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Public Speaking

Building Competency in Stages

Sherry Devereaux Ferguson

Publication Date - February 2007

ISBN: 9780195187779

592 pages
6-1/8 x 9-1/4 inches

Provides students with the tools they need to speak confidently earlier in the course.


Many public speaking texts take students through a number of chapters of theory and advice before getting to the different types of speeches (e.g., informative, persuasive, special occasion, and small group presentations) that they will give. This innovative new book provides students with the tools they need to speak confidently earlier in the course.
Based on her many years of teaching experience, Sherry Devereaux Ferguson outlines an additive approach to public speaking, providing a foundational overview at the beginning of the book. Each subsequent chapter presents the information and skills necessary to fulfill that chapter's assignment. This organization allows students to master skills incrementally and--in the process--to begin speaking earlier. With a goal of building competency in stages, Ferguson's sure-footed method leads to more confident and effective speakers. Paying special attention to audience analysis and rhetorical criticism, this distinctive text also offers a strong ethical foundation for the act of public speaking.

* Assignment-based: Organizes content around speech assignments rather than topics, allowing professors to introduce practical work early in the course
* Additive in approach: Allows the student to apply principles learned earlier in the course and also to acquire additional knowledge and skills with each new assignment
* Innovative: Incorporates a number of unique features such as the critical communication model, which offers an ethical component; chapters on professional speechwriting and rhetorical analysis; a discussion of PowerPoint presentations; and novel assignments such as a speech of welcome, a coffee shop discussion on ethics, and a team presentation based on theories of multiple intelligence
Providing an abundance of examples, tips from professionals, sample student speeches, and visuals, Public Speaking: Building Competency in Stages helps students to overcome their fears by equipping them with the tools they need to speak confidently in any context.

