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Structural Geology

Principles, Concepts, and Problems

Third Edition

Robert D. Hatcher, Jr. and Christopher M. Bailey

Publication Date - June 2019

ISBN: 9780190601928

656 pages
Hardcover
8-1/2 x 11 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $129.99

Provides a modern and accessible treatment of structural geology for undergraduates

Description

Now thoroughly revised in its third edition, Structural Geology: Principles, Concepts, and Problems incorporates a balanced and broad state-of the-science presentation that combines extensive full-color illustrations with clear, lively writing. The book's breadth enables instructors to cover a wide array of current topics, including stress in the earth, fracking, seismic risk of tectonic structures, the earthquake cycle, and man-made earthquakes.

New to this Edition

  • Now includes geochronological and geochemical applications in structural geology
  • Copiously illustrated with full-color photographs and drawings
  • Highlights modern research areas including neotectonics, geochronology, and microstructures

Features

  • Offers high-quality, color illustrations throughout the book
  • Provides balanced coverage of the full range of topics covered in structural geology courses for majors
  • Includes boxes that highlight controversial or historical subjects like fracking, engineering applications, the earthquake cycle, and historic controversies
  • Presents chapters on geochronology and geophysics (specifically main geophysical techniques used in industry) at the beginning of the text

About the Author(s)

Robert D. Hatcher, Jr., is Distinguished Scientist and Professor of Structural Geology and Tectonics Emeritus at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

Christopher M. Bailey is Professor of Geology at the College of William & Mary.

Reviews

"This textbook does a good job of presenting the major material to be covered in a structural geology course. The authors are to be congratulated."--Frederick W. Vollmer, State University of New York at New Paltz

"Structural Geology is well organized and well thought out. It has sections on geochemistry, isotope geology, thermochronology, geochronology, and geophysical techniques, all of which are tools that modern structural geologists must have some familiarity with."--Ernest Duebendorfer, Northern Arizona University

"I like that they made a clearly written, well-illustrated textbook specifically for juniors and seniors. It definitely fills a notable void."--Maria Elisabeth Brunhart-Lupo, Colorado School of Mines

Table of Contents

    PART 1: INTRODUCTION

    Chapter 1: Introduction
    Plate Tectonics
    Equilibrium
    Geologic Cycles

    Chapter 2: Fundamental Concepts and Nontectonic Structures
    Fundamental Concepts
    Primary Sedimentary Structures
    Sedimentary Facies
    Unconformities
    Primary Igneous Structures
    Gravity-Related Features
    ESSAY: Deciphering a Major Structure in the Southern Highlands of Scotland
    Impact Structures

    Chapter 3: Geochronology in Structural Geology
    Geochronology
    Stable Isotopes
    ESSAY: Rock Bodies That Appear to Be the Same in the Field May Not Turn Out to Be When Their Ages Are Determined

    Chapter 4: Geophysical Techniques and Earth Structure
    Seismic Reflection
    Seismic Refraction
    Earthquakes And Seismic Waves
    Potential Field Methods
    Gravity
    Electrical Methods
    Borehole Geophysics
    ESSAY: Geophysical Data and the Structure of Mountain Chains

    PART 2: MECHANICS: HOW ROCKS DEFORM

    Chapter 5: Stress
    Definitions
    Stress on a Plane
    Mohr Construction
    Amontons' Law and the Coulomb-Mohr Hypothesis
    Stress Ellipsoid
    Stress at a Point
    Measuring Present-Day Stress in the Earth
    ESSAY: The Earthquake Cycle

    Chapter 6: Strain and Strain Measurement
    Definitions
    Measures of Strain
    Strain Ellipse and Ellipsoid
    Simple, General, and Pure Shear
    ESSAY: Daubrée and Mead Experiment
    Progressive Deformation, Strain Symmetry, and Strain Path
    Mohr Circle for Strain
    Tensor Operations for Strain
    Measuring Strain in Rocks
    Strain Measurement Techniques
    From Two to Three Dimensions
    The Utility of Strain Analysis
    Concluding Thoughts
    ESSAY: Finite Strain from Deformed Pebbles

    Chapter 7: Mechanical Behavior of Rock Materials
    Definitions
    Elastic (Hookean) Behavior
    Permanent Deformation-Ductility
    Controlling Factors
    Behavior of Crustal Rocks
    ESSAY: Jelly Sandwiches, Crème Brûlée, and the Mechanical Behavior of the Lithosphere
    Strain Partitioning

    Chapter 8: Microstructures and Deformation Mechanisms
    Lattice Defects and Dislocations
    Deformation Mechanisms
    Geochemical Processes
    Microstructures
    Crystallographic Preferred Orientations
    Laboratory Models of Deformation Processes
    Final Thoughts
    ESSAY: Fault Rocks-A Fourth Class of Rocks

    PART 3: FRACTURES AND FAULTS

    Chapter 9: Joints and Shear Fractures
    ESSAY: Fracking
    Fracture Analysis
    Fracture Mechanics: Griffith Theory
    Joints and Fracture Mechanics
    Fracture Surface Morphology
    Joints In Plutons
    Nontectonic And Quasitectonic Fractures
    ESSAY: Mesozoic Fracturing of Eastern North American Crust-Product of Extension or Shear?

