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Cover

The Economics of Women, Men, and Work

Ninth Edition

Author Francine D. Blau and Anne E. Winkler

Publication Date - November 2021

ISBN: 9780197606148

600 pages
Paperback
8 x 10 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $97.95

The leading textbook in the field of gender economics, focusing on the study of women, men, and work in the labor market and the household

Description

The Economics of Women, Men, and Work, Ninth Edition, is the most current and comprehensive source available for research, data, and analysis on women, gender, and economics. Blau and Winkler are widely known for their research and contributions on the study of the economics of gender. The ninth edition includes fully updated data and research, and analyzes the consequences of recent developments in the labor market for men and women. These developments include the declining gender wage gap, rising wage inequality, and the growing divide in labor market and family outcomes by educational attainment.

New to this Edition

  • Highlights recent developments in the labor market and their consequences for women and men, including the increasingly divergent outcomes for individuals and families by level of educational attainment and the impact of the onset of the global pandemic and COVID-19 recession
  • Includes more content on labor market differences by race and ethnicity, with updated and expanded discussions of differential employment trends (Chapters 5 and 6), new content on discrimination against Blacks and Hispanics (Chapter 10), and a discussion of the disproportionate impact of the COVID crisis on Blacks and other disadvantaged minorities (Chapter 5)
  • Updated policy material on work and family in Chapter 16 includes the recent expansion of paid leave to federal workers and the extension of emergency paid leave provisions during the COVID-19 crisis and a discussion of the abrupt shift to home-based work by professional workers in the face of the COVID pandemic
  • Brings attention to the landmark 2020 Supreme Court decision the Court ruled that gay, lesbian, and transgender employees are protected from discrimination under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act; expands the discussion of research findings on the impact of sexual orientation and gender identity on labor market outcomes; adds a summary of research findings on employment discrimination against Blacks and Hispanics; and includes a new box on state-wide bans on employers being able to ask job candidates about their salary history and another on the adoption of Universal Basic Income as a measure to reduce economic inequality
  • A discussion of what has happened since the end of China's One-Child policy and new research on microfinance in the international chapters

Features

  • All data and tables have been updated, and discussions and references take into account the most recent research on each subject covered
  • Questions are provided at the end of each chapter to review major concepts and to stimulate further discussion among students and instructors

About the Author(s)

Francine D. Blau is Frances Perkins Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and Professor of Economics at Cornell University; and Research Associate of the NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research) and Research Fellow of IZA (the Institute for the Study of Labor).

Anne E. Winkler is Professor of Economics and Public Policy Administration at the University of Missouri-St. Louis (UMSL). She is also a Research Fellow at IZA (the Institute for the Study of Labor).

Table of Contents

    Preface
    Acknowledgements

    PART I: INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    1. Introduction

    What Economics Is About
    Uses of Economic Theory
    The Scope of Economics
    Individuals, Families, and Households
    A Further Note on Terminology
    Outline of the Book
    Questions for Review and Discussion | Key Terms
    APPENDIX 1A A Review of Supply and Demand in the Labor Market

    2. Women and Men: Historical Perspectives
    The Source of Gender Differences: Nature Versus Nurture-
    The Ongoing Debate
    Factors Influencing Women's Relative Status
    Women's Roles and Economic Development
    The US Experience
    Colonial America: The Preindustrial Period
    Period of Industrialization
    The Evolution of the Family and Women's Labor Force Participation
    Historical Evidence on Occupations and Earnings
    Economic Incentives: An Engine of Change for Women's Property Rights
    College-Educated Women Over the Last 100 Years: Work, Family, or Both?
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    PART II: THE ALLOCATION OF TIME BETWEEN THE HOUSEHOLD AND THE LABOR MARKET

