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Cover

Qualitative Research Methods in Human Geography

Fourth Edition

Edited by Iain Hay

Publication Date - December 2016

ISBN: 9780199010905

536 pages
Paperback
8.9 x 6.0 inches

Retail Price to Students: $74.99

Description

Qualitative Research Methods in Human Geography is a comprehensive, practical guide to understanding and conducting qualitative research in human geography. Using a unique "how-to" approach to focus on the practical application of research in human geography by providing real-world examples of research methods at work in case studies, this fourth edition teaches students how to plan, execute, interpret, and effectively communicate qualitative research. With the inclusion of new Canadian and North American examples throughout, in addition to international and Asia-Pacific examples, the text achieves its goal of providing an in-depth overview of qualitative research methods relevant to human geography that is both readable and accessible for students.

Now in its fourth edition, Qualitative Research Methods in Human Geography returns with improved readability for undergraduate students, end-of-chapter review exercises, and an appendix of example field notes, making the text much more accessible, current, and relevant to today's human geography students. Three new chapters have also been added on the topics of feminist and indigenous approaches, visual methods, and new media.

Features

  • UPDATED! Fully updated throughout, citing relevant Canadian and international examples and including the most current qualitative methodologies.
  • ACCESSIBLE! This contributed text has been fully revised to make the writing style, language, and content even more accessible for an undergraduate audience.
  • PRACTICAL! A focus on the actual practice of research in human geography helps students to grasp complex concepts and apply them to their own work.
  • ENAGAGING! Personal anecdotes connect theory to real-life for students, making this text interesting and engaging for students at an undergraduate level.
  • NEW! Chapter on feminist and indigenous methodologies demonstrates the empowering and transformative potential of qualitative research to undergraduate students.
  • NEW! Information on interpreting qualitative data provides students doing qualitative research for the first time with the necessary information they need to read and interpret their data.
  • NEW! Chapter on visual methodologies provides students with an overview of visual methods and how they are used in human geography.
  • NEW! Chapter on conducting qualitative research digitally provides practical examples of the most contemporary methodologies currently used in the field.
  • NEW! Short exercises have been added to the end of every chapter that students can complete in-class to practice what they have learned and serve as teaching points to promote discussion and engage students in their learning.
  • NEW! Practical appendix of example field notes will help students as they begin to conduct their own qualitative research.

About the Author(s)

Iain Hay, Distinguished Professor, School of Geography, Human Geography, Flinders University, South Australia

