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Cover

Quantitative Research Methods for Communication

A Hands-On Approach

Fourth Edition

Jason S. Wrench, Candice Thomas-Maddox, and Virginia Peck Richmond

Publication Date - November 2018

ISBN: 9780190861063

672 pages
Paperback
8 x 10 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $99.99

Real Data. Real Studies. Real Life.

Description

Quantitative Research Methods for Communication: A Hands-On Approach is a relevant and accessible guide to quantitative research. In clear, straightforward language, the authors encourage students to take an active, hands-on role in the learning process, giving them the tools they need to locate, conduct, collect and present their research. The authors use real communication studies and data sets to make communication research come alive for students. Students are not only introduced to new skills but also given the opportunity to immediately apply these skills in research scenarios. The text integrates helpful features throughout, including chapter objectives, case studies, data sheets, and key terms.

New to this Edition

  • A new discussion on the use of computer simulations in experiments
  • Streamlined chapter learning outcomes ensure that readers are more clearly able to ascertain what they should accomplish by reading the chapters.
  • More illustrations within the book add levity and further illustrate concepts
  • An updated website at https://oup-arc.com/access/wrench-4e where students can access the research articles discussed in the textbook, along with supplemental chapters on Qualitative Research, Open-Source Statistical Software Alternatives, Big Data, Advanced Statistical Procedures, and a Questionnaire. Video walk-throughs for software packages like SPSS, Excel, STATA, PSPP, and JASP are also included.

Features

  • An introduction to the fundamentals of communication research, from library skills to basic mathematical concepts
  • Guided research assignments based on actual data-driven research questions
  • Real-world examples on writing research in the organizational environment, writing research reports for the public, and data visualization.
  • In-depth analyses of articles that feature statistical tests

About the Author(s)

Jason S. Wrench is Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication and Media at the State University of New York at New Paltz.

Candice Thomas-Maddox is Regional Coordinator and Associate Professor of Communication Studies at Ohio University Lancaster.

Virginia Peck Richmond is Professor and Chair of the Communication Studies Department at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Professor of Communication Studies (Emerita) at West Virginia University.

James C. McCroskey was Scholar in Residence in the College of Arts and Humanities at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Professor of Communication Studies (Emeritus) at West Virginia University.

Reviews

"This is a rare text tightly focused on quantitative research in the communication discipline (as opposed to another social science or social science more generally). One of the most compelling features is that is includes its own communication-based original data set for students to practice working with and analyzing data."--Jo Anna Grant, California State University, San Bernadino

"This book provides students of quantitative research a thorough look at the complex issues that influence the social scientific research process."--Laura Umphrey, North Arizona University

Table of Contents

    BRIEF CONTENTS

    Preface

    CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Communication Research
    CHAPTER 2 Empirical Research
    CHAPTER 3 Research Ethics
    CHAPTER 4 Searching for Previous Research and American Psychological Association Style
    CHAPTER 5 Research Structure and Literature Reviews
    CHAPTER 6 Variables
    CHAPTER 7 Measurement
    CHAPTER 8 Reliability and Validity
    CHAPTER 9 Survey Research
    CHAPTER 10 Content Analysis
    CHAPTER 11 Experimental Design
    CHAPTER 12 Sampling Methods
    CHAPTER 13 Hypothesis Testing
    CHAPTER 14 Descriptive Statistics
    CHAPTER 15 Chi-Square (?2) Test of Independence
    CHAPTER 16 Independent Samples t Tests
    CHAPTER 17 One-Way Analysis of Variance
    CHAPTER 18 Correlation
    CHAPTER 19 Regression
    CHAPTER 20 Presenting Research

    Appendix A Qualitative Research (Available online https://oup-arc.com/wrench)
    Appendix B Textbook Questionnaire (Available online: https://oup-arc.com/wrench)
    Appendix C Open-Source Statistical Software Alternatives (Available online: https://oup-arc.com/wrench)
    Appendix D Big Data (Available online: https://oup-arc.com/wrench)
    Appendix E Advanced Statistical Procedures (Available online: https://oup-arc.com/wrench)