    3. The Family as an Economic Unit: Theoretical Perspectives

    The Simple Neoclassical Model: Specialization and Exchange
    Comparative Advantage
    Specialization and Exchange: Numerical Examples
    Decreasing Gains to Specialization and Exchange and the
    Shift Away from the Traditional Family
    Disadvantages of Specialization
    Lack of Sharing of Housework
    Life Cycle Changes
    Costs of Interdependence
    Tastes and Bargaining Power
    Domestic Violence
    Advantages of Families beyond Specialization
    Economies of Scale
    Public Goods
    Externalities in Consumption
    Gains from Shared Consumption
    Marriage-Specific Investments
    Risk Pooling
    Institutional Advantages
    Transaction Cost and Bargaining Approaches
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Suggested Readings | Key Terms
    APPENDIX 3A Specialization and Exchange: A Graphical Analysis

    4. The Family as an Economic Unit: Evidence
    Time Spent in Nonmarket Work
    Time Spent in Housework
    Time Spent with Children
    Time Spent in Volunteer Work
    Estimating the Value of Nonmarket Production
    The September 11th Victim Compensation Fund of 2001: Just Compensation?
    The American Family in the Twenty-First Century
    The Status of Same-Sex Marriage in the United States: A 180 Degree Turn
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Internet-Based Data Exercise | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    5. The Labor Force: Definitions and Trends
    The Labor Force: Some Definitions
    Trends in Labor Force Participation
    Broad Labor Force Trends by Gender: 1890 to Present
    Labor Force Trends by Race/Ethnicity
    Labor Force Trends over the Life Cycle
    Trends in Labor Force Attachment of Women
    Trends in Hours Worked
    Trends in Gender Differences in Unemployment
    COVID-19, GENDER, RACE AND ETHNICITY: A Crisis Which Laid Bare and Exacerbated Long-Standing Inequalities (But May Open the Door for Future Policy Action)
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Internet-Based Data Exercise | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    6. The Labor Supply Decision
    The Labor Supply Decision
    The Budget Constraint
    Indifference Curves
    The Labor Force Participation Decision
    The Value of Nonmarket Time (w*)
    The Value of Market Time (w)
    The Hours Decision
    Empirical Evidence on the Responsiveness of Labor Supply to Wages and Income
    Labor Supply Elasticities
    Economic Conditions
    Some Applications of the Theory: Taxes, Childcare Costs, and Labor Supply
    Taxes and the Decision to Work
    Government Subsidies of Childcare and Women's Labor Force Participation
    Other Factors Affecting Childcare Costs and Women's Labor Force Participation
    Analyzing the Long-Term Growth in Women's Labor Force Participation
    Factors Influencing the Value of Market Time (w)
    Factors Influencing the Value of Nonmarket Time (w*)
    The World War II Experience: Women's Surge in Labor Force Participation
    Recent Trends in Women's Labor Force Participation: Has the Engine of Growth Stalled?
    Analyzing Trends in Men's Labor Force Participation
    Black and White Participation Differentials: Serious Employment Problems for Black Men
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Suggested Readings | Key Terms
    APPENDIX 6A The Income and Substitution Effects: A Closer Look

    PART III: LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES: THEORY, EVIDENCE, AND POLICY

