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Cover

Race and Racisms

A Critical Approach

Third Edition

Tanya Maria Golash-Boza

Publication Date - July 2021

ISBN: 9780197533222

560 pages
Looseleaf

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $67.99

Race and Racisms offers a topical, critical, intersectional and contemporary approach to race and ethnic studies, with a focus on how racial justice could be realized.

Description

Race and Racisms: A Critical Approach, Third Edition, engages students in significant--and timely--questions related to racial dynamics in the U.S. and around the world. Written in accessible, straightforward language, the book discusses and critically analyzes cutting-edge scholarship in the field. Organized into topics and concepts rather than discrete racial groups, the text addresses:

* How and when the idea of race was created and developed
* How structural racism has worked historically to reproduce inequality
* How we have a society rampant with racial inequality though most people do not consider themselves to be racist
* How race, class, and gender work together to create inequality and identities
* How immigration policy in the United States has been racialized
* How racial justice could be imagined and realized

Centrally focused on racial dynamics, Race and Racisms, Third Edition, incorporates an intersectional perspective, discussing the intersections of racism, patriarchy, and capitalism.

New to this Edition

  • Enhances the intersectional framework by paying closer attention to gender and sexuality
  • Covers the shift toward overt racism; not just microaggressions, but macroaggressions
  • More on settler colonialism and colonialism vs. imperialism
  • In addition to low-stakes self-assessment quizzes designed to help students test their comprehension, the enhanced e-book contains several short video clips created by the author that provide a dynamic learning experience

About the Author(s)

Tanya Maria Golash-Boza is Professor of Sociology at University of California-Merced.

Table of Contents

    Contents
    List of Excerpts
    Letter from the Author
    About the Author
    Preface
    1
    THE ORIGIN OF THE IDEA OF RACE

    Chapter Outline
    Defining Race and Ethnicity
    Race: The Evolution of an Ideology
    Historical Precedents to the Idea of Race
    Slavery before the Idea of Race
    European Encounters with Indigenous Peoples of the Americas
    Slavery and Colonization
    Voices: The Spanish Treatment of Indigenous Peoples
    research focus: Slave Fights and Runaway Communities in Colonial Angola
    Exploitation in the Thirteen English Colonies
    Voices: From Bullwhip Days
    Slavery versus the Ideal of Freedom in the United States
    GLOBAL VIEW: The Idea of Race in Latin American Nation-Making
    The Indian Removal Act: The Continuation of Manifest Destiny
    The Rise of Science and the Question of Human Difference
    European Taxonomies
    Scientific Racism in the Nineteenth Century
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    2
    RACE AND CITIZENSHIP FROM THE 1840S TO THE 1920S

    Chapter Outline
    The Continuation of Scientific Racism
    Measuring Brain Size
    Intelligence Testing
    Eugenics and Pseudoscience
    Voices: Carrie Buck
    Exclusionary Immigration and Citizenship Policies
    Voices: Wong Foon Chuck: Making Home in the Borderlands between China, the United States, and Mexico
    Excluding Asians
    research focus: Chinese Exclusion and Gatekeeping Ideology
    The Johnson-Reed Act (Immigration Act of 1924)
    Birthright Citizenship and Naturalization for White People Only
    Defining Whiteness in Court
    Takao Ozawa v. United States (1922)
    United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923)
    How the Irish, Italians, and Jews Became White
    The Irish
    The Italians
    The Jews
    Structural Violence against Native Americans and African Americans
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    3
    RACIAL IDEOLOGIES FROM THE 1920S TO THE PRESENT

    Chapter Outline
    Ideological Consistency and Change
    Voices: Trayvon Martin
    Overt Racism in the Mid-twentieth Century
    Segregation
    Mass Deportation of Mexicans and Mexican Americans
    Internment of Japanese and Japanese Americans
    Voices: Fred Toyosaburo Korematsu
    The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment
    The Civil Rights Movement and the Commitment to Change
    Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Sit-Ins
    Freedom Rides
    Old versus New Racism: The Evolution of an Ideology
    Biological Racism
    Cultural Racism
    Color-Blind Universalism
    GLOBAL VIEW: Cultural Racism in Peru
    Color-Blind Racism
    Four Types of Color-Blind Racism
    Rhetorical Strategies of Color-Blind Racism
    The New Politics of Race
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    4
    SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF RACE AND RACISM

    Chapter Outline
    Individual Racism and Institutional Racism
    Individual Racism
    Voices: Microaggressions
    Institutional Racism
    GLOBAL VIEW: Microaggressions in Peru
    Systemic Racism and Structural Racism
    Systemic Racism
    Structural Racism
    Voices: J. F. "Smitty" Smith
    research focus: Systemic Racism and Hurricane Katrina
    Racial Formation
    Critique 1: Not Holding White People Accountable for Racial Inequality
    Critique 2: Not Going Far Enough to Expose the Depths of Racism
    Critique 3: Overlooking Parallels Between Jim Crow Racism and Racism Today
    research focus: Examining Legitimized Racism against Indigenous Peoples
    White Supremacy and Settler Colonialism
    Islamophobia and Anti-Arab Racism
    Intersectional Theories of Race and Racism
    research focus: White Supremacy, Patriarchy, and Global Capitalism in Migration Studies
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    5
    RACISM IN THE MEDIA: THE SPREAD OF IDEOLOGY