    Chapter 10: Faults and Shear Zones
    Fault Anatomy
    Anderson's Classification
    Recognizing Faults
    ESSAY: Seismic Risk Associated with Tectonic Structures
    Shear Zones
    Shear-Sense Indicators
    Composite Foliations
    Strain In Ductile Shear Zones
    Brittle Shear Zones
    ESSAY: Existence and Displacement Sense of Large Faults

    Chapter 11: Fault Mechanics
    Anderson's Mechanics and Fundamental Assumptions
    Anderson's Fault Types
    Role of Fluids
    Frictional Sliding Mechanisms
    Movement Mechanisms
    Shear (Frictional) Heating In Fault Zones
    Reality of Fault Mechanics
    ESSAY: Artificial Earthquakes

    Chapter 12: Thrust Faults
    Nature of Thrust Faults
    Detachment Within a Sedimentary Sequence
    Propagation and Termination of Thrusts
    Features Produced by Erosion
    ESSAY: Debate About Thrust Faults
    Crystalline Thrusts
    ESSAY: Gravity Model Foldbelt
    Cross-Section Construction and the Room Problem
    Thrust Mechanics
    Mechanics of Crystalline Thrusts

    Chapter 13: Strike-Slip Faults
    Properties and Geometry
    Tectonic Setting of Strike-Slip Faulting
    Geometry Related to Other Fault Types
    Terminations of Strike-Slip Faults
    Releasing and Restraining Bends
    Transtension And Transpression
    Transforms
    Mechanics of Strike-Slip Faulting
    ESSAY: Rigid Indenters and Escape Tectonics

    Chapter 14: Normal Faults
    Properties and Geometry
    Environments and Mechanics
    ESSAY: Inverted Faults and Tectonic Inheritance

    PART 4: FOLDS AND FOLDING

    Chapter 15: Anatomy of Folds
    Descriptive Anatomy of Folds
    ESSAY: Gravity-Driven Soft Sediment Folds and Faults
    Folds at Map and Cross Section Scale
    Fold Classifications
    ESSAY: Folds and the Development of the Petroleum Industry

    Chapter 16: Fold Mechanics
    Fold Mechanisms and Accompanying Phenomena
    Deformation Mechanisms and Strain
    Discussion
    ESSAY: A Tale of Two Folds: Deciphering the Fold Mechanisms of Two Small Folds

    Chapter 17: Complex Folds
    Occurrence and Recognition
    Superposed Folds and Fold Interference Patterns
    Recognition of Multiple Fold Phases
    Noncylindrical And Sheath Folds
    Formation of Complex Folds
    Mechanical Implications of Complex Folding
    ESSAY: The Value of Rosetta Stones

    PART 5: FABRICS AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

    Chapter 18: Cleavage and Foliations
    Definitions
    Cleavage-Bedding Relationships
    Cleavage Refraction
    Mechanics of Slaty Cleavage Formation
    ESSAY: Early Ideas on the Origin of Slaty Cleavage
    Crenulation Cleavage
    Cleavage Fans and Transecting Cleavages
    Transposition
    ESSAY: Cleavage Formation and the Identification of Elephants

    Chapter 19: Linear Structures
    Definitions
    Lineations as Flow and Transport Indicators
    Folds and Lineations
    Folded Lineations
    Interpretation of Linear Structures
    ESSAY: Pitfalls in Interpreting Linear Structures

    Chapter 20: Structural Geology of Plutons
    The Nature of Magma
    Distinguishing Magmatic from Solid-State Tectonic Structures
    The Enigma of Tabular Pluton Emplacement
    Emplacement of Stocks and Batholiths
    ESSAY: A Tale of Two Plutons

    Chapter 21: Structural Analysis
    Cross-Section Analysis
    Deformation Plan in an Orogen
    Structural Analysis Procedures
    Structural Analysis in Foreland Fold-Thrust Belts (FFTBs)
    Structural Analysis of Multiply Deformed Rocks in the Cores Of Orogens
    ESSAY: Historical Development of Structural Analysis Methods in Metamorphic Rocks
    Structural Analysis of Multiply Deformed and Transposed Rocks
    ESSAY: Structural Analysis at Woodall Shoals
    Analysis of Salt Structures
    Structural Analysis in Continental Interiors
    Structural Analysis in Seismically Active Regions-Insight into Paleoseismology

    PART 6: APPENDICES

    Appendix 1: Structural Measurements and Observations
    Directional Reference Frame and Location
    Orientation Of Planes: Strike and Dip
    Orientation of Lines: Trend and Plunge; Rake
    Recording Data

    Appendix 2: Stereographic Projections and Fabric Diagrams
    How To Begin Plotting Manually
    Plotting Planar Structures
    Plotting Linear Structures
    Locating Fold Axes Using Equal-Area Plots: Beta And Pi Diagrams
    Contouring Data

    Appendix 3: Structural Cross Sections-Methods for Cross-Section Construction
    Introduction
    Rules of Cross-Section Construction
    Editorial Tips for Constructing Cross Sections
    Taking Cross Sections to the Next Level-Cross-Section Balancing

    Appendix 4: Woodall Shoals Fabric Data

    Glossary
    References Cited
    Index

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