    7. Evidence on Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes
    Gender Differences in Occupations
    Overview of Gender Differences in Occupations
    Measuring Occupational Segregation
    Hierarchies within Occupations
    Evaluating the Extent of Occupational Segregation
    Trends in Occupational Segregation by Sex
    Women in the Military: No Positions Are Off Limits as of 2016
    The Gender Pay Ratio
    The Gender Pay Gap in the News
    Gender Differences in Union Membership
    Gender Differences in Self-Employment
    Gender Differences in Nonstandard Work
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Internet-Based Data Exercise | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    8. Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: Theory and Evidence
    Supply and Demand Explanations: An Overview
    What Is Human Capital?
    Gender Differences in Levels of Educational Attainment
    Gender Differences in High School Coursework and College Field of Study
    Why are Women Underrepresented in Economics?
    The Educational Investment Decision
    Calculating the Net Present Value of a Human Capital Investment
    The Rising College Wage or Earnings Premium
    Education and Productivity
    Gender Differences in Educational Investment Decisions:
    The Human Capital Explanation
    Where Are the Women Economics Majors?
    Gender Differences in Educational Investment Decisions:
    Social Influences and Anticipation of Discrimination
    Historical Background: Overt Discrimination by Educational Institutions
    Socialization
    Biased Evaluations
    Subtle Barriers: Role Models, Mentoring, and Networking
    The Impact of Title IX-Sports, Academics, Sexual Harassment, and Sexual Violence
    Explaining Women's Rising Educational Attainment
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Internet-Based Data Exercise | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    9. Other Supply-Side Sources of Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes
    On-the-Job Training and Labor Market Experience
    Gender Differences in Labor Market Experience
    The On-the-Job Training Investment Decision
    General Training
    Firm-Specific Training
    Why Do Firms Pay Tuition Benefits?
    Experience and Productivity
    Gender Differences in Training Investment Decisions
    Expected Work Life
    Discrimination
    Occupations and Earnings
    Temporal Flexibility and the Gender Wage Gap
    Family-Related Earnings Gaps
    Traditional Gender Roles and Gender Wage Gaps
    Wage Penalties and Premiums Associated with Marriage and Parenthood
    Gender Differences in Psychological Attributes (“Soft Skills”)
    Attitudes toward Negotiating
    Attitudes toward Competition
    Attitudes toward Risk
    Gender Differences in the “Big Five” Personality Traits
    A Closer Look at Gender Differences in Math Test Scores
    Women, Math, and Stereotype Threat
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    10. Explaining Gender Differences in Earnings and Occupations: Supply-Side Factors versus Labor Market Discrimination
    Labor Market Discrimination: A Definition
    Analyzing the Sources of Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes
    Empirical Evidence on the Sources of Gender Differences in Earnings
    Evidence from Statistical Analyses: Labor Market-wide Evidence
    Biases in the Unexplained Gap as an Estimate of Discrimination
    Evidence on Possible Sources of the Unexplained Gender Wage Gap
    The Effect of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity on Labor Market Outcomes
    Further Evidence from Statistical Analyses: A Look at Subgroups of College Graduates, Lawyers, and MBAs
    Evidence on Discrimination from Experiments
    Evidence on Discrimination from Court Cases
    Evidence on Discrimination: An Assessment
    Discrimination Against Blacks and Hispanics
    The Declining Gender Pay Gap
    The Context: Widening Wage Inequality
    Determinants of Trends in the Gender Wage Gap
    The Minimum Wage: What Is It?
    Explaining the Decline in the Gender Wage Gap
    Minorities Fared Less Well in Narrowing the Wage Gap with Whites
    Empirical Evidence on the Causes and Consequences of Gender Differences in Occupations
    Consequences of Occupational Segregation
    Causes of Occupational Segregation
    Is There a Glass Ceiling?
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Suggested Readings | Key Terms
    APPENDIX 10A Regression Analysis and Empirical Estimates of Labor Market Discrimination

    11. Labor Market Discrimination: Theory
    Theories of Labor Market Discrimination: An Overview
    Tastes for Discrimination
    Employer Discrimination
    Employee Discrimination
    Customer Discrimination
    Subtle Barriers
    Statistical Discrimination
    Perceptions of Average Gender Differences Can Result in a Pay Gap
    Statistical Discrimination and Feedback Effects
    Empirical Evidence on Gender Differences in Quitting
    The Overcrowding Model
    Institutional Models
    The Internal Labor Market
    Primary and Secondary Jobs
    Feedback Effects
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    12. Government Policies to Combat Employment Discrimination
    Rationales for Government Intervention
    Equal Employment Opportunity Laws and Regulations
    Equal Pay Act
    Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
    Executive Order 11246 and Affirmative Action
    Major Court Decisions and Legislation That Have Shaped the Equal Employment Laws and Regulations
    Employer Questions about Salary History are Now Banned in Many States and Localities
    Effectiveness of the Government's Antidiscrimination Effort
    Affirmative Action
    Quotas for Women in the Boardroom
    Comparable Worth 340
    Job Evaluation
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    PART IV: THE ECONOMICS OF THE FAMILY: THEORY, EVIDENCE, AND POLICY