    Glossary
    Index


    CONTENTS

    Preface

    CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Communication Research
    The History of the Social Sciences
    The Nature of Communication
    Understanding the Book's Format
    Research Outside the Walls of Academia
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 2 Empirical Research
    Ways of Knowing
    Epistemology
    Ordinary Versus Scientific Ways of Knowing
    The Scientific Approach to Communication Research
    Scientific Method
    Theories
    Describe the National Phenomenon
    Predict the Future
    Falsification
    Predictions/Hypotheses
    Observations
    Empirical Generalizations
    Conclusion
    Research Outside the Walls of Academia

    CHAPTER 3 Research Ethics
    Defining Ethics
    Good Means-Good End: Ethical Behavior
    Bad Means-Bad End: Unethical Behavior
    Bad Means-Good End: Machiavellian Ethic
    Good Means-Bad End: Subjective Ethic
    The Belmont Report's Effect on Research Ethics
    Informed Consent
    Principle of Beneficence
    Justice
    Institutional Review Boards
    Institutional Review Board Basics
    Informed Consent
    Institutional Review Board Processes
    Basic Institutional Review Board Functions
    Full-Board Review
    Specific Ethical Issues for Research
    Data Accuracy
    Data Sharing
    Duplicate Data Publication
    Post Hoc Hypothesis Revision
    Participant Identity Disclosures
    Authorship Credit
    Conflicts of Interest
    Plagiarism
    Source-Not-Cited Types of Plagiarism
    Source-Cited Types of Plagiarism
    Ethical Research Outside Academia
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 4 Searching for Previous Research and American Psychological
    Association Style
    Step 1: Identifying the Topic
    Step 2: Clarifying the Research Question and Generating Key Terms
    Stating The Topic In The Form of a Research Question
    Identifying Key Terms and Synonymous Terms
    Step 3: Locating Sources of Information
    Types of Information Sources
    Locating Information Sources
    Handbooks and Subject Encyclopedias
    Electronic Databases
    The World Wide Web
    Evaluating Web Sources
    Step 4: Organizing and Evaluating Information
    Step 5: Citing Sources of Information Using the APA Format
    What Information Must Be Referenced?
    Citing Sources of Information
    Parenthetical Citations
    Quotations and Paraphrases
    APA Paper Formatting
    Creating a Title Page
    Creating an Abstract
    Creating the First Page
    Creating the Reference Page
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 5 Research Structure and Literature Reviews
    The Abstract
    The Introduction
    Attention-Getter
    Using Statistics or Claims
    Posing a Rhetorical Question
    Using an Acknowledged Fact
    Using a Story or Illustration
    Quoting or Acknowledging a Source
    Link To Topic
    Significance of Topic
    Espousal of Credibility
    Thesis and Preview
    Literature Review
    Five Reasons for Literature Reviews
    Previous Research
    Chronological
    Cause and Effect
    Compare and Contrast
    Problem-Cause-Solution
    Psychological
    Categorical/Topical
    General to Specific
    Specific to General
    Known to Unknown
    Study Rationale
    Method Section
    Participants
    Apparatus
    Procedure
    Instrumentation
    Results Section
    Discussion Section
    The Conclusion
    Research Outside the Walls of Academia
    Reading and Critiquing Academic Literature
    Preparing a First Draft
    Step 1: Identify Your General Topic
    Step 2: Determine The Type of Study You Are Conducting
    Step 3: Determine What Variables You Will Examine
    Step 4: Search for Primary Sources
    Step 5: Obtain Full Text References
    Step 6: Look for Other References in Obtained Materials
    Step 7: Narrow Your List of References
    Step 8: Organize References by Major and Subtopics
    Step 9: Look for Gaps in Your References
    Step 10: Find References to Fill Gaps
    Step 11: Create a Literature Review Outline
    Step 12: Write
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 6 Variables
    How Are Research Projects Developed?
    Variables: Units of Analysis
    Units of Analysis
    Aspects of Variables
    Variable Attributes
    Variable Values
    Understanding Relationships and Differences
    Relationships
    Differences
    Types of Variables
    Variable Levels
    Nominal Variables
    Ordinal Variables
    Interval Variables
    Likert
    Semantic Differential
    Staple's Scalogram
    Ratio Variables
    Communication Variables
    Nominal Variables
    Ordinal Variables
    Interval Variables
    Common Interval Variable Measures
    Communication Apprehension
    Ethnocentrism
    Humor Assessment
    Nonverbal Immediacy
    Sociocommunicative Orientation
    Willingness to Communicate
    Beliefs and Attitudes
    Ratio Variables
    Writing Up Scales Using APA Style
    Participants
