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The Engineering of Chemical Reactions

Second Edition

Lanny D. Schmidt

Publication Date - August 2004

ISBN: 9780195169256

640 pages
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

The second edition of this popular book features new chapters, problems, and material throughout


Thoroughly revised and updated in this second edition, The Engineering of Chemical Reactions focuses explicitly on developing the skills necessary to design a chemical reactor for any application, including chemical production, materials processing, and environmental modeling. This edition also features two new chapters on biological and environmental reaction engineering that provide an exciting introduction to these increasingly important areas of today's chemical engineering market.

Streamlined to enhance the logical flow of the subject, The Engineering of Chemical Reactions, 2/e, is easy for instructors to navigate and students to follow. Using real reactions from chemical engineering, the first seven chapters cover such fundamentals as multiple reactions, energy management, and catalytic processes. The final five chapters explore more advanced topics including environmental, polymer, solids processing, biological, and combustion reactions. Practical, real-world examples throughout the text consider reactor and process choices in ways that encourage students to think creatively and build on previous knowledge.

The Engineering of Chemical Reactions, 2/e, is ideal for upper-level undergraduate courses in chemical reactor engineering, chemical reactor design, and kinetics.

About the Author(s)

Lanny D. Schmidt is Regents Professor in the Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department at the University of Minnesota and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. His research focuses on various aspects of the chemistry and engineering of chemical reactions in situations with technological applications. He is the author of more than 300 papers published in academic journals and the recipient of numerous industry awards.

Previous Publication Date(s)

