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Cover

The Complete Musician

An Integrated Approach to Theory, Analysis, and Listening

Fifth Edition

Author Steven G. Laitz and Michael R. Callahan

Publication Date - March 2022

ISBN: 9780197526651

960 pages
Paperback

Retail Price to Students: $124.95

A new generation of the most engaging, integrated, and musical program for learning theory

Description

The Writing and Analysis workbook to accompany The Complete Musician features over 2,000 flexible written exercises, including figured bass, melody harmonization, model composition, analysis, and more. The workbook includes more than enough examples for the entire theory sequence.

New to this Edition

  • The workbook features more exercises that students can play at the keyboard, even with limited piano skills.
  • New online Warm Ups-included with every new copy of the Complete Musician-offer students the opportunity to practice the skills used in each workbook activity before they put pencil to paper.

Features

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About the Author(s)

Steven G. Laitz is chair of the Music Theory and Analysis department at The Julliard School.

Michael R. Callahan is Associate Professor of Music Theory and Chair of the Music Theory Area in the College of Music at Michigan State University.

Table of Contents

    DETAILED CONTENTS

    PREFACE


    PART 1: FOUNDATIONS

    CHAPTER 1A Musical Space: Pitches, Scales, and Keys
    Overview
    What Is Tonality?
    What Is Pitch?
    How Can We Notate Pitch?
    Ledger Lines and Ottavas
    Pitch Class and Register
    Music Theory in the Practice Room: Pitches and Octave Designations at the Keyboard
    What Are Half Steps and Whole Steps?
    What Are Accidentals?
    What Are Enharmonic Equivalents?
    So, Does Spelling Matter?
    Music Theory in the Practice Room: Enharmonic Equivalents
    How Do We Build Scales?
    Chromatic vs. Diatonic Scales
    Building Major Scales
    What Are Key Signatures, and How Does the Circle of Fifths Help?
    The Circle of Fifths
    Building Minor Scales
    Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor, and Melodic Minor Scales
    Three Forms of Minor Scales, but Only One Minor Key
    Parallel Major and Minor Keys
    Music Theory in the Practice Room: Major and Minor Scales
    How to Transpose a Tonal Melody Using Scale Degrees
    Returning to Where We Began: Scale-Degree Tendencies
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 1B Musical Time: Meter and Rhythm

    Overview
    Making Meters
    Classifying Meters
    Notating Rhythms: Notes and Rests
    Dots and Ties
    Notating Meters: Time Signatures
    Time Signatures for Simple Meters
    Time Signatures for Compound Meters
    Making Sure Meter and Rhythm Correspond: Beaming
    Asymmetrical Meters
    Triplets and Other "Tuplets"
    Clarifying and Challenging Meter: Types of Accent
    Rhythmic (or Agogic) Accents
    Registral Accents
    Articulative Accents
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 1C Musical Distance: Intervals

