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Race and Racisms

A Critical Approach

Second Edition

Tanya Maria Golash-Boza

Publication Date - October 2017

ISBN: 9780190663780

560 pages
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

Retail Price to Students: $104.99

The second edition of this groundbreaking text maintains its topical approach and focus on the social and historical construction of race and racial inequality


Race and Racisms: A Critical Approach, Second Edition, engages students in significant--and timely--questions related to racial dynamics in the U.S. and around the world. Written in accessible, straightforward language, the book discusses and critically analyzes cutting-edge scholarship in the field. Organized into topics and concepts rather than discrete racial groups, the text addresses:

* How and when the idea of race was created and developed
* How structural racism has worked historically to reproduce inequality
* How we have a society rampant with racial inequality, even though most people do not consider themselves to be racist
* How race, class, and gender work together to create inequality and identities
* How immigration policy in the United States has been racialized
* How racial justice could be imagined and realized

Centrally focused on racial dynamics, Race and Racisms, Second Edition, also incorporates an intersectional perspective, discussing the intersections of racism, patriarchy, and capitalism.

New to this Edition

  • Updated to reflect current issues and events, including the latest data and research, with new stories and examples throughout
  • New At-a-Glance infographics show striking statistics in a visually powerful way, promoting data literacy
  • Offers revised theoretical discussions, covering new topics like Islamophobia, and expanded material on Arab and Middle Eastern Americans
  • Includes new Voices or Research Focus sidebars in every chapter
  • Check Your Understanding chapter summaries are now structured around the As You Read questions, incorporating both Review and Critical Thinking questions
  • New Talking about Race guidelines-overviewed in the front matter and featured at the end of each chapter-suggest ways to approach discussions about race and racism

About the Author(s)

Tanya Maria Golash-Boza is Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Merced.


"This book is miles ahead of the competition. I cannot think of another that even remotely approaches it. It is conceptually rich, pedagogically conscientious, and scintillatingly relevant. I can't overstate what an excellent textbook this is. I haven't seen anything comparable--in any field."--Arun Rasiah, Holy Names University

"This book takes an impressively sophisticated, critical approach to the sociological study of race and racisms. It stands head and shoulders above its competitors. The book manages to synthesize a remarkable amount of cutting-edge research in the sociological study of race into a package that is wholly suitable for undergraduate students who may have little or no previous exposure to this topic."--Hernan Ramirez, Florida State University

"I haven't found a text that even comes close to this one; I would call it 'extraordinary.' It is the first book that does so much, so effectively. The approach is thoughtfully integrated, saturating each topic in a deep, but understandable way. The writing style is excellent--very readable without sacrificing any intellectual rigor: a rare combination that one only finds in a good scholar who also is in tune with students."--Alan Spector, Purdue University

"Golash-Boza begins each chapter with fascinating research, which pulls the reader in. In addition, the 'Voices' sections integrate marginalized and unique perspectives that highlight the intersection of race with other social inequalities such as gender, class, and ability. The book does not present the experiences of individual race groups one-by-one, and I am pleased by this alternative, refreshing approach. It is expertly organized and supported with sound, relevant research."--Jacqueline Brooks, California State University- Sacramento

Table of Contents

    List of Excerpts
    About the Author
    Talking about Race outside the classroom


    1: The Origin of the Idea of Race
    Defining Race and Ethnicity
    Race: The Evolution of an Ideology
    Historical Precedents to the Idea of Race
    Slavery Before the Idea of Race
    European Encounters with Indigenous Peoples of the Americas
    Slavery and Colonization

    --VOICES The Spanish Treatment of Indigenous Peoples
    --RESEARCH FOCUS Slave Flights and Runaway Communities in Colonial Angola
    Exploitation in the Thirteen English Colonies
    The Legal Codification of Racial Differences

    --VOICES From Bullwhip Days
    Slavery versus the Ideal of Freedom in the United States
    --GLOBAL VIEW: The Idea of Race in Latin American Nation-Making
    The Indian Removal Act: The Continuation of Manifest Destiny
    The Rise of Science and the Question of Human Difference
    European Taxonomies
    Scientific Racism in the Nineteenth Century
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race

    2: Race, Immigration, and Citizenship from the 1840s to the 1920s
    The Continuation of Scientific Racism
    Measuring Brain Size
    Intelligence Testing
    --VOICES Carrie Buck
    Exclusionary Immigration and Citizenship Policies
    The Chinese Exclusion Act
    --RESEARCH FOCUS Chinese Exclusion and Gatekeeping Ideology
    The Johnson-Reed Act (Immigration Act of 1924)
    Birthright Citizenship and Naturalization for Whites Only

    Defining Whiteness in Court
    Takao Ozawa v. United States (1922)
    United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923)
    How the Irish, Italians, and Jews Became White
    The Irish
    The Italians
    The Jews

    Structural Violence against Native Americans and African Americans
    Native Americans: Appropriating Lands, Assimilating Tribes
    African Americans and the Struggle for Rights
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race