    Procedures
    Instrumentation
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 7 Measurement
    Numbers and Things
    Review of Measurement Levels
    Nominal
    Ordinal
    Interval
    Ratio
    A History of Measurement
    Likert Scales
    Semantic Differential
    Measuring Communication
    Personality Traits/States
    Beliefs and Attitudes
    Knowledge
    Developing Your Operationalization
    Conceptualization
    Operationalization
    Constructing Questions
    One Measure, Multiple Factors
    Measurement and Statistical Analysis
    Research Outside the Walls of Academia
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 8 Reliability and Validity
    Reliability
    Scalar Reliability
    Test-Retest Reliability
    Alternate Forms Reliability
    Split-Half Reliability
    Cronbach's Alpha Reliability
    Computer Printouts of Cronbach's Alpha
    SPSS and Cronbach's Alpha APA Discussion
    Alpha Reliabilities From This Book
    Reliabilities In The Real World
    Improving Reliability of Measurement
    Validity
    Face or Content Validity
    Criterion Validity
    Predictive
    Concurrent
    Retrospective
    Construct or Factorial Validity
    Validity Threats
    Problems with Measurement
    Research Outside the Walls of Academia
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 9 Survey Research
    When to Use a Survey
    Do You Know What You Want To Ask?
    Do You Really Need To Collect New Data?
    Do Your Participants Know Anything or Will They Even Tell You?
    Is Your Goal Generalizability?
    How to Conduct Survey Research
    Step 1: Picking Your Questions
    Nominal Level Questions
    Ordinal Level Questions
    Interval Level Questions
    Ratio Level Questions
    Open-Ended Questions
    Step 2: Creating Clear Instructions
    Step 3: Study Design
    Step 4: Data Processing and Analysis
    Step 5: Pilot Testing
    Use Actual Survey Population Members
    Anticipate Survey Context
    Test Parts of the Survey
    Determining a Pilot Sample Size
    Ask Questions after Someone Completes the Survey
    Disseminating Your Surveys
    Interviewing
    Face-to-Face Interviewing
    Telephone Interviewing
    Self-Administration
    Mass Administration
    Mailed Administration
    Internet Administration
    Advantages and Disadvantages of Self-Administered Surveying
    Problem Areas Associated with Survey Research
    Response Rate
    Unit Nonresponse
    Item Nonresponse
    Effects of Nonresponse
    Improving Response Rates
    Translating Surveys into Other Languages
    Semantic Equivalence
    Conceptual Equivalence
    Normative Equivalence
    Simple Direct Translation
    Modified Direct Translation
    Translation/Backtranslation
    Parallel Blind Technique
    Random Probe
    Using the Research Project Worksheet
    Question
    Design
    Setting Participants
    Specific Characteristics
    Recruitment
    Consent
    Variables
    Independent Variables
    Dependent Variables
    Hypotheses/Research Questions
    Statistical Testing
    Tentative Study Title
    Principal Researcher(s)
    Measurement Outside of Academia
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 10 Content Analysis
    Conducting a Content Analysis
    Theory and Rationale
    Conceptualization
    Operationalization
    Coding Schemes
    Sampling
    Training and Pilot Reliability
    Introduction to Coding Book
    Sample Coding
    Coding of Initial Data
    Initial Reliability
    APA Write-Up
    Retraining
    Final Coding
    Final Reliability
    Tabulation And Reporting
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 11 Experimental Design
    What Are Experiments and Why Do We Do Them?
    Rationale For Experimental Research
    Aspects Of Experimental Design
    Random Assignment
    Manipulation of the Independent Variable
    Measurement of the Dependent Variable
    Controlling an Experiment
    Conducting an Experiment
    Introducing the Experiment and Obtaining Consent
    Random Assignment
    Manipulate the Independent Variable
    Measure the Dependent Variable
    Debriefing
    Threats to Experimental Validity
    Historical Flaw
    Maturation
    Testing Flaw
    Regression To The Mean
    Selection Threat
    Attrition
    Common Experimental Designs
    Preexperimental Designs
    One-Shot Case Study
    One-Group Pretest Posttest Design
    Static Group Comparisons
    Quasi-Experimental Designs
    Pretest-Posttest Design
    Time Series
    Multiple Time Series
    Switching Replications Design
    True Experimental Designs
    Pretest-Posttest Design
    Two-Group Posttest-Only Design
    Randomized Switching Replications
    Design
    Solomon Four-Group Design
    Final Thoughts on Experiments
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 12 Sampling Methods
    Why Use a Sample?
    Population
    Sample
    The Sampling Process
    Selecting a Sample Design
    Probability Sampling
    Simple Random Samples