    Overview
    How Do We Measure an Interval's Size?
    The Numeric Part: Generic Interval Size
    How Do We Handle Intervals Larger than an Octave?
    Fine-Tuning Our Measurement: Specific Interval Quality
    Major and Minor Intervals
    Perfect Intervals
    Analyzing Intervals Using the Tonic-Pitch Method
    Diminished and Augmented Intervals
    Analyzing Intervals Using the Game Board Method
    Constructing Intervals Above a Given Pitch Using the Game Board Method
    Intervals in a Key
    What Is Interval Inversion?
    Constructing Intervals Below a Given Pitch Using the Inversion Method
    Constructing Intervals Below a Given Pitch Using the Chromatic Adjustment Method
    Analyzing Intervals Using the Chromatic Adjustment Method
    The Keyboard Topography Method
    Perfect Fifths and Perfect Fourths
    Tritones
    Major Thirds (and therefore Minor Sixths)
    Minor Thirds (and therefore Major Sixths)
    Intervallic Transposition and Transposing Instruments
    Why Does Spelling Matter?: Enharmonic Intervals
    Constructing and Analyzing Intervals Using the Enharmonic Method
    Consonant and Dissonant Intervals
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 2 Pitch and Meter Combine: Melody and Counterpoint
    Overview
    Which Features Make a Tonal Melody Compelling?
    Studying Melodies
    Composing Melodic Contours (Pitches without Rhythm and Meter)
    Composing Melodies (Pitches with Rhythm and Meter)
    When Two Melodies Combine: An Introduction to Two-Voice Counterpoint
    Melodic Considerations Within the Counterpoint Line
    Vertical Considerations Between the Counterpoint Line and the Cantus Firmus
    First-Species Counterpoint in Action
    This Is Tricky, Right?! An Historical Interlude
    Second-Species Counterpoint: Meter and Dissonance Enter the Stage
    Putting It Together
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 3 Triads, Seventh Chords, and Texture
    Overview
    What Is a Triad?
    Two Methods for Constructing Triads
    Music Theory in the Practice Room
    Doubling
    Spacing
    What Are Inverted Triads?
    What Are Figured-Bass Symbols?
    Figured Bass for Triads
    How Does Figured Bass Show Chromatic Alterations?
    How Does Figured Bass Show Melodic Motion in the Upper Voices?
    Roman Numerals in the Major Mode
    Roman Numerals in the Minor Mode
    Music Theory in the Practice Room: Triads in a Key
    Analyzing Harmonies with Roman Numerals and Figured Bass Combined
    What Are Seventh Chords?
    Five Qualities of Seventh Chords
    A Method for Constructing Seventh Chords: Treat the Triad and the Seventh Separately
    Music Theory in the Practice Room: Seventh Chords
    On Which Scale Degrees Do We Find Each Quality of Seventh Chord in Major and Minor Keys?
    Seventh Chords in Inversion
    A Hint for Identifying Inverted Seventh Chords
    What Is Musical Texture?
    But First, Some Basic Terminology
    Navigating Accompanimental Figurations in Harmonic Analysis
    Broken-Chord Figurations
    Block-Chord Figurations
    Harmonic Reduction
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    PART 2: FUSING MELODY, HARMONY, AND COUNTERPOINT

    CHAPTER 4 The Role of Context: Embellishing Tones and Melodic Shape
    Overview
    The Importance of Context
    Tonal Context Refines Consonance and Dissonance
    Harmonic Context Distinguishes Chord Tones from Embellishing Tones
    Analyzing Embellishing Tones: The Importance of Harmony
    Melodic Context: Connecting the Dots to Find Shapes
    Two Embellishments of the Same Shape: A Sample of Long-Range Melodic Analysis
    Melodic Fluency
    Musical Arches and Nested Lines
    Gap-Fill: "I Owe You One," Melodically Speaking
    Embellishment: A Walk-Through
    Solo Polyphony: Harmony in Melody
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 5 Tonic, Dominant, and Voice Leading
    Overview
    What Are Tonic and Dominant?
    The Tonic on its Own: Stability
    The Dominant on its Own: Instability
    Tonic and Dominant Combined: Cadence Types
    The Half Cadence: Arriving on the Dominant
    The Imperfect Authentic Cadence: Harmonic Arrival on the Tonic
    The Perfect Authentic Cadence: Melodic and Harmonic Closure Coincide
    Contrapuntal Cadences: The Bass Arrives by Step on the Tonic
    Revisiting First-Species Counterpoint: Harmonizing Melodies with Tonic and Dominant
    Adding a Bass
    Adding a Melody: Crafting a Convincing Line within Harmonic Constraints
    Introduction to Voice Leading
    Which Textures Are We Trying to Create?
    Open Score
    Chorale Style
    Keyboard Style
    Figurated Textures
    Keyboard Interlude: Hand Shapes for I, I, and V in Keyboard Style
    What Are We Trying to Achieve with Voice Leading?
    Goal #1: Clear and Full-Sounding Harmonies
    Chord Content
    Doubling
    Spacing
    Vocal Registers in Chorale Style
    Goal #2: Creating Smooth Melodic Lines
    Resolving the Leading Tone
    Leaps
    Goal #3: Independence Between Voices
    Registral Independence
    Treatment of Perfect Consonances
    A General Strategy
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 6 V7 and Two-Level Analysis
    Overview
    Two Levels of Architecture
    How Does an Embellishing Tone Become an Embellishing Chord?
    Embellishing the Embellishing Chords: Arriving at the Musical Surface
    What Is Second-Level Analysis?
    How to Do Second-Level Analysis: An Analytical Walkthrough
    The V7 Chord
    Keyboard Interlude: Voice Leading with the V7 Chord
    Use of Incomplete Chords
    Unequal Fifths
    Harmonizing Melodies with V7
    Harmonizing Melodies with Slower Harmonic Rhythm
    Step #1: Identify Cadences and Phrase Beginnings
    Step #2: Look for Harmonic Clues in the Melody
    Step #3: Filling in the Gaps, Considering the Harmonic Rhythm
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 7 Expanding Tonic and Dominant with First-Inversion Triads
    Overview
    Punctuation vs. Flow
    Adding Detail to Second-Level Analysis
    Chordal Leap in the Bass: I6
    A New Right-Hand Shape at the Keyboard: Neutral Position
    Neighbor Tone in the Bass: V6
    Incomplete Neighbor Tone in the Bass
    More with Neutral Position: A Keyboard Interlude
    V6 in a Dominant Expansion
    Passing Tone in the Bass: viio6
    Keyboard Paradigms and Voice Leading
    Downward Arpeggiation in the Bass: IV6
    Expanding the Dominant with a Passing Bass: IV6
    Putting it Together: Composing Contrapuntally
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 8 Inversions of V7 and Leading-Tone Seventh Chords
    Overview
    What Are Harmonic Paradigms?
    What Contrapuntal Roles Do Inversions of V7 Play?
    V6/5: A Neighboring Chord with 7 in the Bass
    V6/5 in a Dominant Expansion
    V4/3: A Passing or Neighboring Chord with 2 in the Bass
    V4/2: An Incomplete-Neighboring, Passing, or Neighboring Chord with 4 in the Bass
    Evading a Cadence with V4/2
    Extended Prolongations of Tonic: Combining Inversions of V7
    Leading-Tone Seventh Chords: vii°7 and viiØ7
    viiø7
    Summary of Contrapuntal Expansions: A Bass Map
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    PART 3: ESTABLISHING, EXPANDING, AND EMBELLISHING THE PHRASE MODEL