January 1983

Table of Contents

    Each Chapter ends with Problems. Most chapters end with References.
    Preface to the Second Edition
    Preface to the First Edition
    1. Introduction
    1.1. Chemical Reactors
    1.2. Chemical Reaction Engineering
    1.3. What Do We Need To Know?
    1.4. Industrial Processes
    1.5. Modeling
    1.6. Sources
    2. Reaction Rates, The Batch Reactor, and The Real World
    2.1. Chemical Reactions
    2.2. Multiple Reactions
    2.3. Reaction Rates
    2.4. Approximate Reactions
    2.5. Rate Coefficients
    2.6. Elementary Reactions
    2.7. Stoichiometry
    2.8. Reaction Rates Near Equilibrium
    2.9. Reactor Mass Balances
    2.10. The Batch Reactor
    2.11. Variable Density
    2.12. Chemical Reactors
    2.13. Thermodynamics and Reactors
    2.14. Adiabatic Reactor Temperature
    2.15. Chemical Equilibrium
    2.16. Petroleum Refining
    2.17. Polyester from Refinery Products and Natural Gas
    2.18. "What Should I Do When I Don't Have Reaction Rates?"
    2.19. Reaction-Rate Data
    2.20. Summary
    3. Single Reactions in Continuous Isothermal Reactors
    3.1. Continuous Reactors
    3.2. The Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor
    3.3. Conversion in a Constant-Density CSTR
    3.4. The Plug-Flow Tubular Reactor
    3.5. Conversion in a Constant-Density PFTR
    3.6. Comparison Between Batch, CSTR, and PFTR
    3.7. The 1/r Plot
    3.8. Semibatch Reactors
    3.9. Variable-Density Reactors
    3.10. Space Velocity and Space Time
    3.11. Chemical Reactors in a Series
    3.12. Autocatalytic Reactions
    3.13. Reversible Reactions
    3.14. Transients in Continuous Reactions
    3.15. Some Important Single-Reaction Processes: Alkane Activation
    3.16. Synthesis Gas Reactions
    3.17. Staged Reactors
    3.18. The Major Chemical Companies
    3.19. Reactor Design for a Single Reaction
    3.20. Notation
    4. Multiple Reactions in Continuous Reactors
    4.1. Some Important Industrial Chemical Processes
    4.2. The Petrochemical Industry
    4.3. Olefins
    4.4. Mass Balances
    4.5. Conversion, Selectivity, and Yield
    4.6. Complex Reaction Networks
    4.7. Series Reactions
    4.8. Parallel Reactions
    4.9. Multiple Reactions with Variable Density
    4.10. Real Reaction Systems and Modeling
    4.11. Approximate Rate Expressions for Multiple-Reaction Systems
    4.12. Simplified Reactions
    4.13. Reaction Mechanisms
    4.14. Collision Theory of Bimolecular Reactions
    4.15. Activated Complex Theory
    4.16. Designing Reactors for Multiple Reactions
    5. Nonisothermal Reactors
    5.1. Heat Generation and Removal
    5.2. Energy Balance in a CSTR
    5.3. Energy Balance in a PFTR
    5.4. Equations to be Solved
    5.5. Heat Removal or Addition to Maintain a Reactor Isothermal
    5.6. Adiabatic Reactors
    5.7. Trajectories and Phase-Plane Plots
    5.8. Trajectories of Wall-Cooled Reactors
    5.9. Exothermic Versus Endothermic Reactions
    5.10. Other Tubular Reactor Configurations
    5.11. Temperature Profile in a Packed Bed
    6. Multiple Steady States and Transients
    6.1. Heat Generation and Removal in a CSTR
    6.2. Adiabatic CSTR
    6.3. Stability of Steady States in a CSTR
    6.4. Observation of Multiple Steady States
    6.5. Transients in the CSTR with Multiple Steady States
    6.6. Other Reactions in a CSTR
    6.7. Variable Coolant Temperature in a CSTR
    6.8. Designing Reactors for Energy Management
    7. Catalytic Reactors and Mass Transfer
    7.1. Catalytic Reactions
    7.2. Catalytic Reactors
    7.3. Surface and Enzyme Reaction Rates
    7.4. Porous Catalysts
    7.5. Transport and Reactions
    7.6. Mass Transfer Coefficients
    7.7. External Mass Transfer
    7.8. Pore Diffusion
    7.9. Temperature Dependence of Catalytic Reaction Rates
    7.10. The Automotive Catalytic Converter
    7.11. The Catalytic Wall Reactor
    7.12. Langmuir-Hinshelwood Kinetics
    7.13. Summary of Surface Reaction Kinetics
    7.14. Designing Catalytic Reactors
    7.15. Electrochemical Reactors
    7.16. Real Catalytic Reactors
    7.17. Bioreactors
    7.18. The Human Reactor
    8. Nonideal Chemical Reactions
    8.1. The "Complete" Equations
    8.2. Reactor Mass and Energy Balances
    8.3. Residence Time Distribution
    8.4. Laminar Flow Tubular Reactors
    8.5. Dispersion in Tubular Reactors
    8.6. Recycle Reactors
    8.7. CSTRs in Series
    8.8. Diagnosing Reactors
    8.9. Summary
    9. Reactions of Solids
    9.1. Reactions Involving Solids
    9.2. Chemical Vapor Deposition and Reactive Etching
    9.3. Solids Reactors
    9.4. Reaction Rates of Solids
    9.5. Films, Spheres, and Cylinders
    9.6. Macroscopic and Microscopic Solids
    9.7. Dissolving and Growing Films
    9.8. Dissolving and Growing Spheres
    9.9. Diffusion Through Solid Films
    9.10. Transformation of Spheres
    9.11. Mass Balances in Solid and Continuous Phases
    9.12. Electrical Analogy
    9.13. Summary
    10. Chain Reactions, Combustion Reactors, and Safety
    10.1. Chain Reactions
    10.2. Characteristics of Chain Reactions
    10.3. Autooxidation and Lab Safety
    10.4. Chemical Synthesis and Autooxidation
    10.5. Combustion
    10.6. Hydrogen Oxodation
    10.7. Chain Branching Reactions
    10.8. Alkane Oxidation
    10.9. Thermal Ignition
    10.10. Thermal and Chemical Autocatalysis
    10.11. Premixed Flames
    10.12. Diffusion Flames
    10.13. Energy Generation
    10.14. Combustion of Liquids and Solids
    10.15. Solid and Liquid Explosives
    10.16. Explosions and Detonations
    10.17. Reactor Safety
    10.18. Summary
    11. Polymerization Reactions and Reactors
    11.1. Ideal Addition Polymerization
    11.2. Polyolefins
    11.3. Free-Radical Polymerization
    11.4. Catalytic Polymerization
    11.5. Condensation Polymerization
    11.6. Fischer Tropsch Polymerization
    11.7. Polymerization Reactors
    11.8. Forming Polymers
    11.9. Integrated Polymer Processing
    11.10. Crystallization
    12. Biological Reaction Engineering
    12.1. Introduction
    12.2. Biological Molecules
    12.3. Cells
    12.4. Origins and Changes in Living Systems
    12.5. Bioenergy and Metabolic Pathways
    12.6. Measurements in Biological Systems
    12.7. Rates and Kinetics of Biological Processes
    12.8. Biochemical Engineering
    12.9. Chemically Synthesized Biological Molecules
    12.10. Economics of Bioprocesses
    12.11. Biological Reactors
    12.12. Summary
    13. Environmental Reaction Engineering
    13.1. Only Chemical Engineers Can Solve Environmental Problems
    13.2. Green Chemistry
    13.3. Renewable Chemical Resources
    13.4. Regulations
    13.5. Accidents
    13.6. Waste Treatment
    13.7. Modeling the Environment
    13.8. Ecological Modeling
    13.9. Summary
    14. Multiphase Reactors
    14.1. Types of Multiphase Reactors
    14.2. Mass Transfer Reactors
    14.3. Mass Balance Equations
    14.4. Interfacial Surface Area
    14.5. Mass Transfer Between Phases
    14.6. Multiphase Reactor Equations
    14.7. Equilibrium Between Phases
    14.8. Membrane Reactors
    14.9. Falling Film Reactor
    14.10. Bubble Column Reactors
    14.11. Falling Film Catalytic Wall Reactor
    14.12. Trickle Bed Reactor
    14.13. Multiphase Reactors with Catalysts
    14.14. Other Multiphase Reactors
    14.15. Analysis of Multiphase Reactors
    14.16. Reactor-Separation Integration
    14.17. Catalytic Distillation
    14.18. Chromatographic Reactors
    14.19. Iron Ore Refining
    14.20. The Petroleum Refinery
    14.21. Summary
    Appendix A: Integrating Differential Equations
    Appendix B: Notation
    Appendix C: Conversion Factors