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Cover

Public Speaking and Democratic Participation

Speech, Deliberation, and Analysis in the Civic Realm

Jennifer Y. Abbott, Todd F. McDorman, David M. Timmerman, and L. Jill Lamberton

Publication Date - October 2015

ISBN: 9780199338597

464 pages
Paperback
6-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

Retail Price to Students: $74.99

The best text for teaching effective public speaking, deliberation, and rhetorical analysis for meaningful democratic participation

Description

A truly unique introductory textbook, Public Speaking and Democratic Participation: Speech, Deliberation, and Analysis in the Civic Realm provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic skills involved in public speaking--including reasoning, organization, outlining, anxiety management, style, delivery, and more--through the lens of democratic participation. It helps students develop the skills to distinguish between productive and unproductive public discourse; participate in and lead constructive discussions of community issues; and analyze public messages as an act of civic participation.

By integrating the theme of civic engagement throughout, Public Speaking and Democratic Participation offers a direct and inspiring response to the alarming decline in civic participation in the U.S. and the climate of vindictiveness in our current political culture. It equips students with the tools to reverse these tendencies and move toward a greater commitment to our shared public life.

About the Author(s)

Jennifer Y. Abbott is Associate Professor and Chair of the Rhetoric Department at Wabash College.

Todd F. McDorman is Professor of Rhetoric and Senior Associate Dean of the College at Wabash College.

David M. Timmerman is Dean of the Faculty and Vice President for Academic Affairs at Monmouth College.

Jill Lamberton is Assistant Professor of English at Wabash College.

Reviews

"The authors suggest that the endeavor of good speaking has a lot to do with being a responsible citizen in society. Public Speaking and Democratic Participation returns to this idea throughout and appropriately ties concepts back to this notion of taking responsibility for our communication. Throughout, the text offers good examples; it's well written and has a contemporary sensibility."--Lyn J. Freymiller, Penn State University

"I am very intrigued and impressed by the approach that the authors take in this text and find most appealing their breadth of knowledge, substantive information and arguments, and the holistic way that they organically weave together public speaking, rhetorical discipline, and civic responsibility."--Scott Weiss, St. Francis College

"The contemporary examples provide ample evidence that classical rhetorical theory is as meaningful today as it was for Quintilian."--Benjamin J. Cline, Western New Mexico University

