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Smoke, Dust, and Haze

Fundamentals of Aerosol Dynamics

Second Edition

Sheldon K. Friedlander

Publication Date - 30 March 2000

ISBN: 9780195129991

432 pages
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches


Ideal for courses in aerosol science or particle technology, Smoke, Dust, and Haze: Fundamentals of Aerosol Dynamics, 2/e, is the only modern text that focuses on aerosol dynamics--the study of the factors that determine changes in the distribution of aerosol properties with respect to particle size. It covers fundamental concepts, experimental methods, and a wide variety of applications. Using the aerosol dynamics approach, the author integrates a broad range of topics including stochastic processes, aerosol transport theory, coagulation, formation of agglomerates, classical nucleation theory, and the synthesis of ultrafine solid particles. The book makes extensive use of scaling concepts and dimensional analysis and emphasizes physical and physicochemical interpretations. Basic concepts are illustrated by applications to many fields including air pollution control, the atmospheric sciences, microcontamination in the semiconductor industry, and the industrial manufacture of powders, pigments, additives, and nanoparticles.
Revised and expanded, this second edition features new chapters on the kinetics of agglomeration of noncoalescing particles and the fundamentals of aerosol reactor design. It covers the effects of turbulence on coagulation and gas-to-particle conversion and also discusses the formation of primary particles by the collision-coalescence mechanism. The chapter on the atmospheric aerosol has been completely rewritten within the aerosol dynamics framework. Its basic approach and topicality make Smoke, Dust, and Haze: Fundamentals of Aerosol Dynamics, 2/e, an essential guide for both students and researchers.

Previous Publication Date(s)