Table of Contents

    Boxes and Figures
    Notes on Contributors
    Preface
    Part I "Introducing" Qualitative Research in Human Geography
    1. Qualitative Research and Its Place in Human Geography, Hilary P.M. Winchester and Matthew W. Rofe
    Chapter Overview
    Introduction
    What is Qualitative Research?
    - What Questions Does Qualitative Research Answer?
    - Types of Qualitative Research
    - The Contribution of Qualitative Techniques to Explanation in Geography
    The Relationship Between Qualitative and Quantitative Geography
    The History of Qualitative Research in Geography
    Contemporary Qualitative Geography - Theory/Method Links
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercise
    Useful Resources
    2. Power, Subjectivity, and Ethics in Qualitative Research, Robyn Dowling
    Chapter Overview
    Introduction: On the Social Relations of Research
    Research Ethics and Institutional Review of Research Ethics
    - Privacy and Confidentiality
    - Informed Consent
    - Harm
    Ethics and Online Research
    Criticisms of, and Moving Beyond, Ethical Guidelines
    Critical Reflexivity
    Power Relations in Qualitative Research
    Objectivity, Subjectivity, and Intersubjectivity in Qualitative Data Collection
    Summary and Prompts for Critical Reflexivity
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    Note
    3. Cross-Cultural Research: Ethics, Methods, and Relationships, Richie Howitt and Stan Stevens
    Chapter Overview: An Explanation of Our Writing Method
    Modes of Cross-Cultural Engagement: Colonial, Post-colonial, Decolonizing, and Inclusionary Research
    Getting Started: Research Legitimacy and Local Authorization
    Doing the Work
    - The Scale Politics of Cross-Cultural Research Projects
    - Social/Cultural Transmission and Creation of Knowledge
    - Collaborative and Participatory Research
    - Constructing Legitimacy
    Making Sense, Reaching Conclusions
    Postscript
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    Notes
    4. Empowering Methodologies: Feminist and Indigenous Approaches, Jay T. Johnson and Clare Madge
    Chapter Overview
    Introduction
    Feminist Research Practice
    Indigenous Research
    Using Empowering Methods
    1. Approaching the Research
    2. Doing the Research
    3. The Politics of the Research
    Summary: A Critical Reflection
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercise
    Useful Resources
    Acknowledgement
    5. Writing a Compelling Research Proposal, Janice Monk and Richard Bedford
    Chapter Overview
    The Research Challenge
    Where Do Research Ideas Come From?
    Getting Started
    Specifying Your Research Question
    Framing Your Research
    Developing Your Methodology
    Writing the Proposal
    Seeking Funding for Research
    A Concluding Comment
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    Notes
    6. Qualitative Research Design and Rigour
    Chapter Overview
    Introduction
    Asking Research Questions
    - From Asking Research Questions to Conducting Research
    Selecting Cases and Participants
    - Selecting Cases
    - Selecting Participants
    - Participant Selection
    - How Many Participants?
    Ensuring Rigour
    Final Comments
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    7. Case Studies in Qualitative Research, Jamie Baxter
    Chapter Overview
    What Is a Case Study?
    The historical development of the case study
    N=1 and the Importance of Depth and Context
    Types of Case Studies
    - Theory Testing and Theory Generating cases
    - Case Studies across Time and Space
    Are Case Studies Generalizable?
    Conclusion
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    Notes
    Part II "Doing" Qualitative Research in Human Geography
    8. Interviewing, Kevin Dunn
    Chapter Overview
    Interviewing in Geography
    - Types of Interviewing
    - Strengths of Interviewing
    Interview Design
    - The Interview Schedule or Guide
    Types of Questions
    - Ordering Questions and Topics
    Structured Interviewing
    Semi-Structured Interviewing
    Unstructured Interviewing
    Interviewing Practice
    - Contact
    - The Interview Relation
    - Closing the Interview
    Recording and Transcribing Interviews
    - Recording
    - Transcribing the Data
    - Assembling Field Note Files
    Analyzing Interview Data
    Presenting Interview Data
    Interviews Using Computer-Mediated Communication
    - Advantages of CMC Interviewing
    - Challenges of CMC Interviewing
    - Strategies for good CMC Interviews
    Conclusion
    Key Terms
    Review Exercises
    Review Questions
    Useful Resources
    9. Oral History and Human Geography, Karen George and Elaine Stratford
    Chapter Overview
    Introduction
    What is Oral History and Why use It in Geographical Research?
    How is Oral History Different from Interviewing?
    - Starting Ethically
    - Getting to Know Your Participant - The Preliminary Meeting
    - Sensitive Issues
    - Multiple Interviews
    - The Question of Questions
    - Interview Structure
    - Questioning the Source
    - Sound Quality, Interview Sites, and Other Technical Issues
    Why and How to Make Oral History Accessible
    Uses of Oral History - Spreading the Word
    Last Words
