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The Economics of Women, Men, and Work

Eighth edition

Francine D. Blau and Anne E. Winkler

Publication Date - July 2017

ISBN: 9780190620851

560 pages
Paperback
8 x 10 inches

Retail Price to Students: $82.95

The leading textbook in the field of gender economics, focusing on the study of women, men, and work in the labor market and the household

Description

The Economics of Women, Men, and Work, Eighth Edition, is the most current and comprehensive source available for research, data, and analysis on women, gender, and economics. Blau and Winkler are widely known for their research and contributions on the study of the economics of gender. The eighth edition includes fully updated data and research, and analyzes the consequences of recent developments in the labor market for men and women. These developments include the declining gender wage gap, rising wage inequality, and the growing divide in labor market and family outcomes by educational attainment.

New to this Edition

  • New evidence on the decline of the gender wage gap, the sources of the remaining gap, and trends in the gap for those at the top, middle, and bottom of the wage distribution
  • New sections on "hot topics" in the news, including the fall of gender barriers in the military; nationwide minimum-wage campaigns; Title IX and sexual harassment and sexual violence in schools; the expansion of paid leave in some states; and the end of China's one-child policy
  • Updated content on the legalization of same-sex marriage throughout the United States and a review of the legal status of employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  • A discussion of important demographic trends, including the rising age at first marriage, the decline in teen birth rates, and the leveling off in the proportion of births to unmarried women
  • Substantially revised and updated coverage of women's economic status around the world, including a new standalone chapter on women's status in the United States compared to other economically advanced countries
  • Expanded web-based data exercises for students

About the Author(s)

Francine D. Blau is Frances Perkins Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and Professor of Economics at Cornell University; and Research Associate of the NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research) and Research Fellow of IZA (the Institute for the Study of Labor). She is a fellow of the Society of Labor Economists, the American Academy of Political and Social Science, and the Labor and Employment Relations Association; and has served as president of the Society of Labor Economists and of the Labor and Employment Relations Association, and vice president of the American Economic Association. Professor Blau has written extensively on gender issues, wage inequality, immigration, and international comparisons of labor market outcomes. In addition to refereed journal articles, she is author of Equal Pay in the Office and Gender, Inequality, and Wages, and, with Lawrence Kahn, At Home and Abroad: U.S. Labor Market Performance in International Perspective.

Anne E. Winkler is Professor of Economics and Public Policy Administration at the University of Missouri-St. Louis (UMSL). She is also a Research Fellow at IZA (the Institute for the Study of Labor). She serves on the Editorial Boards of Social Science Quarterly and Journal of Labor Research. Her work has appeared in economics and broader social science journals including Journal of Human Resources, Research in Labor Economics, Monthly Labor Review, Demography, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Journal of Urban Economics, Management Science, and IZA World of Labor.

Previous Publication Date(s)

September 2016
July 2013
August 2009

Reviews

"I really love this book. I love the presentation, which is sophisticated yet accessible to students who have had no economics experience. Economics majors love the applications and are often surprised at what they learn. The text has been strengthened and solidified over time. I am so impressed that the updates have been comprehensive, the data is not stale, and references to new research have been incorporated seamlessly. Love it. I'm starting to sound like a groupie." --Kathryn Nantz, Fairfield University

"This is a readable, engaging book written by scholars deeply involved in research and teaching. The authors are able to explain complex economic concepts, theories, and empirical findings in language that even non-economics students can understand. Its coverage is comprehensive and interdisciplinary." --Brenda Wyss, Wheaton College

Table of Contents

    Preface
    Acknowledgments


    Part I. Introduction and Historical Perspectives

    Chapter 1. Introduction
    What Economics Is About
    Uses of Economic Theory
    The Scope of Economics
    Individuals, Families, and Households
    A Further Note on Terminology
    Outline of the Book
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Appendix 1A: A Review of Supply and Demand in the Labor Market