    CHAPTER 9 The Pre-Dominant Function and the Phrase Model

    Overview
    What Is a Pre-Dominant?
    What Is the Phrase Model?
    Pre-Dominant Chords in Context: The Details
    The Subdominant: IV in Major, iv in Minor
    The Phyrigian Half Cadence
    The Supertonic: ii or ii6 in Major, ii°6 in Minor
    1-2-3-4-5 in the Bass
    How Can the Pre-Dominant Function Be Expanded?
    Chordal Skip
    Passing I6
    The IV-ii Pair
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 10 Accented and Chromatic Embellishing Tones
    Overview
    Embellishments: The Cake, Not Just the Frosting
    How Do Unaccented and Accented Embellishing Tones Differ?
    What are Accented and Chromatic Passing Tones (APT, CPT)?
    What is an Accented Neighboring Tone (AN)?
    What is a Chromatic Neighboring Tone (CN)?
    What is a Suspension (S)?
    Suspensions in a Harmonic Context
    How Can Suspensions Be Varied?
    How Do We Insert Suspensions into a Phrase?
    Suspension Chains
    What is an Appoggiatura (APP)?
    What is an Anticipation (ANT)?
    What is a Pedal (PED)?
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 11 Six-Four Chords and Plagal Motions
    Overview
    What Are the Four Types of Six-Four Chords?
    1. Pedal Six-Four Chords
    Embellishing the Tonic
    Embellishing the Dominant
    2. Passing Six-Four Chords
    3. Arpeggiating Six-Four Chords
    4. Cadential Six-Four Chords
    The Cadential Six-Four as a Double Suspension
    The Cadential Six-Four as Accented Passing Tone(s)
    V8/6/4--7/5/3
    The Cadential Six-Four Within a Phrase
    Cadential Six-Four Chords in Triple Meter
    Evaded Cadences
    Plagal Motion: Expanding the Tonic with IV
    Plagal Cadence
    Harmonizing Florid Melodies
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 12 Pre-Dominant Seventh Chords and Embedded Phrase Models

    Overview
    How Do Pre-Dominant Seventh Chords Behave?
    ii6/5 and iiø6/5
    ii7 and iiø7
    IV7 and iv7
    Trusting Your Ear, Not Just Your Eye
    How Can the Pre-Dominant Function Be Expanded?
    1. Voice Exchange on ii (ii-ii6 or ii6-ii)
    2. Adding a Passing Chord (ii-I6-ii6 or ii6-I6-ii)
    3. Voice Exchange on iv with a Passing 6/4 (iv-i6/4-iv6 or iv6-i6/4-iv)
    4. Passing i6/4 Connecting iiø6/5 and iv6
    5. Adding a Passing Chord to the IV-ii Pair
    How Can the Phrase Model Be Embedded Within Just a Portion of the Phrase?
    Extending a Phrase Using an Embedded Phrase Model
    What is a Contrapuntal Cadence?
    What is a Subphrase?
    Not Every Caesura Marks the End of a Subphrase!
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 13 The Submediant and the Step-Descent Bass