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    10. Focusing on the Focus Group, Jenny Cameron
    Chapter Overview
    What are Focus Groups?
    Using Focus Groups in Geography
    Planning and Conducting Focus Groups
    - Selecting Participants
    - Composition of Focus Groups
    - Size and Number of Groups
    - Recruiting Participants
    - Questions and Topics
    - Conducting Focus Groups
    - Online Focus Groups
    Analyzing and Presenting Results
    Conclusion
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    11. Historical Research and Archival Sources, Michael Roche
    Chapter Overview
    Introduction
    What is Archival Research?
    Advice on Conducting Good Historical and Archival Research
    Challenges of Archival Research
    Ethics and Archives
    Presenting the Results of Archival Research
    Conclusion
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercise
    Useful Resources
    Notes
    12. Using Questionnaires in Qualitative Human Geography, Pauline M. McGuirk and Phillip O'Neill
    Chapter Overview
    Introduction
    Questionnaire Design and Format
    Sampling
    Pre-Testing
    Modes of Questionnaire Distribution
    Maximizing Questionnaire Response Rates
    Analyzing Questionnaire Data
    Conclusion
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercise
    Useful Resources
    13. Visual Methodology, Jim Craine and Colin Gardner
    Chapter Overview
    Visual Methods in Geography
    Psychoanalysis and Semiotics
    Discourse Analysis
    Exploring the Virtual
    Geovisualization as Method
    Conclusion
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    14. Doing Foucauldian Discourse Analysis - Revealing Social Identities, Gordon Waitt
    Chapter Overview
    Introducing Discourse Analysis
    Doing Foucauldian Discourse Analysis
    - Choice of Source Materials or Texts
    - Suspend Pre-Existing Categories: Become Reflexive
    - Familiarization: Absorbing Yourself In and Thinking Critically About the Social Context of Your Source Materials
    - Coding: Once for Organization and Again for Interpretation
    - Power, Knowledge, and Persuasion: Investigate your source materials for "Effects of Truth"
    - Resilience and Rupture: Take Note of inconsistencies within your sources
    - Silences: Silence as Discourse and Discourses that Silence
    Reflecting on Doing Foucauldian Discourse Analysis
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    15. Placing Observation in the Research Toolkit, Robin A. Kearns
    Chapter Overview
    Purposes of Observation
    Types of Observation
    Participant Observation
    Power, Knowledge, and Observation
    Stages of Participant Observation
    - Choice of Setting
    - Access
    - Field Relations
    - Talking and Listening
    - Recording Data
    - Analysis and Presentation
    - Ethical Obligations
    Reflecting on the Method
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    16. New Media, Jamie Winders
    Chapter Overview
    What are New Media?
    Thinking Spatially about and With New Media
    What New Media Do
    Who Are We on New Media? Who Are We With?
    Putting It All Together
    Key Terms
    Review Question
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    Notes
    17. Empowering Approaches: Participatory Action Research, Sara Kindon
    Chapter Overview
    What is Participatory Action Research?
    Conducting "Good" Participatory Action Research
    The Value and Rewards of Participatory Action Research
    Challenges and Strategies
    Presenting Results
    Reflecting on Participatory Action Research
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    Notes
    Part III "Interpreting and Communicating" Qualitative Research
    18. Organizing and Analyzing Qualitative Data, Meghan Cope
    Chapter Overview
    Introduction: Making Sense of Data
    Making Meaning I: Memos
    Making Meaning II: Concept Mapping
    Making Meaning III: Coding
    - Types of Codes and Coding
    - The Purposes of Coding
    - Getting Started with Coding
    Developing the Coding Structure
    Coding with Others
    Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) and Qualitative GIS
    Being in the World, Coding the World
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    Notes
    19. Writing Qualitative Geographies, Constructing Meaningful Geographical Knowledges, Juliana Mansvelt and Lawrence D. Berg
    Chapter Overview
    Styles of Presentation
    - Positivist and Neo-Positivist Approaches: Universal Objectivity
    - Post-Positivist Approaches: Situated Knowledges
    Balancing Description and Interpretation - Observation and Theory
    - The Role of "Theory" and the Constitution of "Truth"
    - Writing and Researching as Mutually Constitutive Practices
    - Issues of Validity and Authenticity
    Conclusion
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    Notes
    20. Communicating Qualitative Research to Wider Audiences, Eric Pawson and Dydia DeLyser
    Chapter Overview
    Introduction
    Understanding Audiences
    Organizing and Representing Qualitative Findings
    The Power of Qualitative Research
    Conclusion
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Review Exercises
    Useful Resources
    Appendix: Field Notes Example: Interviewing Sam
    Glossary
    References
    Index

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