    Stratified Random Samples
    Cluster Samples
    Systematic Samples
    Sampling Error
    Nonprobability Samples
    Convenience Samples
    Volunteer Samples
    Purposive Samples
    Quota Samples
    Network Sample
    Determining Sample Size
    Common Sense Sample Recruiting
    Ethical Recruitment
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 13 Hypothesis Testing
    Hypotheses
    One-Tailed Hypotheses
    Two-Tailed Hypotheses
    Research Questions
    Directional Research Questions
    Nondirectional Research Questions
    Alternative and Null Hypotheses
    Hypothesis Testing Case Study
    Hypothesis Testing in the Case Study
    From Random Samples to a Whole Population
    Testing for Significance
    Step 1: Set the Probability Level
    Step 2: Conduct a Statistical Test
    Step 3: Comparing Calculated and Critical Values
    Testing for Power
    Effect Sizes
    Understanding Error
    The Confidence Interval
    Power Type I Error
    Type II Error
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 14 Descriptive Statistics
    The Benefits of Statistics
    Descriptive Versus Inferential Statistics
    Measures of Central Tendency
    Mean
    Median
    Mode
    Frequency Distributions
    SPSS and Frequency Distributions
    Frequency Distributions and Charts
    Skewness and Kurtosis
    Measures of Variability
    Range
    Sum of Squares
    Variance
    Standard Deviation
    Dataset Variability
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 15 Chi-Square (?2) Test of Independence
    Case Study Introduction
    Chi-Square Background Information
    Step-by-Step Approach to the Chi-Square Test of Independence
    Computer Printouts of the Chi-Square Test of Independence
    SPSS and Chi-Squares
    APA Write-Up Discussion of Findings
    Post Hoc APA Write-Up
    Biological Sex and Book Edition
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion of Brummans and Miller's Article
    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results
    Chi-Squares Outside Academia
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 16 Independent Samples t Tests
    Case Study Introduction
    Independent Samples t Test Background Information
    Step-by-Step Approach to the Independent t Test
    Computer Printouts of the Independent t Test
    SPSS and t Tests
    APA Write-Up (SPSS) Discussion of Findings
    Biological Sex and Communication Apprehension
    APA Write-Up (SPSS) Discussion
    Calculating Effect Sizes
    Discussion of the Weber, Fornash, Corrigan, and Neupauer Article
    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results
    Paired t Tests
    t Tests Outside Academia
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 17 One-Way Analysis of Variance
    Case Study Introduction
    One-Way ANOVA Background Information
    Step-by-Step Approach to the One-Way ANOVA
    Computer Printouts of the One-Way ANOVA
    SPSS and One-Way ANOVAs
    Multiple Comparison Tests
    APA Write-Up (Without Chart)
    APA Write-Up (With Chart)
    Discussion of Findings
    Political Affiliation and Humor Assessment
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion
    Discussion of the Boiarsky et al. Article
    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results
    One-way ANOVAs Outside Academia
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 18 Correlation
    Correlation Background Information
    Types of Relationships
    Correlation Not Causation
    Correlation Assumptions
    Case Study Introduction
    Step-by-Step Approach to the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation
    Computer Printouts of the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation
    SPSS and Pearson Product-Moment Correlations
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion
    Relationships among CA, WTC, and Beliefs about Public Speaking
    APA Write-Up
    A Note About R
    Reading Large Correlation Tables
    Discussion of the Chesebro Article
    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results
    Discussion of the Punyanunt Article
    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results
    Correlations Outside Academia
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 19 Regression
    Case Study Introduction
    Regression Background Information
    Step-by-Step Approach to a Linear Regression
    Computer Printouts of the Linear Regression
    SPSS and Simple Linear Regressions
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion
    Relationships between CA and Beliefs about Public Speaking
    APA Write-Up
    Understanding Multiple Linear Regressions
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion
    Discussion of the Wrench and Booth-Butterfield Article
    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results
    Discussion of the Rocca and Vogl-Bauer Article
    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results
    Regressions Outside Academia
    Conclusion

