebrew, ELIEZER BEN YEHUDA
    6. A Solution of the Jewish Question (1896), THEODOR HERZL
    7. Protest Against Zionism (1897), PROTESTRABBINER
    8. The Basle Program (1897), The First Zionist Congress
    9. The First Zionist Congress (August 1897), AHAD HAAM
    10. The Zionists Are Not Our Saviors (c. 1900), RABBI ZADOK HACOHEN RABINOWITZ
    11. Women and Zionism (1901), THEODOR HERZL
    12. Manifesto (1902), The Mizrahi
    13. Zionism and Jewish Art (1903), MARTIN BUBER
    14. Jewry of Muscle (June 1903), MAX NORDAU
    15. The Uganda Plan (1903), THEODOR HERZL
    16. Anti-Uganda Resolution (July 30, 1905), Seventh Zionist Congress
    17. Resolution on Palestine (July 31, 1905), Seventh Zionist Congress
    18. The Jewish Territorial Organization (1905), ISRAEL ZANGWILL
    19. Program for Proletarian Zionism (1906), BER BOROCHOV
    20. Gegenwartsarbeit (December 1906), Helsingfors Conference
    21. Our Goal (May 1907), HAPOEL HAZAIR
    22. The Hidden Question (August 1907), YITZHAK EPSTEIN
    23. The Founding of Tel Aviv: A Garden City (1906/7), Housing Association Of Jaffa And Arthur Ruppin
    24. The Collective (1908), MANYA SHOHAT
    25. Founding Program (May 1912), AGUDAT ISRAEL
    26. The Language War of 1913 (June 2, 1913), High School Students in Eretz Yisrael
    27. The Hebrew Book (1913), HAIM NAHMAN BIALIK
    28. Contra Zionism (1919), NATHAN BIRNBAUM
    29. A Debate on Zionism and Messianism (Summer 1916), MARTIN BUBER AND HERMANN COHEN
    30. Our World-View (January 17, 1917), HASHOMER HAZAIR
    31. An Anti-Zionist Letter to the Times [London] (May 24, 1917), Conjoint Committee of British Jewry
    32. The Balfour Declaration (November 2, 1917), JAMES BALFOUR
    33. Zionist Manifesto Issued After the Balfour Declaration (December 21, 1917), World Zionist Organization-London Bureau
    34. Proposal to the General Assembly of the Workers of Eretz Israel (1919), AHDUT HAAVODAH
    35. The Churchill White Paper (June 1922), WINSTON CHURCHILL
    36. Mandate for Palestine (July 24, 1922), The Council of the League of Nations
    37. What the Zionist-Revisionists Want (1926), VLADIMIR JABOTINSKY
    38. Brith Shalom (1925), ARTHUR RUPPIN ET AL.
    39. Opening of Hebrew University (1925), CHAIM WEIZMAN
    40. Refl ections on Our Language, GERHARD SCHOLEM
    41. Kibbutz Hakhsharah: A Memoir (c. 1935), DAVID FRANKEL
    42. "The Worker's Wife": A Public Trial (February 7, 1937), ABBA HOUSHI AND ADA MAIMON
    43. On the Arab Question (January 7, 1937), DAVID BEN-GURION
    44. Jewish Needs vs. Arab Claims (February 14, 1937), VLADIMIR JABOTINSKY
    45. The Peel Commission Report (July 1937)
    46. White Paper of 1939 (May 1939), MALCOLM MACDONALD
    47. Statement on the MacDonald White paper of 1939 (May 17, 1939), The Jewish Agency For Palestine
    48. The Biltmore Program (May 1942)
    49. The Sermon (1942), HAIM HAZAZ
    50. The Case for a Bi-National Palestine (November 1945), HASHOMER HAZAIR
    51. Bi-Nationalism Is Unworkable (July 17, 1947), MOSHE SHERTOK
    52. Resolution on Palestine (November 29, 1947), United Nations General Assembly
    53. Proclamation of the State of Israel (May 14, 1948)
    54. Address to the Knesset on the Law of Return (July 3, 1950), DAVID BEN-GURION
    55. The Law of Return (July 5, 1950)
    1. A Letter on the Jewish Question (September 16, 1919), ADOLF HITLER
    2. Mein Kampf (1923), ADOLF HITLER
    3. Wear the Yellow Badge with Pride (April 4, 1933), ROBERT WELTSCH
    4. First Racial Definition (April 11, 1933)
    5. Decrees Excluding Jews from German Cultural and Public Life (1933 to 1942)
    6. Proclamation of the (New) Reichsvertretung (September 28, 1933), REICHSVERTRETUNG DER DEUTSCHEN JUDEN
    7. Why the Nuremberg Laws (September 15, 1935), ADOLF HITLER
    8. Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor, The Nuremberg Laws (September 15, 1935)
    9. The Reich Citizenship Law, The Nuremberg Laws (September 15, 1935)
    10. First Decree to the Reich Citizenship Law (November 14, 1935)
    11. Response of the Christian Population in Germany to the Nuremberg Laws (September 1935), A Public Opinion Survey
    12. German Economic Goals and the Jewish Question (August 1936), ADOLF HITLER
    13. Kristallnacht-A Preliminary Secret Report to H. W. Goering (November 1938), R. T. HEYDRICH
    14. The Operation Against the Jews (November 9-10, 1938), Security Service Report on the Kristallnacht