Table of Contents

    Preface
    CHAPTER 1. Public Speaking as the Intersection of Rhetoric and Democracy
    RHETORIC AS A CIVIC ART
    THE HISTORICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RHETORIC AND DEMOCRACY
    Democratic Participation in the Assembly
    Public Critique in a Democracy
    RHETORIC AND DEMOCRACY ARE MUTUALLY REINFORCING
    Rhetoric Encourages Democracy
    Democracy Encourages Rhetoric
    Civic Rhetoric at the Local Level
    --Spotlight on Social Media: Twitter and Public Activism
    Civic Rhetoric at the Global Level
    CHAPTER 2. The Landscape of Public Discourse and the Politics of Polarization
    THE PROBLEMS WITH PUBLIC COMMUNICATION
    The Public, the Public Sphere, and Public Discourse
    Growing Concerns about the State of Our Public Communication
    The Qualities of Unproductive Discourse
    OBSTACLES TO PRODUCTIVE COMMUNICATION
    The News Media
    Incivility as Strategy
    Marketing Ideas Rather Than Working toward Compromise
    Reluctant Participation in Democratic Processes
    CHANGING OUR PUBLIC COMMUNICATION: TOWARD PRODUCTIVE DISCOURSE
    Rethinking Public Discourse
    --Spotlight on Social Media: Keep it to Yourself? Politics on Facebook
    Qualities of Productive Discourse
    UNPRODUCTIVE DISCOURSE AND THE ROLE OF SOCIAL PROTEST
    Social Hierarchy and Policing Discourse
    Social Protest as Political Strategy
    CHAPTER 3. The Ethics of Public Speaking
    ETHICS AND RHETORICAL ETHICS
    Ethical Codes
    Rhetorical Ethics
    THE ETHICS OF SPEECH PREPARATION
    The Deceptively Hard Work of Speech Preparation
    Speech Preparation as an Ethical Demand
    THE ETHICS OF SPEECH PERFORMANCE
    The Ethics of Public Influence
    Ethos and Five Ethical Practices of Public Communication
    Avoiding Plagiarism
    Ethical Research
    Practicing Ethical and Sound Reasoning
    Ethical Language Use
    Being Responsible for the Consequences of your Public Rhetoric
    THE ETHICS OF LISTENING
    Active Listening
    Listening to Improve as a Speaker
    Qualities of Ethical Listening
    Ethical Listening Attitude
    Listening to Comprehend and Retain Information
    Listening for Message Evaluation
    --Spotlight on Social Media: Ethical Listening in the Electronic Age
    CHAPTER 4. Conducting Credible and Effective Research
    RESEARCH AS INQUIRY VERSUS STRATEGY
    TYPES OF SOURCES
    Yourself as a Resource
    Generalized Knowledge
    News
    --Spotlight on Social Media: Social Media Deliver and Shape the News
    Scholarship and Trade Journals
    Books
    Government Documents
    Legal Documents
    Corporate Materials
    People's Opinions and Experiences
    INTERVIEWS
    Making a Contact
    Preparing for the Interview
    Conducting the Interview
    ACCESS SOURCES ONLINE
    Research Databases
    Specialized Search Engines
    Domain Name Labels
    Site-Specific Searches
    Simple and Advanced Field Searches
    Boolean Searches
    Searches Using Punctuation Marks
    Saving Sources from the Internet
    FOUR CRITERIA TO CONSIDER WHEN CHOOSING SOURCES
    Relevance
    Recency
    Credibility
    Bias
    DOCUMENTING YOUR SOURCES
    Oral Citations
    Bibliographies
    CHAPTER 5. Knowing and Adapting to Your Audience
    THE IMPORTANCE OF AUDIENCE
    AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
    Audience Analysis and Advertising
    Audience Analysis and the Ancients
    Contemporary Audience Analysis
    Demographic Factors
    Limitations to Using Demographic Factors
    Psychological Factors
    Environmental Factors
    AUDIENCE ADAPTATION
    It's Still Your Message
    Finding Common Ground
    Using Appropriate Language
    Adjusting Depth and Complexity of Content
    Appealing to Deeply Held Values
    Using Compelling Supporting Appeals
    Selecting Credible and Familiar Sources
    Adaptation, Not Manipulation
    --Spotlight on Social Media: Mitt Romney and the Challenges of the Unintended Audience
    IMAGINING THE FUTURE TOGETHER
    CHAPTER 6. Organizing Your Public Presentation in a Clear and Compelling Manner
    THE PURPOSE OF ORGANIZATION
    Four Benefits of a Well-Organized Speech
    The Recursive Nature of Organization
    THESIS STATEMENTS: FRAMING A CLEAR PURPOSE
    A Thesis to Inform an Audience as They Prepare for Deliberation
    Damien's Draft Thesis
    Damien's Revised Thesis
    A Thesis for Persuasion: Advocating Community Involvement in Animal Welfare
    Ryan's Draft Thesis
    Ryan's Revised Thesis
    MAIN POINTS: THE BODY OF YOUR SPEECH
    Gorgias' Main Ideas
    Ryan's Main Ideas
    Your Main Ideas
    --Spotlight on Social Media: Twitter at Conference Presentations
    PATTERNS OF ARRANGEMENT
    Categorical Arrangement
    Chronological Arrangement
    Spatial Arrangement
    Cause-Effect Arrangement
    Three Problem-Based Arrangements
    Problem - Solution Arrangement
    Problem - Alternatives - Solution Arrangement
    Problem - Cause - Solution - Solvency Arrangement