    Overview
    How Does the Submediant Chord Function?
    1. The Submediant as a Pre-Pre-Dominant Bridge
    Descending Fifths: I-vi-ii(7) or i-VI-ii(Ø7)
    Descending Bass Arpeggiation: 1-6-4
    2. The Submediant as a Surprising Substitute for Tonic: Deceptive Motion (V-vi, V-VI)
    3. The Submediant as a Pre-Dominant
    Apparent Submediants: I5-6
    The Step-Descent Bass
    1. The Direct Step Descent
    2. The Indirect Step Descent
    Step Descent Bass Paradigms
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 14 The Mediant and the Back-Relating Dominant
    Overview
    How Does the Mediant Triad (iii) Behave in the Major Mode?
    Apparent Mediants: “iii”
    How vi and iii Interact
    How Does the Mediant Triad (III) Behave in the Minor Mode?
    Preparing the III Chord with its Own Dominant
    III without an Applied Dominant
    The Mediant as a Text-Expressive Device
    What Is a Back-Relating Dominant?
    Swimming Upstream in the Phrase Model? An Analytical Quandary
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    PART 4: SMALL FORMS

    CHAPTER 15 Periods
    Overview
    What Is a Period?
    Representing Form Graphically
    Which Types of Periods Are There?
    Interrupted Period: The Consequent Starts Over After a Half Cadence
    Continuous Period: The Consequent Begins Off-Tonic
    With the Consequent Beginning on V(7)
    With the Consequent Beginning on ii
    Sectional Period: Two Authentic Cadences of Different Strengths
    Progressive Period: The Consequent Modulates to a New Key
    Is it a Period? The Importance of Analytical Sensitivity
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 16 Sentences, Double Periods, and Asymmetric Periods
    Overview
    What Is a Sentence?
    How Can Sentences and Periods Combine? A Form within a Form
    What Is a Double Period?
    What Are Asymmetric Periods?
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    AN INTERMEZZO ON MUSICAL MOTIVES
    Coherence and Contrast
    What Is a Musical Motive?
    Three Ways of Repeating a Motive
    1. Strict Repetition
    2. Modified Repetition
    Embellishment
    Transposition
    Transposed Imitation
    Modifying Rhythmic Values
    Modifying Pitches or Intervals
    Modifying Contour
    3. Developmental Repetitions
    Putting the Pieces Together: Motivic Fragmentation in a Sentence
    Hidden Motivic Repetitions

    PART 5: EXPRESSIVE COLOR THROUGH CHROMATICISM

    CHAPTER 17 Applied Chords
    Overview
    What Are Applied Chords?
    What Do Applied Chords Do?
    Constructing Applied Dominants
    Applied Dominants in Inversion
    Locating and Identifying Applied Chords
    Applied Leading-Tone Chords
    What Is Extended Tonicization, and How Is it Notated?
    Tonicized Half Cadences
    Deceptive Resolution of Applied Chords
    Chromaticism as Lighting Design: Color and Emphasis
    Applied Chords and Meter
    Cross Relations
    Multiple Lighting Plots
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 18 Modulation

    Overview
    Overnight Travel: What Is Modulation?
    The Destinations: To Where Can We Travel via Diatonic Modulation?
    Method #1: Diatonic Triads
    Method #2: Key Signatures
    The Routes: How Do We Modulate from One Key to Another?
    How to Select a Pivot Chord
    Strategies for Analyzing a Modulating Phrase: Locating the Pivot Chord
    V in I vs. I in V: Distinguishing the Dominant Chord from the Dominant Key
    Composing a Convincing Modulation: Getting Your Foot in the Door of the New Key
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 19 Harmonic Sequences
    Overview
    What is a Harmonic Sequence?
    What Role Do Harmonic Sequences Play in a Phrase?
    Which Types of Harmonic Sequences Are There?
    D2 (?5,?4)
    D3 (?4,?2)
    A2 (?3,?4)
    A2 (?5,?4)
    A Tutorial on Writing Sequences
    Embellishing the D2 (?5,?4) Sequence with Chordal Sevenths
    Basic Sequences + Chromaticism: Applied-Chord Sequences
    D2 Sequences with Applied Chords
    D3 Sequences with Applied Chords
    A2 Sequences with Applied Chords
    Basic Sequences + Modulation: Modulating Sequences
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 20 Binary Form and Variations