    Chapter Outline
    Portrayals and Representations in Entertainment
    Portrayals of Black People
    Voices: Why Black-ish Is the Show We Need Right Now
    Portrayals of Latinx People
    Portrayals of Arabs and Arab Americans
    Voices: Why We Hacked Homeland
    Portrayals of Asians and Asian Americans
    Portrayals of Native Americans
    research focus
    GLOBAL VIEW: Racial Stereotypes in Peruvian Television
    New Media Representations
    Video Games
    Social Media
    research focus: Kimberlé Crenshaw on Black Women's Lives Matter
    Voices: #CiteBlackWomen
    Media Images and Racial Inequality
    Raced, Classed, and Gendered Media Images
    Voices: From "What's Wrong with Cultural Appropriation? These 9 Answers Reveal Its Harm"
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    6
    COLORISM AND SKIN-COLOR STRATIFICATION

    Chapter Outline
    The History of Colorism
    research focus: Latinx Immigrants and the U.S. Racial Order
    The Origins of Colorism in the Americas
    The Origins of Colorism in Asia and Africa
    The Global Color Hierarchy
    Asia and Asian Americans
    Voices: Neha Dixit
    Latin America and Latinx People
    Africa and the African Diaspora
    research focus: Skin Tone and School Suspension
    Voices: Why Black People Discriminate among Ourselves: The Toxic Legacy of Colorism
    Skin Color, Gender, and Beauty
    Voices: After #NotFairandLovely: Changing Thought Patterns Instead of Skin Tone
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    7
    WHITE PRIVILEGE AND THE CHANGING U.S. RACIAL HIERARCHY

    Chapter Outline
    White Privilege
    research focus: White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack
    Whiteness, Class, Gender, and Sexuality
    Voices: Explaining White Privilege to a Broke White Person
    Whiteness and Racial Categories in Twenty-First-Century America
    Latinx People and the Multiracial Hierarchy
    Arab Americans, North Africans, Middle Easterners, and Their Place in the U.S. Racial Hierarchy
    Voices: Arab American-AKA White without the Privilege
    research focus The Limits of Whiteness
    Multiracial Identification and the U.S. Racial Hierarchy
    GLOBAL VIEW: Social, Cultural, and Intergenerational Whitening in Latin America
    Changes in Racial and Ethnic Classifications
    History of Racial and Ethnic Classifications
    Are Latinx People a Race or Ethnicity?
    Revisiting the Definitions of Race and Ethnicity
    Racialized Assimilation
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    8
    EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY

    Chapter Outline
    The History of Educational Inequality
    Indian Schools
    Segregation and Landmark Court Cases
    Voices: Mary Tape
    The Persistence of Racial Segregation in the Educational System
    Affirmative Action in Higher Education
    Educational Inequality Today
    research focus: Native American/Alaska Native College Student Retention
    The Achievement Gap: Sociological Explanations for Persistent Inequality
    GLOBAL VIEW: Affirmative Action in Brazil
    Parental Socioeconomic Status
    Cultural Explanations: "Acting White" and Other Theories
    Tracking
    Social and Cultural Capital and Schooling
    Voices: Andrew Yang's Problematic Reinforcement of the Model Minority Myth
    Hidden Curricula and the School-to-Prison Pipeline
    research focus: The Asian American Achievement Paradox
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    9
    INCOME AND LABOR MARKET INEQUALITY

    Chapter Outline
    Income Inequality by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender
    Dimensions of Racial Disparities in the Labor Market
    Disparities among Women
    COVID-19 and Racial Economic Disparities
    Disparities among Asian Americans
    Underemployment, Unemployment, and Joblessness
    Voices: Foraging on the Margins of the Labor Market
    Sociological Explanations for Income and Labor Market Inequality
    Individual-Level Explanations
    Voices: Latina Professionals as Radicalized Tokens: Lisa's Story
    research focus: Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market
    GLOBAL VIEW: Do Some Countries Discriminate More than Others?
    Structural Explanations
    Affirmative Action in Employment
    Entrepreneurship and Self-Employment
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    10
    INEQUALITY IN HOUSING AND WEALTH