    Refutative Arrangement
    Monroe's Motivated Sequence
    FRAMING WITH EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
    The Functions of Introductions
    Get Attention
    Raise a Need
    Establish Credibility and Good Will
    State Your Thesis or Focal Point
    Preview the Body of the Speech
    The Functions of Conclusions
    Summarize Your Main Points
    Restate Your Thesis or Focal Point
    Articulate Implications or Give Call to Action
    End Decisively
    CONNECTING SPEECH ELEMENTS
    Ideas for Writing Transitions and Signposts
    CHAPTER 7. Writing Effective Preparation and Presentation Outlines
    THE IMPORTANCE OF OUTLINING
    THE PRINCIPLES OF OUTLINING
    Consistent Indentation and Symbolization
    Subordination
    Coordination
    Parallelism
    Balance
    THE PREPARATION OUTLINE
    Begin with the Speech Title
    State Your Specific Purpose
    Label and State Your Thesis
    Label and Offer a Preview for the Speech
    Label Your Introduction and Conclusion
    Write Main Points and Sub-points in Complete Sentences
    Label Transitions and Internal Summaries or Internal Previews as Signposts
    Include a Bibliography
    --Sample Preparation Outline--Putting Our Heads in the Game: Deliberating Concussions and High School Football
    THE PRESENTATION OUTLINE
    Strive for Brevity
    Maintain Indentation and Other Visual Guides
    Include Delivery Notes
    Format Presentation Outline for the Rhetorical Situation
    --Sample Presentation (Key Word) Outline-Putting Our Heads in the Game: Deliberating Concussions and High School Football
    --Another Preparation Outline: Showing Compassion to Our Animal Friends (Persuasive Speech)
    CHAPTER 8. Using Style to Harness the Power of Language
    THE USES OF STYLE IN PRESENTATIONS
    Clarity
    Attention
    Emotion
    Perspective Creation
    STYLISTIC DEVICES
    Rhythm
    Parallelism
    Repetition
    Antithesis
    Alliteration
    Visualization
    Concrete Language
    Visual Imagery
    Simile
    Metaphor
    Personification
    Strengthening Argument
    Irony
    Satire
    Reference to the Unusual
    Community
    Inclusive Pronouns
    Gender Neutral Language
    Maxim
    Ideograph
    --Spotlight on Social Media: DePaul University Social Media Guidelines
    FRAMING
    CHAPTER 9. Engaging Your Audience through Delivery and Memory
    DELIVERY
    Speech Anxiety is Normal
    Strategies to use Prior to Speaking
    Strategies to Use During a Speech
    Strategies to Use After a Speech
    Find a Manner of Delivery that Works for You
    Delivery is Situational
    Your Delivery Will Develop Over Time
    ELEMENTS OF DELIVERY
    Vocal Delivery
    Volume
    Tone
    Rate
    Pauses
    Articulation
    Pronunciation
    Vocal Fillers
    Nonverbal Delivery
    Eye contact
    Facial Expressions
    Gestures and Movement
    Appearance
    Conclusions about Vocal and Nonverbal Delivery
    MEMORY AND MODES OF DELIVERY
    Extemporaneous Delivery
    Impromptu Delivery
    Memorized Delivery
    Manuscript Delivery
    --Spotlight on Social Media: Phil Davison Wants Your Support
    CHAPTER 10. Speaking Informatively through Deliberative Presentations
    INFORMATIVE SPEAKING
    The Need for Informative Speaking in Civic Affairs
    --Spotlight on Social Media: Mediated Learning Communities Expand Our Understanding of Informative Speaking
    Types of Informative Speeches in a Civic Engagement Context
    Instructional Speeches
    Problem-Focused Speeches
    Deliberative Presentations
    PREPARING A DELIBERATIVE PRESENTATION
    Selecting a Public Controversy
    Discovering a Range of Perspectives
    Framing for Deliberation
    Defining the Problem Fairly
    Identifying Trade-offs
    Weighing Competing Values
    Organizing and Delivering the Deliberative Presentation
    LIMITATIONS AND BENEFITS OF INFORMATIVE SPEAKING
    CHAPTER 11. Helping Communities Make Difficult Decisions through Deliberative Discussions
    DISTINCTIVE QUALITIES OF DELIBERATIVE DISCUSSIONS
    DELIBERATIVE DISCUSSIONS IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT
    --Spotlight on Social Media: The Advantages and Challenges of Online Deliberative Discussions
    DELIBERATIVE DISCUSSION STRUCTURE
    THE HEART OF A DELIBERATIVE DISCUSSION: WORKING THROUGH THE ISSUE
    DISCUSSION LEADING
    Creating a Comfortable Environment
    Specific Leadership Tasks
    Developing Discussion Questions
    PARTICIPATING IN A DELIBERATIVE DISCUSSION
    BENEFITS OF DELIBERATIVE DISCUSSIONS
    CHAPTER 12. Persuading an Audience to Modify Their Beliefs, Values, or Actions
    INVENTION: THE SUBSTANCE OF PERSUASION
    Heuristics
    Modes of Proof
    THE PERSUASIVE PROCESS
    Audience Analysis and Adaptation
    Persuasive Goal
    Framing Persuasive Efforts
    Identify an Issue Worthy of Attention
    Offer a Superior Response
    Empower Your Audience--Provide a Means to Act
    --Spotlight on Social Media: Persuasive Advocacy Using Facebook and Twitter