    15. Decree Regarding Atonement Fine of Jewish State Subjects (November 12, 1938), H. W. GOERING
    16. Public Response to the Kristallnacht (December 1938)
    17. Decree for the Elimination of the Jews from German Economic Life (November 12, 1938)
    18. Numerus Nullus in Schools (November 16, 1938)
    19. Ghetto Decreed for Berlin (December 5, 1938)
    20. A Prophecy of Jewry's Annihilation (January 30, 1939), ADOLF HITLER
    21. The Plight of the Refugees (June 1939), New York Times
    22. The Jewish Refugee Community of Shanghai (1941), YEHOSHUA RAPOPORT
    23. "We Must Finish with the Jews" (December 16, 1941), HANS FRANK
    24. Protocols Of The Wannsee Conference (January 20, 1942)
    25 The Nazi Response to Resistance (May 1942), JOSEPH GOEBBELS
    26. A Warsaw Ghetto Diary (March 10 and October 2, 1940), CHAIM A. KAPLAN
    27. Warsaw Ghetto Memoirs (May to August 1942), JANUSZ KORCZAK
    28. Call to Resistance (January 1943), Jewish Fighting Organization
    29. His Last Communication as Ghetto Revolt Commander (April 23, 1943), MORDECAI ANIELEWICZ
    30. Last Letter from Warsaw (March 1, 1944), EMANUEL RINGELBLUM
    31. The Jewish Residential Area in Warsaw Is No More (May 16, 1943), JUERGEN STROOP
    32. Going Underground in Holland, MAX M. ROTHSCILD
    33. Bermuda conference joint Communiqué (May 1, 1943)
    34. Where Is the World's Conscience? (June 1943), SHMUEL ZYGELBOYM
    35. A Secret Speech on the Jewish Question (October 8, 1943), HEINRICH HIMMLER
    36. Commandant of Auschwitz (c.1945), RUDOLF HOESS
    37. On the Deportation of Children from the Lodz Ghetto (September 4, 1942), MORDECAI CHAIM RUMKOWSKI
    38. Inside Auschwitz-A Memoir (c. 1970), FRANZI EPSTEIN
    39. Estimated number of Jews Killed by the Nazis
    40. Six Million Accusers (1961), GIDEON HAUSNER
    41. Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, Inc. (1950), HANNAH ARENDT
    1. My Emergence from Talmudic Darkness (1793), SOLOMON MAIMON
    2. Every Country Has the Jews that It Deserves (1877), KARL EMIL FRANZOS
    3. My Father's Bourgeois Judaism (1919), FRANZ KAFKA
    4. Memoirs of a Balkan Jew, ELIAS CANETTI
    6. Why I Have Raised You as a Christian: A Letter to His Daughter (c. July 1820), ABRAHAM MENDELSSOHN
    7. A Ticket of Admission to European Culture (1823, c. 1854), HEINRICH HEINE
    8. Because I Am a Jew I Love Freedom (1832), LUDWIG BOERNE
    9. O How Painful to Have Been Born a Jewess! (1795-1833), RAHEL LEVIN VARNHAGEN
    10. No Room in My Heart for Jewish Suffering (1916), ROSA LUXEMBURG
    11. How I Grew Up as a Jew in the Diaspora (1918), EDUARD BERNSTEIN
    12. The Non-Jewish Jew (1958), ISAAC DEUTSCHER
    13. Hear, O Israel! (1897), WALTER RATHENAU
    14. The Jew Must Free Himself from Jewishness (1903), OTTO WEININGER
    15. Jewish Self-Hatred (1930), THEODOR LESSING
    16. Returning Home (1862), MOSES HESS
    17. I Am a Child of Israel and a Feminist (1852), ERNESTINE LOUISE ROSE
    18. An Epistle to the Hebrews (1882), EMMA LAZARUS
    19. Jewishness Is an Inalienable Spiritual Sensibility (1913), GUSTAV LANDAUER
    20. The Donme (Donme) Affair: A Letter on Assimilation (1925), A Sabbatian from Salonica, Greece
    21. Address to the Society of Bnai Brith (May 6, 1926), SIGMUND FREUD
    22. A Valedictory Message to the Jewish People (1949), ARTHUR KOESTLER
    23. Jewish Learning and the Return to Judaism (1920), FRANZ ROSENZWEIG
    24. From Prague to Belz (1937), JERI LANGER
    25. The Jewish Woman (c. 1930), BERTA PANPENHEIM
    26. What I Would Do If I Became a Rabbi (1890), RAY (RACHEL) FRANK
    27. Why I Became a Rabbi (1938), REGINA JONAS
    28. Portrait of a Jew (1962), ALBERT MEMMI
    29. Reflections of a "Holocaust Jew" (1966), JEAN AMERY
    30. A Parable of Alienation (1946), DANIEL BELL
    31. Letter to an Intellectual: A Reply to Daniel Bell (1946), BEN HALPERN
    32. Why I Choose to Be a Jew (1959), ARTHUR A. COHEN
    33. A Kind of Survivor (1969), GEORGE STEINER
    34. The Meaning of Homeland (2006), A. B. YEHOSHUA
    35. A Convert's Affi rmations (2003), MARTHA C. NUSSBAUM
    36. The Jew Who Wasn't There: Halacha and the Jewish Woman (1971), RACHEL ADLER
    Appendix: The Demography of Modern Jewish History

    VI. Political and Racial Antisemitism

    VII. East European Jewry

    VIII. Sephardi and Middle Easter Jewry

    IX. American Jewry

    X. Zionism

    XI. The Shoah

    XII. Jewish Identity

    Appendix: The Demography of Modern Jewish History