    13. Changing Work Roles and Family Formation

    Economic Explanations for Family Formation
    The Role of Gains to Specialization in Production
    Declining Gains from Specialization in Production
    Other Benefits from Marriage Remain and Some May Be Increasing
    Marriage
    Marriage Patterns by Educational Attainment
    Divorce
    Cohabitation: Opposite-Sex Couples
    Cohabitation and Marriage: Same-Sex Couples
    Fertility
    Trends in Fertility Rates: World War II to Present
    Timing of Fertility by Educational Attainment
    Births to Unmarried Mothers
    Teen Births
    Births to Older Mothers
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Internet-Based Data Exercise | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    14. The Changing American Family and Implications for Family Well-Being
    Changing Family Structure
    Dual-Earner Married-Couple Families
    Single-Parent Families
    Poverty: Incidence and Measurement
    Implications for Children's Well-Being
    Maternal Employment, Childcare, and Children's Outcomes
    Family Economic Disadvantage and Children's Outcomes 393
    Family Structure and Children's Outcomes
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Internet-Based Data Exercise | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    15. Government Policies Affecting Family Well-Being
    Policies to Alleviate Poverty
    Aid to Families with Dependent Children: The Former US Welfare Program
    Temporary Assistance to Needy Families: The Current US Welfare Program
    The Earned Income Tax Credit
    Employment Strategies
    Universal Basic Income (UBI): A Policy Whose Time has Come?
    Child Support Enforcement
    Taxes, Specialization, and Marriage
    Federal Income Tax
    Social Security
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    16. Balancing the Competing Demands of Work and Family
    The Competing Demands of Work and Family
    Work-Family Challenges Faced by Low-Wage Workers with Families
    Work-Family Challenges for Highly Educated Professional Women
    In the Media: Prominent Women Debate Whether Highly Educated Women Can “Have It All”
    Particular Challenges for Women in Balancing Work and Family
    Rationales for Government and Employer Policies to Assist Workers
    Rationales for Government Policies
    Rationales for Employer Policies
    Family Leave
    Government Leave Policies at the Federal Level
    Paid Leave: Action on Leave Policies at the State Level
    Childcare
    Other Family-Friendly Policies
    Alternative Work Schedules
    Flexible Benefits
    Policies to Assist Couples
    How to Handle a Job Interview
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    PART V: THE ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE WORLD'S WOMEN

    17. Gender Differences Around the World
    Indicators of Women's Economic Status
    The International Context
    Labor Force Participation
    Time Spent in Unpaid Work
    Educational Attainment
    The Benefits of Educating Women
    Middle East and North Africa: Low Female Labor Force Participation Rates Despite Rising Educational Attainment
    Cross-National Trends in Fertility Rates
    Variations in Sex Ratios at Birth
    China's One-Child Policy: A Case Study of the Unintended Consequences of a Seemingly Neutral Fertility Policy
    Women's Political and Legal Empowerment
    Multidimensional Measures of Women's Status
    Economic Development, Globalization, and Women's Status
    Microcredit for Women: Lifeline or Mirage?
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    18. A Comparison of the United States to Other Economically Advanced Countries
    International Differences in Policies and Institutions
    Labor Market Policies to Combat Gender Discrimination
    Wage-Setting Institutions
    Family-Friendly Policies
    Tax Policies
    US Women's Labor Force Participation in an International Context
    The US Gender Wage Ratio in an International Context
    Comparable Worth in Australia
    Understanding Low Fertility in Economically Advanced Countries
    Conclusion | Questions for Review and Discussion | Suggested Readings | Key Terms

    Author Index
    Subject Index