    CHAPTER 13. Practicing Good Reasoning through Quality Arguments
    ARGUMENT AND THE TOULMIN MODEL
    Classical Reasoning
    Using the Toulmin Model
    Arguments and Their Limits
    EVIDENCE AND ITS EVALUATION
    Examples
    Statistics
    Testimony
    PATTERNS OF REASONING AND REASONING FALLACIES
    Reasoning from Example
    Reasoning from Analogy
    Reasoning from Cause
    Reasoning from Sign
    Reasoning from Authority
    Additional Common Fallacies
    --Spotlight on Social Media: Taking Academic Debate Online
    CHAPTER 14. Designing Visual Aids to Reach an Audience
    VISUAL AIDS CAN BENEFIT SPEAKERS
    Visual Aids Can Increase Clarity
    Visual Aids Can Summarize Ideas Quickly
    Visual Aids Can Increase Audience's Attention and Recall
    Visual Aids Have the Power to Affect Your Credibility as a Speaker
    VISUAL RHETORIC AND CIVIC ENGAGEMENT
    Images Function as Visual Rhetoric
    Visual Aids and Civil Discourse
    The Pitfalls of Oversimplification, Unnecessary Complexity, and Unproductive Discourse
    The Rhetoric of Visual Aids as Productive Discourse
    TYPES OF VISUAL AIDS
    Presentation Software
    PowerPoint
    Keynote
    Prezi
    Google Presentation
    Final Thoughts on Presentation Software
    Other Types of Visual Aids, Their Affordances, and Considerations for their Use
    --Spotlight on Social Media: TedTalks: Aimee Mullins "My 12 Pairs of Legs"
    VISUAL AIDS AND THE ART OF DESIGN
    Additional Considerations in Artistic Design
    White Space
    Font
    Color
    Ease of Processing
    Image Quality
    Slide Readability for All Audience Members
    Content Overload
    Transition and Animation Overload
    The "Ooops" Factor
    INTEGRATING THE VISUAL WITH THE ORAL PRESENTATION
    Research Venue Constraints
    Practice with Your Aids
    Don't Read from Your Slides
    Don't be Afraid of a Blank Screen
    CHAPTER 15. Rhetorical Criticism as Civic Engagement
    RHETORIC AND RHETORICAL CRITICISM
    Rhetoric as Symbolic Action
    Rhetorical Criticism
    Description and Interpretation
    Evaluation
    RHETORICAL CRITICISM AS AN INTELLECTUAL DISCIPLINE
    FOUNDATIONAL ELEMENTS IN RHETORICAL CRITICISM
    Selecting Rhetorical Artifacts
    Situating Rhetorical Acts in Context
    Reading Rhetorical Artifacts
    --Spotlight on Social Media: Analyzing Visual Images as Rhetorical Artifacts
    Considering Audience
    EVALUATING DEMOCRATIC PRACTICE AND CIVIC ENGAGEMENT
    Rhetorical Criticism as Democratic Participation
    CHAPTER 16. Public Communication Analysis
    LOCATING A RHETORICAL ARTIFACT
    DETERMINING THE CONTEXT
    DESCRIBING AND INTERPRETING THE RHETORICAL FEATURES
    Argumentation
    Appeals to Emotions and Loyalties
    Rhetor's Credibility
    Construction of the Desired Audience
    Construction of the Undesired Audience
    Organization
    Style and Framing
    Delivery
    --Spotlight on Social Media: A Blog Devoted to Rhetorical Criticism of Public Communication
    EVALUATING THE RHETORICAL ARTIFACT
    Did the Artifact Achieve the Rhetor's Goals? Why or Why not?
    Did the Artifact Strengthen or Weaken Democratic Principles? How?
    How Did the Artifact Directly Support or Hurt Democratic Principles?
    How Did the Artifact Indirectly Support or Hurt Democratic Principles?
    CHAPTER 17. Ideological Analysis
    IDEOLOGICAL CRITICISM AND CIVIC PARTICIPATION
    LOCATING A RHETORICAL ARTIFACT
    DETERMINING THE CONTEXT OF THE RHETORICAL ARTIFACT
    DESCRIBE AND INTERPRET THE ARTIFACT'S IDEOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS
    Ideological Assumptions and Agency
    Ideological Assumptions and Hegemony
    Ideological Assumptions and Resistance
    --Spotlight on Social Media: A Mighty Girl Blog and Facebook Posts
    EVALUATE HOW THE ARTIFACT'S IDEOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS ELEVATE OR CHALLENGE DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES
    Glossary
    Notes
    Index

Teaching Resources

Ancillary Resource Center (ARC): at https://oup-arc.com/access/abbott is a convenient, instructor-focused single destination for resources to accompany your text. Accessed online through individual user accounts, the ARC provides instructors with access to up-to-date ancillaries at any time while guaranteeing the security of grade-significant resources. In addition, it allows OUP to keep instructors informed when new content becomes available. See resources available on the Public Speaking and Democratic Participation Ancillary Resource Center (ARC) below:

·         Instructor’s Manual (IM): The authors provide sample syllabi, teaching tips, exercises, and suggested test questions to accompany the text.

·         The IM also provides:

-          Chapter overviews

-          Learning objectives

-          Detailed outlines

-          Lecture notes

-          Discussion topics

-          Suggested activities

-          Further reading

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