    Overview
    Sprinting Through an Art Museum: Categories Are Only a Starting Point
    How Do We Get Our Bearings in a Binary-Form Piece?
    Simple Sectional Binary
    Compositional Problem-Solving
    Simple Continuous Binary
    Compositional Problem-Solving
    Balanced Binary Form: Another Solution to the Coherence Problem
    Rounded Sectional Binary
    Compositional Problem-Solving
    Rounded Continuous Binary
    Compositional Problem-Solving
    Variation Technique
    Samples of Continuous Variations
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 21 Modal Mixture
    Overview
    Modal Mixture: Music's Body Language
    What are the Most Common Modal Mixture Harmonies?
    Applying Modal Mixture to Predominants: ii°, iiØ7, and iv
    In Context
    Applying Modal Mixture to the Submediant:?VI
    In Context
    Applying Modal Mixture to the Mediant: bIII
    Applying Modal Mixture to the Tonic: i
    Modal Mixture without Harmonic Change: Tonic Pedals
    Chromatic Stepwise Bass Descents
    In Minor
    In Major
    Adding Modal Mixture to Plagal Motions
    Can Modal Mixture Feature Chromatically Raised Notes, Too? (Yes.)
    New Harmonic Colors: Three Kinds of Third Relations
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 22 Chromatic Modulation and Text-Music Relations

    Overview
    How Does a Chromatic Pivot-Chord Modulation Work?
    Strategies for Writing a Chromatic Pivot-Chord Modulation
    A More Sudden Alternative: Chromatic Common-Tone Modulations
    Subtlety in Common-Tone Modulations
    How Can One Tell a Chromatic Pivot-Chord Modulation from a Chromatic Common-Tone Modulation?
    Enharmonic Keys: #V Is Really bVI
    The Expressive Power of Modal Mixture
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 23 Neapolitan Chords

    Overview
    What Is the Neapolitan Chord?
    Altering iio6
    The Neapolitan in Context
    What Expressive Effect Can the Neapolitan Chord Have?
    In Texted Music
    In Untexted Music
    Extending, Tonicizing, and Modulating with the Neapolitan Chord
    Illustrations to Play
    Tonicizing the Neapolitan Chord
    The Neapolitan Chord as a Pivot Chord
    The Pivot Chord Begins as the Neapolitan in the Original Key
    The Pivot Chord Becomes the Neapolitan in the New Key
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 24 Augmented-Sixth Chords
    Overview
    What is an Augmented-Sixth Chord?
    Some Analytical Detective Work
    Augmented-Sixth Chords in the Major Mode
    What are the Three Types of Augmented-Sixth Chords?
    Identifying Augmented-Sixth Chords in Context
    (?)VI and the Augmented-Sixth Chord
    Chromaticized Bass Descent
    Predominant Voice Exchange
    The German Diminished-Third Chord
    The Augmented-Sixth Chord in Tonicizations
    The Augmented-Sixth Chord in Modulations
    Reinforcing the New Key
    Acting as the Pivot Chord: Enharmonic Reinterpretation
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    PART 6: LARGE FORMS

    CHAPTER 25 Ternary Form
    Overview
    How Is Ternary Form Different from Rounded Binary Form?
    Connective Tissue: Introduction, Transition, Retransition, Coda, and Codetta
    The Reconciliatory Coda
    Forms Within a Form: Compound Ternary
    Da Capo Aria
    Minuet-Trio Form
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 26 Rondo Form
    Overview
    What Is a Rondo?
    A Rondo Rondeau from the Early Eighteenth Century
    A Rondo from the Twentieth Century
    Transitions, Retransitions, Codas, and Codettas
    Compound Rondo Form
    Two Strategies for Avoiding Boredom in a Rondo
    Shortening Later Refrains
    Ornamenting Later Refrains
    Seven-Part Rondo
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 27 Sonata Form
    Overview
    A Narrative of Reconciliation
    Exposition: Establishing the Conflict
    Development: Ramping Up the Tension
    Recapitulation: Finding Reconciliation
    Toying with Our Expectations: Some Sonata-Form Shenanigans
    Before the Beginning: The Slow Introduction
    Two Keys, but One Theme: Monothematic Sonata Form
    Is This the Recap? No, it's a False Recap!
    Can the Recapitulation Begin Away from the Tonic?
    Sonata-Form Codas: Tending to Unfinished Business
    Sonata-Rondo Form
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    PART 7: NEAR, AT, AND PAST THE EDGES OF TONALITY