    3: Racial Ideologies from the 1920s to the Present
    Ideological Consistency and Change
    --VOICES Trayvon Martin
    Overt Racism in the Mid-Twentieth Century
    Mass Deportation of Mexicans and Mexican Americans
    Internment of Japanese and Japanese
    --VOICES Fred Toyosaburo Korematsu
    Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment
    The Civil Rights Movement and the Commitment to Change
    Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Freedom Rides
    Old Versus New Racism: The Evolution of an Ideology
    Biological Racism
    Cultural Racism
    Color-Blind Universalism
    --GLOBAL VIEW Cultural Racism in Peru
    Color-Blind Racism
    Four Types of Color-Blind Racism
    Rhetorical Strategies of Color-Blind Racism
    The New Politics of Race
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race

    4: Sociological Theories of Race and Racism
    Individual Racism and Institutional Racism
    Individual Racism
    --VOICES Microaggressions
    Institutional Racism
    --GLOBAL VIEW Microaggressions in Peru
    Systemic Racism and Structural Racism
    Systemic Racism
    Structural Racism

    --RESEARCH FOCUS Systemic Racism and Hurricane Katrina
    Racial Formation
    Critique 1: Not Holding Whites Accountable for Racial Inequality
    Critique 2: Not Going Far Enough to Expose the Depths of Racism
    Critique 3: Overlooking Parallels Between Jim Crow Racism and Racism Today
    --RESEARCH FOCUS Examining Legitimized Racism against Indigenous Peoples
    White Supremacy and Settler Colonialism
    --RESEARCH FOCUS Applying Settler Colonialism Theory
    Islamophobia and Anti-Arab Racism
    Intersectional Theories of Race and Racism
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    about Race

    5: Racism in the Media: The Spread of Ideology
    Portrayals and Representations in Entertainment
    Portrayals of Blacks
    --VOICES Why Black-ish Is the Show We Need Right Now
    Portrayals of Latinos/as
    Portrayals of Arabs and Arab Americans
    --VOICES Why We Hacked Homeland
    Portrayals of Asians and Asian Americans
    Portrayals of Native Americans
    --GLOBAL VIEW Racial Stereotypes in Peruvian Television
    New Media Representations
    Video Games
    Social Media

    --RESEARCH FOCUS Kimberlé Crenshaw on Black Women's Lives Matter
    Media Images and Racial Inequality
    Raced, Classed, and Gendered Media Images
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race

    6: Colorism and Skin-Tone Stratification
    The History of Colorism
    --RESEARCH FOCUS Latino Immigrants and the U.S. Racial Order
    The Origins of Colorism in the Americas
    The Origins of Colorism in Asia and Africa

    The Global Color Hierarchy
    Asia and Asian Americans
    --VOICES The Fair-Skin Battle
    Latin America and Latinos/as
    Africa and the African Diaspora
    --RESEARCH FOCUS Skin Tone and School Suspension
    --VOICES Colorism and Creole Identity
    Skin Color, Gender, and Beauty
    --VOICES After #NotFairandLovely: Changing Thought Patterns Instead of Skintone
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race

    PART II: Policy and Institutions

    7: White Privilege and the Changing U.S. Racial Hierarchy
    White Privilege
    --RESEARCH FOCUS White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack
    Whiteness, Class, Gender, and Sexuality
    --VOICES Explaining White Privilege to a Broke White Person
    Whiteness and Racial Categories in Twenty-First-Century America
    Latinos/as and the Multiracial Hierarchy
    Arab Americans, North Africans, Middle Easterners, and Their Place in the U.S. Racial Hierarchy

    --VOICES Arab American-AKA White Without the Privilege
    Multiracial Identification and the U.S. Racial Hierarchy
    Will the United States Continue to Be a White-Majority Society?
    Changes in Racial and Ethnic Classifications
    --GLOBAL VIEW Social, Cultural, and Intergenerational Whitening in Latin America
    Revisiting the Definitions of Race and Ethnicity
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race

    8: Educational Inequality
    The History of Educational Inequality
    Indian Schools
    Segregation and Landmark Court Cases
    The Persistence of Racial Segregation in the Educational System
    Affirmative Action in Higher Education
    Educational Inequality Today
    --RESARCH FOCUS Native American/Alaska Native College Student Retention
    The Achievement Gap: Sociological Explanations for Persistent Inequality
    --GLOBAL VIEW Affirmative Action in Brazil
    Parental Socioeconomic Status
    Cultural Explanations: "Acting White" and Other Theories
    Social and Cultural Capital and Schooling
    --VOICES Moesha
    Hidden Curricula and the School-to-Prison Pipeline
    --RESEARCH FOCUS The Asian American Achievement Paradox
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race

    9: Income and Labor Market Inequality
    Income Inequality by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender
    Dimensions of Racial Disparities in the Labor Market
    Disparities among Women
    Disparities among Asian Americans
    Underemployment, Unemployment, and Joblessness
    --VOICES Jarred
    Sociological Explanations for Income and Labor Market Inequality
    Individual-Level Explanations
    --VOICES Latina Professionals as Racialized Tokens: Lisa's Story
    Structural Explanations
    --RESEARCH FOCUS Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market
    Affirmative Action in Employment
    Entrepreneurship and Self-Employment
    --GLOBAL VIEW Racial Discrimination in Australia
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race