    CHAPTER 20 Presenting Research
    Writing a Discussion Section
    Providing a Summary of Major Findings
    Providing an Interpretation of Findings
    Discussing the Relationship Between Findings and Previous Studies
    Acknowledging Limitations
    Discussing Implications and Future Directions
    Writing the Abstract
    Presenting at Conferences
    Divisions and Interest Groups
    Submitting Research For Conference Review
    Types of Conference Presentations
    Paper Presentations
    Poster Presentations
    Scholar-to-Scholar Posters
    Panel Discussions
    Publication
    Journal Review Process
    Submission Process
    Review Process
    Research Outside the Walls of Academia
    Writing For Business
    Research and The General Public
    Writing Statistical Stories
    Infographics
    Conclusion

    Appendix A Qualitative Research (Available online: https://oup-arc.com/wrench)
    Appendix B Textbook Questionnaire (Available online: https://oup-arc.com/wrench)
    Appendix C Open-Source Statistical Software Alternatives (Available online: https://oup-arc.com/wrench)
    Appendix D Big Data (Available online: https://oup-arc.com/wrench)
    Appendix E Advanced Statistical Procedures (Available online: https://oup-arc.com/wrench)

    Glossary
    Index

Teaching Resources

Ancillary Resource Center (ARC) at www.oup-arc.com is a convenient, instructor-focused single destination for resources to accompany your text. Accessed online through individual user accounts, the ARC provides instructors with access to up-to-date ancillaries at any time while guaranteeing the security of grade-significant resources. In addition, it allows OUP to keep instructors informed when new content becomes available. See resources available on the Quantitative Research Methods 4e Ancillary Resource Center (ARC) below:

·         Instructors Manual and Test Bank

·         Computerized Test Bank

·         PowerPoint Presentations

·         Video Walkthroughs of Softwares

·         Student Workbook

·         Chapter Quizzes for Students

·         Data Sets

·         ECA Articles

·         5 Appendix Chapters

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