    Chapter Outline
    Land Ownership after Slavery
    Residential Segregation
    The Creation of Residential Segregation
    Voices: How America's Vast Racial Wealth Gap Grew: By Plunder
    Discriminatory and Predatory Lending Practices
    research focus: The Role of Real Estate in Creating Segregated Cities
    Neighborhood Segregation Today
    Wealth Inequalities
    research focus: The Color of Wealth in the Nation's Capital
    Inequality in Homeownership and Home Values
    Wealth Inequality beyond Homeownership
    Explaining the Wealth Gap in the Twenty-First Century
    research focus: Ten Myths about Closing the Racial Wealth Gap
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    11
    RACISM AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Chapter Outline
    Mass Incarceration in the United States
    The Rise of Mass Incarceration
    Mass Incarceration in a Global Context
    GLOBAL VIEW: Prisons in Germany and the Netherlands
    Race and Mass Incarceration
    The Inefficacy of Mass Incarceration
    Voices: How Can We Reconcile Prison Abolition with #MeToo?
    Mass Incarceration and the War on Drugs
    Race, Class, Gender, and Mass Incarceration
    Voices: The #SayHerName Social Movement
    Institutional Racism in the Criminal Justice System
    Racial Profiling
    Black Lives Matter
    Voices: Sandy Bland
    Sentencing Disparities
    The Ultimate Sentence: Racial Disparities in the Death Penalty
    Voices: Troy Davis
    The Economics of Mass Incarceration
    Private Prisons
    The Prison-Industrial Complex
    Beyond Incarceration: Collateral Consequences
    The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Families and Children
    The Lifelong Stigma of a Felony: "The New Jim Crow"
    research focus: Can Felons Get Jobs?
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    12
    HEALTH INEQUALITIES, ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM, AND ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE

    Chapter Outline
    The History of Health Disparities in the United States
    Involuntary Experimentation on African Americans
    Explaining Health Disparities by Race and Ethnicity Today
    Socioeconomic Status and Health Disparities by Race/Ethnicity
    research focus: Racial Capitalism: A Fundamental Cause of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Inequities in the United States
    Segregation and Health
    Voices: I'm Sick of Asking the Children of Flint to Be Resilient
    The Effects of Individual Racism on Health
    Life-Course Perspectives
    Culture and Health
    GLOBAL VIEW: Health and Structural Violence in Guatemala
    research focus: Race, Disability, and Poverty
    Genetics, Race, and Health
    Environmental Racism
    Environmental Justice
    Voices: The Holt Family of Dickinson Tennessee
    Voices: The Flint Water Crisis
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    13
    RACISM, NATIVISM, AND IMMIGRATION POLICY

    Chapter Outline
    Voices: Robert Bautista-Denied Due Process
    The Racialized History of U.S. Immigration Policy
    Race and the Making of U.S. Immigration Policies: 1790 to 1924
    GLOBAL VIEW: "Culling the Masses: The Democratic Origins of Racist Immigration Policy in the Americas," by Maria Duenas
    Nativism Between 1924 and 1964: Mass Deportation of Mexicans and the McCarran Internal Security Act
    The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act and the Changing Face of Immigration
    Illegal Immigration and Policy Response
    The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) and Nativism
    Proposition 187 and the Lead-Up to IIRIRA
    The 1996 Laws and the Detention and Deportation of Black and Latinx Immigrants
    Voices: Hector, a Guatemalan Deportee
    Immigration Policy and Nativism in the Twenty-First Century
    Voices: The Zaroour Family
    research focus: "The Refugee Crisis at the United States-Mexico Border," by Maria Duenas
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    14
    RACIAL JUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATES TODAY

    Chapter Outline
    Perspectives on Racial Justice
    Recognition, Responsibility, Reconstruction, and Reparations
    Civil Rights
    Human Rights
    Voices: How the Murders of Ahmaud Arbery, Breonna Taylor, and George Floyd Reignited a Movement
    Struggles for Racial Justice
    Racial Justice and the Foreclosure Crisis
    Voices: Fighting against Foreclosures: A Racial Justice Story
    DREAMers and the Fight for Justice
    Racial Justice and Empathy
    Voices: Three Leadership Lessons from Opal Tometi
    Moving beyond Race
    Intersectional Analyses: Race, Class, Gender
    Racism and Capitalism
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    15
    THINKING GLOBALLY

    Race and Racisms in France, South Africa, and Brazil
    Chapter Outline
    How Do Other Countries Differ from the United States in Racial Dynamics?
    Race and Racism in France
    French Colonies in Africa
    The French Antilles
    African Immigration to France
    Discrimination and Racial and Ethnic Inequality in France Today
    Voices: Justice for Theo
    Race and Racism in South Africa
    Colonialism in South Africa: The British and the Dutch
    The Apartheid Era (1948-1994)
    Voices: South African Coloured Identity
    The Persistence of Inequality in the Post-Apartheid Era
    research focus: The Politics of White Youth Identity in South Africa
    Race and Racism in Brazil
    Portuguese Colonization and the Slave Trade in Brazil
    Whitening through Immigration and Intermarriage
    The Racial Democracy Myth in Brazil and Affirmative Action
    Voices: Brazil's Color Bind
    Racial Categories in Brazil Today
    research focus: Radical Ideology and Black-White Interracial Marriages in Rio de Janeiro
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding

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