    10: Inequality in Housing and Wealth
    Land Ownership after Slavery
    Residential Segregation
    The Creation of Residential Segregation
    Discriminatory and Predatory Lending Practices
    --RESEARCH FOCUS The Role of Real Estate in Creating Segregated Cities
    Neighborhood Segregation Today
    --VOICES Sabriya Ihsan Williams on Neighborhood Stereotyping
    Wealth Inequalities
    --RESEARCH FOCUS The Color of Wealth in the Nation's Capital
    Inequality in Homeownership and Home Values
    Wealth Inequality Beyond
    Explaining the Wealth Gap in the Twenty-First Century
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race

    11: Racism in the Criminal Justice System
    Mass Incarceration in the United States
    The Rise of Mass Incarceration
    Mass Incarceration in a Global Contex
    --GLOBAL VIEW Prisons in Germany and the Netherlands
    Race and Mass Incarceration
    --VOICES Earl Washington
    The Inefficacy of Mass Incarceration
    Mass Incarceration and the War on Drugs
    Race, Class, Gender, and Mass Incarceration
    Institutional Racism in the Criminal Justice System
    Racial Profiling
    --VOICES Sandy Bland
    Sentencing Disparities
    The Ultimate Sentence: Racial Disparities in the Death
    --VOICES Troy Davis
    The Economics of Mass Incarceration
    Private Prisons
    The Prison-Industrial Complex

    Beyond Incarceration: Collateral Consequences
    The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Families and Children
    The Lifelong Stigma of a Felony: "The New Jim Crow"
    --RESEARCH FOCUS Can Felons Get Jobs?
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race

    12: Health Inequalities, Environmental Racism, and Environmental Justice
    The History of Health Disparities in the United States
    Involuntary Experimentation on African Americans
    Explaining Health Disparities by Race and Ethnicity Today
    Socioeconomic Status and Health Disparities by Race/ Ethnicity
    Segregation and Health

    --RESEARCH FOCUS Health and Social Inequity in Alameda County, California
    The Effects of Individual Racism on Health
    Life-Course Perspectives
    Culture and Health
    --GLOBAL VIEW Health and Structural Violence in Guatemala
    Genetics, Race, and Health
    Environmental Racism
    Environmental Justice
    --VOICES The Holt Family of Dickson, Tennessee
    --VOICES The Flint Water Crisis
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race

    13: Racism and Nativism in Immigration Policy
    --VOICES Robert Bautista-Denied Due Process
    The Racialized History of U.S. Immigration Policy
    Race and the Making of U.S. Immigration Policies: 1790 to 1924
    --GLOBAL VIEW Whitening and Immigration Policy in Brazil
    Nativism Between 1924 and 1964: Mass Deportation of Mexicans and the McCarran Internal Security Act
    The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act and the Changing Face of Immigration
    Latin American and Caribbean Immigration

    Illegal Immigration and Policy Response
    The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) and Nativism
    Proposition 187 and the Lead-Up to IIRIRA
    The 1996 Laws and the Detention and Deportation of Black and Latino Immigrants
    --VOICES Hector, a Guatemalan Deportee
    Immigration Policy and Nativism in the Twenty-First Century
    --VOICES The Zarour Family
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race

    PART III: Contesting and Comparing Racial Injustices

    14: Racial Justice in the United States Today
    Perspectives on Racial Justice
    Recognition, Responsibility, Reconstruction, and Reparations
    Civil Rights
    Human Rights
    Struggles for Racial Justice
    Racial Justice and the Foreclosure Crisis
    --VOICES Fighting Against Foreclosures: A Racial Justice Story
    DREAMers and the Fight for Justice
    Racial Justice and Empathy
    --VOICES Three Leadership Lessons from Opal Tometi
    Moving Beyond Race
    Intersectional Analyses: Race, Class, Gender
    Racism and Capitalism
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race

    15: Thinking Globally
    How Do Other Countries Differ from the United States in Racial Dynamics?
    Race and Racism in France
    French Colonies in Africa
    The French Antilles
    African Immigration to France
    Discrimination and Racial and Ethnic Inequality in France Today
    --VOICES Justice for Theo
    Race and Racism in South Africa
    Colonialism in South Africa: The British and the Dutch
    The Apartheid Era (1948-1994)
    --VOICES South African Coloured Identity
    The Persistence of Inequality in the Post-Apartheid Era
    --RESEARCH FOCUS The Politics of White Youth Identity in South Africa
    Race and Racism in Brazil
    Portuguese Colonization and the Slave Trade in Brazil
    Whitening Through Immigration and Intermarriage
    The Racial Democracy Myth in Brazil and Affirmative Action
    --VOICES Brazil's Color Bind
    Racial Categories in Brazil Today
    --RESEARCH FOCUS Radical Ideology and Black-White Interracial Marriages in Rio de Janeiro
    Conclusion and Discussion
    Check Your Understanding
    Talking about Race