    Chapter 2. Women and Men: Historical Perspectives
    The Source of Gender Differences: Nature versus Nurture-The Ongoing Debate
    Factors Influencing Women's Relative Status
    Women's Roles and Economic Development
    The U.S. Experience
    BOX: Economic Incentives: An Engine of Change for Women's Property Rights
    Historical Evidence on Occupations and Earnings
    BOX: College Educated Women Over the Last 100 Years: Work, Family or Both?
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms


    Part II. The Allocation of Time between the Household and the Labor Market

    Chapter 3. The Family as an Economic Unit: Theoretical Perspectives
    The Simple Neoclassical Model: Specialization and Exchange
    Comparative Advantage
    Specialization and Exchange: Numerical Examples
    Decreasing Gains to Specialization and Exchange and the Shift Away from the Traditional Family
    Disadvantages of Specialization
    Lack of Sharing of Housework
    Life Cycle Changes
    Costs of Interdependence
    Tastes and Bargaining Power
    Domestic Violence
    Advantages of Families beyond Specialization
    Economies of Scale
    Public Goods
    Externalities in Consumption
    Gains from Shared Consumption
    Marriage-Specific Investments
    Risk Pooling
    Institutional Advantages
    Transaction Cost and Bargaining Approaches
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms
    Appendix 3A: Specialization and Exchange: A Graphical Analysis

    Chapter 4. The Family as an Economic Unit: Evidence
    Time Spent in Nonmarket Work
    Time Spent in Housework
    Time Spent with Children
    Time Spent in Volunteer Work
    Estimating the Value of Nonmarket Production
    BOX: The September 11th Victim Compensation Fund of 2001: Just Compensation?The American Family in the Twenty-First Century
    BOX: The State of Unions in the United States
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Internet-Based Data Exercise
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms

    Chapter 5. The Labor Force: Definitions and Trends
    The Labor Force: Some Definitions
    Trends in Labor Force Participation
    Broad Labor Force Trends by Gender: 1890 to Present
    Labor Force Trends by Race/Ethnicity
    Labor Force Trends over the Life Cycle
    Trends in Labor Force Attachment of Women
    Trends in Hours Worked
    Trends in Gender Differences in Unemployment
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Internet-Based Data Exercise
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms

    Chapter 6. The Labor Supply Decision
    The Labor Supply Decision
    The Budget Constraint
    Indifference Curves
    The Labor Force Participation Decision
    The Value of Nonmarket Time
    The Value of Market Time
    The Hours Decision
    Empirical Evidence on the Responsiveness of Labor Supply to Wages and Income
    BOX: Labor Supply Elasticities
    Economic Conditions
    Some Applications of the Theory: Taxes, Child Care Costs, and Labor Supply
    Taxes and the Decision to Work
    Government Subsidies of Child Care and Women's Labor Force Participation
    Other Factors Affecting Child Care Costs and Women's Labor Force Participation
    Analyzing the Long-Term Growth in Women's Labor Force Participation
    Factors Influencing the Value of Market Time
    Factors Influencing the Value of Nonmarket Time
    BOX: The World II Experience: Women's Surge in Labor Force Participation
    Recent Trends in Women's Labor Force Participation: Has the Engine of Growth Stalled?
    Analyzing Trends in Men's Labor Force Participation
    Black and White Participation Differentials: Serious Employment Problems for Black Men
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms
    Appendix 6A: The Income and Substitution Effects: A Closer Look


    Part III. Labor Market Outcomes: Theory, Evidence, and Policy

    Chapter 7. Evidence on Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes
    Gender Differences in Occupations
    Overview of Gender Differences in Occupations
    Measuring Occupational Segregation
    Hierarchies within Occupations
    Evaluating the Extent of Occupational Segregation
    Trends in Occupational Segregation by Sex
    BOX: Women in the Military: No Positions Are Off Limits as of 2016
    The Gender Pay Ratio
    BOX: The Gender Pay Gap in the News
    Gender Differences in Union Membership
    Gender Differences in Self-Employment
    Gender Differences in Nonstandard Work
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Internet-Based Data Exercise
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms

    Chapter 8. Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: Theory and Evidence
    Supply and Demand Explanations: An Overview
    What Is Human Capital?
    Gender Differences in Levels of Educational Attainment
    Gender Differences in High School Coursework and College Field of Study
    The Educational Investment Decision
    BOX: Calculating the Net Present Value of a Human Capital Investment
    The Rising College Wage or Earnings Premium
    Education and Productivity
    Gender Differences in Educational Investment Decisions: The Human Capital Explanation
    BOX: Where are the Women Economics Majors?
    Gender Differences in Educational Investment Decisions: Social Influences and Anticipation of Discrimination
    Socialization
    Biased Evaluations
    Subtle Barriers: Role Models, Mentoring, and Networking
    The Impact of Title IX-Sports, Academics,Sexual Harassment, and Sexual Violence
    Explaining Women's Rising Educational Attainment
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Internet-Based Data Exercise
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms

    Chapter 9. Other Supply-Side Sources of Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes: On-the-Job Training, Family Gaps, Psychological Attributes, and Math Test Scores
    On-the-Job Training and Labor Market Experience
    Gender Differences in Labor Market Experience
    The On-the-Job Training Investment Decision
    General Training
    Firm-Specific Training
    Why Do Firms Pay Tuition Benefits?
    Experience and Productivity
    Gender Differences in Training Investment Decisions
    Expected Work Life
    Discrimination
    Occupations and Earnings
    Temporal Flexibility and the Gender Wage Gap
    Family-Related Earnings Gaps
    Traditional Gender Roles and Gender Wage Gaps
    Wage Penalties and Premiums Associated with Marriage and Parenthood
    Gender Differences in Psychological Attributes
    Attitudes toward Negotiating
    Attitudes toward Competition
    Attitudes toward Risk
    Gender Differences in the "Big Five" Personality Traits
    A Closer Look at Gender Differences in Math Test Scores
    BOX: Women, Men and Stereotype Threat
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms

    Chapter 10. Evidence on the Sources of Gender Differences in Earnings and Occupations: Supply-Side Factors versus Labor Market Discrimination
    Labor Market Discrimination: A Definition
    Analyzing the Sources of Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes
    Empirical Evidence on the Sources of Gender Differences in Earnings
    Evidence from Statistical Analyses: Labor Market-wide Evidence
    Biases in the Estimate of Discrimination
    Evidence on Possible Sources of the Unexplained Gender Wage Gap
    BOX: The Effect of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity on Earnings
    Further Evidence from Statistical Analyses: A Look at Subgroups of College Graduates, Lawyers, and MBAs
    Evidence on Discrimination from Experiments
    Evidence on Discrimination from Court Cases
    Evidence on Discrimination: An Assessment
    The Declining Gender Pay Gap
    The Context: Widening Wage Inequality
    BOX: The Minimum Wage: What is It?
    Determinants of Trends in the Gender Wage Gap
    Explaining the Decline in the Gender Wage Gap
    Minorities Fared Less Well in Narrowing the Wage Gap with Whites
    Empirical Evidence on the Causes and Consequences of Gender Differences in Occupations
    Consequences of Occupational Segregation
    Causes of Occupational Segregation
    Is There a Glass Ceiling?
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms
    Appendix 10A: Regression Analysis and Empirical Estimates of Labor Market Discrimination

    Chapter 11. Labor Market Discrimination: Theory
    Theories of Labor Market Discrimination: An Overview
    Tastes for Discrimination
    Employer Discrimination
    Employee Discrimination
    Customer Discrimination
    Subtle Barriers
    Statistical Discrimination
    Perceptions of Average Gender Differences Can Result in a Pay Gap
    Statistical Discrimination and Feedback Effects
    Empirical Evidence on Gender Differences in Quitting
    The Overcrowding Model
    Institutional Models
    The Internal Labor Market
    Primary and Secondary Jobs
    Feedback Effects
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms

    Chapter 12. Government Policies to Combat Employment Discrimination
    Rationales for Government Intervention
    Equal Employment Opportunity Laws and Regulations
    Equal Pay Act
    Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
    Executive Order 11246 and Affirmative Action
    Major Court Decisions and Legislation That Have Shaped the Equal Employment Laws and Regulations
    Effectiveness of the Government's Antidiscrimination Effort
    Affirmative Action
    BOX: Quotas for Women in the Boardroom
    Comparable Worth
    BOX: Job Evaluation
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms


    Part IV The Economics of the Family: Theory, Evidence, and Policy

    Chapter 13. Changing Work Roles and Family Formation
    Economic Explanations for Family Formation
    The Role of Gains to Specialization in Production
    Declining Gains from Specialization in Production
    Other Benefits from Marriage Remain and Some May Be Increasing
    Marriage
    Marriage Patterns by Educational Attainment
    Conclusion
    Divorce
    Cohabitation: Opposite-Sex Couples
    Cohabitation and Marriage: Same-Sex Couples
    Fertility
    Trends in Fertility Rates: World War II to Present
    Timing of Fertility by Educational Attainment
    Births to Unmarried Mothers
    Teen Births
    Births to Older Mothers
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Internet-Based Data Exercise
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms

    Chapter 14. The Changing American Family and Implications for Family Well-Being
    Changing Family Structure
    Dual-Earner Families
    Single-Parent Families
    Poverty: Incidence and Measurement
    Implications for Children's Well-Being
    Maternal Employment, Child Care, and Children's Outcomes
    Family Economic Disadvantage and Children's Outcomes
    Family Structure and Children's Outcomes
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Internet-Based Data Exercise
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms

    Chapter 15. Government Policies Affecting Family Well-Being
    Policies to Alleviate Poverty
    Aid to Families with Dependent Children: The Former U.S. Welfare Program
    Temporary Assistance to Needy Families: The Current U.S. Welfare Program
    The Earned Income Tax Credit
    Employment Strategies
    Child Support Enforcement
    BOX: Beyond Traditional Income and Work Support Policies: Marriage Promotion
    Taxes, Specialization, and Marriage
    Federal Income Tax
    Social Security
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms

    Chapter 16. Balancing the Competing Demands of Work and Family
    The Competing Demands of Work and Family
    Work-Family Challenges Faced by Low-Wage Workers with Families
    Work-Family Challenges for Highly-Educated Professional Women
    BOX: In the Media: Prominent Women Debate Whether Highly-Educated
    Women Can "Have it All"
    Particular Challenges for Women Balancing Work and Family
    Rationales for Government and Employer Policies to Assist Workers
    Rationales for Government Policies
    Rationales for Employer Policies
    Government and Employer Family-Friendly Policies
    Government Leave Policies at the Federal Level
    Paid Leave: Action on Leave Policies at the State Level
    Child Care
    Other Family-Friendly Policies
    Alternative Work Schedules
    Flexible Benefits
    Policies to Assist Couples
    BOX: How to Handle a Job Interview
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms


    Part V. The Economic Status of the World's Women

    Chapter 17. Gender Differences Around the World
    Indicators of Women's Economic Status
    The International Context
    Labor Force Participation
    Time Spent in Unpaid Work
    Educational Attainment
    BOX: Middle East and North Africa: Low Female Labor Force Participation Despite Rising Educational Attainment
    The Benefits of Educating Girls
    Cross-National Trends in Fertility Rates
    Variations in Sex-Ratios at Birth
    BOX: China's One-Child Policy: A Case Study of the Unintended Consequences of a Seemingly Neutral Fertility Policy
    Women's Political and Legal Empowerment
    Multidimensional Measures of Women's Status
    Economic Development, Globalization, and Women's Status
    BOX: Microfinance: Mirage or Lifeline?
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms

    Chapter 18. A Comparison of the United States to Other Economically Advanced Countries
    An Overview of International Differences in Policies and Institutions
    Labor Market Policies to Combat Gender Discrimination
    Wage-Setting Policies
    Family-Friendly Policies
    Tax Policies
    U.S. Women's Labor Force Participation in an International Context
    The U.S. Gender Wage Ratio in an International Context
    BOX: Comparable Worth in Australia
    Understanding Low Fertility in Economically Advanced Countries
    Conclusion
    Questions for Review and Discussion
    Suggested Readings
    Key Terms

    Author Index
    Subject Index