    CHAPTER 28 Tonal Ambiguity and Symmetrically Constructed Harmonies
    Overview
    What Is Ambiguity?
    A Musical Type of Ambiguity: The Diminished Seventh Chord
    Why Does This Work?
    Tonally Ambiguous Beginnings and Endings
    Off-Tonic Beginnings
    Endings Can Be Ambiguous, Too: The Reciprocal Process
    Familiar Sounds in Unfamiliar Contexts: Common-Tone Chords
    Common-Tone Diminished Seventh Chords
    Common-Tone Augmented-Sixth Chords
    Unfamiliar Sounds in Familiar Contexts: Altered Dominant Seventh Chords and Augmented Triads
    Altered Dominant Seventh Chords
    Augmented Triads
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 29 Symmetry Stretches Tonality: Chromatic Sequences and Equal Divisions of the Octave

    Overview
    Tonal Music's Paradox of Asymmetry
    Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical Scales
    Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical Chords
    Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical Tonal Paths
    How Are Diatonic Sequences and Chromatic Sequences Different?
    Three Versions of an Ascending-Seconds Sequence: Diatonic, Diatonic with Applied Chords, and Chromatic
    Three Versions of a Descending-Seconds Sequence: Diatonic, Diatonic with Applied Chords, and Chromatic
    Recomposing Sequences
    Extending Dissonant Harmonies with Chromatic Voice Exchange
    The Omnibus
    Equal Divisions of the Octave
    What Do Equal Divisions of the Octave Sound Like?
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 30 Centricity, Extended and Non-Tertian Sonorities, and Collections
    Overview
    What Is Centricity?
    Achieving Closure in Centric Music
    Adding Colors to Tertian Chords
    Added Sixths
    Sharp-Ninth Chords
    Non-Tertian Sonorities: Stacking by Fourths and Fifths
    Collections
    Seven-Note Collections: Diatonic Modes
    A Five-Note Collection: Pentatonic
    Six-Note Collections
    #1: The Whole-Tone Collection
    #2: The Hexatonic Collection
    An Eight-Note Collection: Octatonic
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 31 Analysis with Sets

    Overview
    Diving in Analytically
    Pitch Space and Pitch-Class Space
    Intervals in Pitch Space
    Intervals in Pitch-Class Space
    Pitch-Class Sets
    Arranging a Pitch-Class Set in Normal Order
    Sets Related by Transposition
    Inversion in Pitch Space
    Inversion in Pitch-Class Space
    What Is Invariance?
    Interval-Class Vector
    What Do These Interval-Class Vectors Tell Us?
    Combining Transposition and Inversion: Set Class and Prime Form
    Finding a Set's Prime Form
    Terms and Concepts
    What's Next?

    CHAPTER 32 Metrical and Serial Techniques
    Overview
    Metrical Irregularity
    Changing Meters
    Meters that Accommodate Rhythms (as Opposed to Vice Versa)
    Additive Rhythm
    Perceived vs. Notated Meter
    Polymeter
    Twelve-Tone Music
    Deploying a Row in a Piece of Music
    Finding the Row
    Studying the Row's Properties
    Studying How the Piece Arranges the Row
    Transforming a Row: From 1 Row to 48 Rows
    The Twelve-Tone Matrix
    Three Particular Twelve-Tone Rows
    Anton Webern, Concerto for Nine Instruments, op. 24
    Contour in Pitch-Class Space: Building the Row
    Contour in Pitch Space: Orchestrating the Row
    Samuel Barber, Nocturne, op. 33
    Alban Berg, Lyric Suite
    Terms and Concepts

    GLOSSARY
    CREDITS
    INDEX OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS
    INDEX OF MUSICAL
    EXAMPLES AND EXERCISES


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