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Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy

An Introduction

Stanley L. Flegler, John W. Heckman, Jr., and Karen L. Klomparens

Publication Date - September 1993

ISBN: 9780195107517

240 pages


This authoritative volume, ideal for use in the laboratory, presents the practical and theoretical fundamentals of scanning and transmission electron microscopy--together in one convenient volume. Clear and concise explanations coupled with instructive diagrams and photographs guide you through microscope operation, image production, analytical techniques, and potential applications to various disciplines. Specimen preparation is discussed in detail, with emphasis on specific parameters for biological specimens. Since each laboratory has its own procedures, this unique book covers the essentials of scanning and transmission electron microscopy while leaving the laboratory particulars to individual discretion. Unmatched in scope and clarity--and filled with helpful diagrams, photographs, and drawings--this text offers the best introduction to scanning and transmission electron microscopy available. Due to its comprehensive coverage, the book will serve as an ideal course text in the electron microscopy classes organized for the benefit of advanced students in both the biological and physical sciences.

About the Author(s)

Stanley L. Flegler, John W. Heckman, Jr., and Karen L. Klomparens are at the Center for Electron Optics at Michigan State University.


"Excellent basic book on electron microscopy....Concepts are easy to understand."--Yolande Berta, Georgia Institute of Technology

"Presents the practical and theoretical fundamentals of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Explanations coupled with diagrams and photographs guide the reader." --Journal of Chemical Education

Table of Contents

    1. Introduction
    2. Electron Sources and Electron Lenses
    2.1. Electron Sources
    2.2. Electron Lenses
    3. Vacuum Systems
    3.1. Vacuum Pumps Commonly Used in EM Labs
    3.2. Methods of Measuring Vacuums
    3.3. Vacuum Systems Used in Electron Microscopy
    4. The Transmission Electron Microscope
    4.1. Theory of Operation
    4.2. Real Images
    4.3. Virtual Images
    4.4. Depth of Field and Depth of Focus
    4.5. Anatomy of a Transmission Electron Microscope
    4.6. Medium- and High-Voltage Transmission Electron Microscopy
    5. The Scanning Electron Microscope
    5.1. Theory of Operation
    5.2. Specimen-Beam Interactions
    5.3. Machine Variables
    5.4. Ultrahigh-Resolution SEMS
    5.5. Environmental SEMS
    5.7. Scanning Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopy
    6. Specimen Preparation for TEM
    6.1. Negative Staining of Small Particulates
    6.2. Ultrathin Sectioning of Larger Samples
    6.3. Vacuum Evaporators and Evaporation Techniques
    6.4. Shadowcasting and Replica Techniques
    6.5. Cytological Techniques
    6.6. Preparation of Nonbiological Materials
    7. Specimen Preparation for SEM
    7.1. Mounting
    7.2. Coating for Conductivity
    7.3. Special Methods for Various Sample Types
    7.4. Biological Sample Preparation
    7.5. Alternative Methods for Biological Samples
    7.6. SEM Histochemistry for Biological Samples
    8. X-Ray Analysis
    8.1. X-ray Production and Naming
    8.2. Measuring the Energy and Wavelength of X Rays
    8.3. Construction of the EDS Detector
    8.4. Construction of the EDS X-Ray Analyzer
    8.5. Outputs
    8.6. Spectrum Accumulation and Interpretation
    8.7. Optimizing the Detection of X Rays
    8.8. Artifacts
    8.9. Quantitative Analysis
    8.10. Sample Preparation
    9. Electron Micrographic Techniques
    9.1. Silver Graphic Process
    9.2. Photographic Printing
    9.3. Transmission Electron Micrography
    9.4. Scanning Electron Micrography
    9.5. The Electronic Darkroom
    9.6. Micrograph Presentation and Publication