January 1977

Table of Contents

    1. Aerosol Characterization
    Parameters Determining Aerosol Behavior
    Particle Size
    Particle Concentration
    Size Distribution Function
    Moments of the Distribution Function
    Examples of Size Distribution Functions
    Chemical Composition
    Aerosol Dynamics: Relation to Characterization
    2. Particle Transport Properties
    Equation of Diffusion
    Coefficient of Diffusion
    Friction Coefficient
    Agglomerate Diffusion Coefficients
    Path Length of a Brownian Particle
    Migration in an External Force Field
    Electrical Migration
    London-van der Waals Forces
    Boundary Condition for Particle Diffusion
    3. Convective Diffusion: Effects of Finite Particle Diameter and External Force Fields
    Equation of Convective Diffusion
    Similitude Considerations for Aerosol Diffusion
    Concentration Boundary Layer
    Diffusion to Cylinders at Low Reynolds Numbers: Concentration Boundary Layer Equation
    Diffusion at Low Reynolds Numbers: Similitude Law for Particles of Finite Diameter
    Low Re Deposition: Comparison of Theory with Experiment
    Single Element Particle Capture by Diffusion and Interception at High Reynolds Numbers
    High Re Deposition: Application to Deposition on Rough Surfaces
    Diffusion from a Laminar Pipe Flow
    Diffusion from a Turbulent Pipe Flow
    Particle Deposition from Rising Bubbles
    Convective Diffusion in an External Force Field: Electrical Precipitation
    Thermophoresis: "Dust Free Space"
    4. Inertial Transport and Deposition
    Particle-Surface Interactions: Low Speeds
    Particle-Surface Interactions: Rebound
    Particle Acceleration at Low Reynolds Numbers: Stop Distance
    Similitude Law for Impaction: Stokesian Particles
    Impaction of Stokesian Particles on Cylinders and Spheres
    Impaction of Non-Stokesian Particles
    Deposition from a Rotating Flow: Cyclone Separator
    Particle Eddy Diffusion Coefficient
    Turbulent Deposition
    Aerodynamic Focusing: Aerosol Beams
    Transition from the Diffusion to Inertial Ranges
    5. Light Scattering
    Scattering by Single Particles: General Considerations
    Scattering by Particles Small Compared to the Wavelength
    Scattering by Large Particles: The Extinction Paradox
    Scattering in the Intermediate Size Range: Mie Theory
    Scattering by Aerosol Clouds
    Scattering over the Visible Wavelength Range: Aerosol Contributions by Volume
    Rayleigh Scattering: Self-Similar Size Distributions
    Mie Scattering: Power Law Distributions
    Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering
    Specific Intensity: Equation of Radiative Transfer
    Equation of Radiative Transfer: Formal Solution
    Light Transmission Through the Atmosphere: Visibility
    Inelastic Scattering: Raman Effect
    6. Experimental Methods
    Mass Concentration: Filtration
    Total Number Concentration: Condensation Particle Counter
    Total Light Scattering and Extinction Coefficients
    Size Distribution Function
    Mass and Chemical Species Distribution: The Cascade Impactor
    Aerosol Chemical Analysis
    Summary Classification of Measurment Instruments
    Monodisperse Aerosol Generators
    7. Collision and Coagulation: Coalescing Particles
    Collision Frequency Function
    Brownian Coagulation
    Brownian Coagulation: Dynamics of Discrete Distribution for an Intially Monodisperse Aerosol
    Brownian Coagulation: Effect of Particle Force Fields
    Effect of van der Waals Forces
    Effect of Coulomb Forces
    Collision Frequency for Laminar Shear
    Simultaneous Laminar Shear and Brownian Motion
    Turbulent Coagulation
    Equation of Coagulation: Continuous Distribution Function
    Similarity Solution: Coagulation in the Continuum Regime
    Similarity Solution for Brownian Coagulation
    Similarity Solution: Coagulation in the Free Molecule Region
    Time to Reach the Self-Preserving Distribution (SPD)
    8. Dynamics of Agglomerate Formation and Restructuring
    Agglomerate Morphology: Scaling Laws
    Computer Simulation of Agglomerate Formation
    Langevin Simulations of Agglomeration
    Smoluchowski Equation: Collision Kernals for Power Law Aggregates
    Self-Preserving Agglomerate Size Distributions
    Effect of Primary Particle Size on Agglomerate Growth
    Effect of Df on Agglomearte Growth
    Agglomerate Restructuring
    9. Thermodynamics Properties
    The Vapor Pressure Curve and the Supersaturated State
    Effects of Solutes on Vapor Pressure
    Vapor Pressure of a Small Particle
    Hygroscopic Particle-Vapor Equilibrium
    Charged Particle-Vapor Equilibria
    Solid Particle-Vapor Equilibrium
    Effect of Particle Size on the Equilibrium of a Heterogeneous Chemical Reaction
    Molecular Clusters
    10. Gas-to-Particle Conversion
    Condensation by Adiabatic Expansion: The Experiments of C.T.R. Wilson
    Kinetics of Homogeneous Nucleation
    Experimental Test of Nucleation Theory
    Heterogeneous Condensation
    Growth Laws
    Dynamics of Growth: Continuity Relation in v Space
    Measurement of Growth Rates: Homogeneous Gas-Phase Reactions
    Simultaneous Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Condensation
    Effects of Turbulence on Homogeneous Nucleation
    11. The General Dynamic Equation for the Particle Size Distribution Function
    General Dynamic Equation for the Discrete Distribution Function
    Coagulation and Nucleation as Limiting Processes in Gas-to-Particle Conversion
    General Dynamic Equation for the Continuous Distribution Function
    The Dynamic Equation for the Number Concentration N
    The Dynamic Equation for the Volume Fraction
    Simultaneous Coagulation and Diffusional Growth: Similarity Solution for Continuum Regime
    Simultaneous Coagulation and Growth: Experimental Results
    The GDE for Turbulent Flow
    The GDE for Turbulent Stack Plumes
    Coagulation and Stirred Settling
    Coagulation and Deposition by Convective Diffusion
    Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor
    12. Synthesis of Submicron Solid Particles: Aerosol Reactors
    Aerosol Reactors: Commercial and Pilot Scale
    The Collision-Coalescence Mechanism of Primary Particle Formation
    Extension of the Smouluchowski Equation to Colliding, Coalescing Particles
    Rate Equation for Particle Coalescence
    Solid-State Diffusion Coefficient
    Estimation of Average Primary Particle Size: Method of Characteristic Times
    Primary Particle Size: Effects of Aerosol Material Properties
    Particle Neck Formation
    Particle Crystal Structure
    13. Atmospheric Aerosol Dynamics
    Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution
    Aerosol Dynamics in Power Plant Plumes
    Chemical Composition of Urban Aerosols
    Distributions of Chemical Species with Particle Size
    Morphological Characteristics of the Submicron Aerosol
    Common Measures of Air Quality for Particulate Matter: Federal Standards
    Receptor Modeling: Source Apportionment
    Statistical Variations of Ambient Aerosol Chemical Components
    Each chapter ends with Problems and References
    Common Symbols

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