Table of Contents

    Each chapter ends with a Conclusion and Questions for
    1. Public Speaking in the Age of Accountability: A Critical Model
    I. The Roots of Critical Society
    II. Trends in the Environment
    A. Increasing Activism in the Political Sphere
    B. Increasing Activism in the Economic Sphere
    C. Increasing Activism in the Legal Sphere
    D. Increasing Diversity in the Cultural Environment
    E. Changes in Technological Environments
    F. Changes in Social Environments
    G. Changes in Rhetorical Conventions
    III. A Critical Model for Public Speaking
    A. Speaker
    B. Message
    C. Channel
    D. Environment
    E. Receiver
    F. Noise
    G. Feedback
    H. Impact and Criteria for Judging Speech
    2. Communication Apprehensiveness: Learning to Cope with Anxiety
    I. Causes of Communication Apprehension
    II. Situational Anxiety and Public Speaking
    III. Coping Strategies
    A. Before the Speech
    B. During the Speech
    C. After the Speech
    3. Listening with a Purpose: Exercises in Perception and Listening
    I. Purposeful Listening
    II. How Listeners Process Information
    A. Nature of Perception
    B. Influence of Listening Frames on Message Reception
    C. How Listeners Respond
    D. Influence of Setting on Message Reception
    III. Reciprocal Responsibilities of Listeners and Speakers
    A. Giving Nonverbal Feedback
    B. Giving Verbal Feedback
    4. Acquiring the Basic Skills: The Speech of Introduction
    I. Step 1: Getting Started
    Choosing a Theme
    B. Deciding upon a Purpose
    C. Framing a Thesis Statement
    II. Step 2: Getting Organized
    A. Identifying and Ordering Major Points
    B. Developing an Outline
    C. Writing a Preview Statement
    III. Step 3: Writing the Introduction
    A. Immediacy Techniques
    B. References to the Novel
    C. Suspense and Shock Techniques
    D. Linguistic Strategies
    E. Activity, Drama, and Conflict
    F. Humor
    G. Gimmicks
    IV. Step 4: Developing the Body of the Speech
    V. Step 5: Connecting Your Thoughts
    A. Transitions
    B. Signposts
    C. Internal Summaries
    VI. Step 6: Closing with a Memorable Thought
    VII. Step 7: Practicing and Delivering the Speech
    A. Using Note Cards
    B. Practicing and Timing the
    C. Using Visual Aids
    5. Researching, Analyzing, and Adapting to Your Audience: The Speech of Welcome
    I. Researching and Analyzing Your Audience
    A. Creating a Demographic Profile
    B. Creating a Psychographic Profile
    C. Creating a Personality Profile
    II. Researching and Analyzing Your Speaking Environment
    III. Adapting to Your Audience
    A. Choosing a Topic and Approach
    B. Framing a Realistic Purpose
    C. Recognizing Your Audience
    D. Adapting to the Situation
    VI. Words of Caution
    6. Putting Principles of Delivery into Practice: The One-Point Speech
    I. Preparing One-Point Speeches
    II. Choosing Mode of Delivery
    A. Extemporaneous Speaking
    B. Impromptu Speaking
    C. Memorizing the Speech
    Manuscript Speaking
    E. Speaking from a Teleprompter
    III. Building Credibility Through Delivery
    A. Composure
    B. Dynamism
    C. Trustworthiness
    D. Sociability
    E. Status
    F. Competence
    G. Objectivity
    IV. Meeting Technical Challenges
    V. Setting Realistic Goals
    7. Visual Aids and Other Software Presentations: The Computer-Assisted Presentation
    I. Purposes of Visual Supports
    II. Overview of General Principles
    III. Different Kinds of Visual Supports
    A. Three-Dimensional Objects and Models
    B. Chalkboards, Whiteboards, and Flannel Boards
    C. Flip Charts
    D. Handouts
    E. Posters
    F. Overhead, Slide, and Data Projectors
    G. Audio and Video Tapes
    IV. Visual Presentation of Statistics
    PowerPoint and Other Computer-Generated Presentations
    A. Mixed Media Presentations
    B. Aesthetic Considerations
    C. Considerations Related to Continuity
    D. Use of Contrast and Colors
    E. Typeface and Font Size
    F. Grammar and Structure
    G. Formatting
    H. Presentation Techniques
    8. Researching and Supporting Your Ideas: The Informative Speech
    I. Different Types of Informative Speaking
    II. Steps in Preparing an Informative Speech
    A. Step 1: Choosing Your Topic
    B. Step 2: Framing a Purpose Statement
    C. Step 3: Writing a Thesis Statement
    D. Step 4: Researching Your Speech
    E. Step 5: Identifying Points of Possible Confusion
    F. Step 6: Choosing an Organizational Pattern
    G. Step 7: Developing an Outline
    Step 8: Writing a Preview Statement
    I. Step 9: Writing Your Introduction
    J. Step 10: Developing Your Speech
    K. Step 11: Linking the Parts of the Speech
    L. Step 12: Adding Interest with Visual Aids
    M. Step 13: Concluding the Speech
    9. The Building Blocks of Persuasive Discourse: A Debate Involving Minority Voices
    I. Ethos as a Persuasive Strategy
    A. Constituents of Credibility
    B. Shifts in Credibility During a Speech
    II. Pathos as a Persuasive Strategy
    III. Logos as a Persuasive Strategy
    A. Reasoning from Example
    B. Reasoning from Generalization
    C. Causal Reasoning
    D. Reasoning from Sign
    E. Analogical Reasoning
    10. Arguing Eloquently and Convincingly: Speech to Convince, Stimulate, or Actuate
    I. Step
    1: Selecting Your Topic
    A. Think about Causes That Matter to You
    B. Think about Policies or Laws That May Be at Risk
    C. Think about Policies or Laws You Would Like to Change
    D. Think about Controversial Claims You Would Defend or Dispute
    E. Take Ethical Considerations into Account
    II. Step 2: Framing a Tentative Position Statement
    III. Step 3: Translating Your Position Statement into a Thesis Statement
    IV. Step 4: Researching Your Audience
    V. Step 5: Defining Your General Purpose
    VI. Step 6: Framing a Desired Outcome
    VII. Step 7: Matching Purposes and Audiences with Organizational Patterns
    A. Choices of Organizational Pattern
    B. Considerations in Developing and Ordering Arguments
    VIII. Step 8: Writing Your
    A. Remembering Attention-Getting Strategies
    B. Reviewing Other Elements in the Introduction
    IX. Step 9: Developing the Body of Your Speech
    X. Step 10: Considering Your Audience
    A. Demographics
    B. Psychographics
    C. Needs
    D. Personality
    E. General Considerations
    XI. Step 11: Choosing Evocative Language
    A. Concrete and Vivid Language
    B. Balanced and Parallel Sentence Structures
    C. Antithesis
    D. Repetition
    E. Alliteration
    F. First and Second Voice
    G. Rule of Threes and Fours
    H. Comparison and Contrast
    I. Metaphor
    J. Simile
    K. Personification
    L. Analogy
    M. Rhetorical Questions
    N. Religious References
    XII. Step 12: Linking Your Ideas
    XIII. Step 13:
    Writing Your Conclusion
    XIV. Step 14: Delivering Your Speech
    XV. Step 15: Responding to Questions
    11. The Language of Propaganda: A Coffee-Shop Discussion on Ethics
    I. Defining Propaganda
    A. Defining Propaganda in the Context of World War II
    B. Problems with Defining Propaganda in a Modern Context
    II. The Toolbox of the Propagandist
    A. Eliciting Signal Responses
    B. Manipulating the Truth
    C. Softening the Truth
    D. Oversimplifying Complex Issues
    E. Relying on Glittering Generalities and Patriotic Platitudes
    F. Stating the Obvious
    G. Speaking in the Third Person
    H. Using Extreme Fear Appeals
    I. Pretending to be Someone We are Not
    J. Getting on the Bandwagon
    K. Calling Names and Labeling by
    L. Going Down the Slippery Slope
    M. Pulling Out the Red Herring
    N. Engaging in Circular Reasoning
    O. Lying with Statistics
    12. Speaking in Social Contexts: A Speech for Special Occasions
    I. Types of Special Occasion Speeches
    A. After-Dinner Speeches
    B. Roasts
    C. Wedding Toasts
    D. Graduation Speeches
    E. Award and Acceptance Speeches
    F. Tributes
    G. Eulogies
    H. Introduction of Another Speaker
    I. Sermons
    J. Motivational Talks
    II. The Use of Humor
    A. Humorous Strategies
    B. Cautions in Using Humor
    C. Delivering Humorous Content
    13. Speaking in Classroom Contexts: A Team Presentation
    I. Choosing a Theme
    II. Setting Teaching and Learning Objectives
    III. Deciding
    upon an Agenda of Learning Activities
    A. Taking Learning Theories into Account
    B. Applying the Learning Theories
    C. Taking Audience Adaptation Theories into Account
    D. Choosing Your Learning Activities
    IV. Managing Group Dynamics
    V. Making the Presentation
    A. Setting Up the Room
    B. Making an Impression Through Dress
    C. Sharing Responsibilities
    D. Interacting During the Presentation
    E. Communicating Outside the Kite
    F. Managing the Feedback Process
    G. Providing Handouts and Other Supplementary Materials
    VI. Taking Ethics into Account
    14. The Business of Speechwriting: A "Ghostwritten" Speech
    I. History of Presidential Ghostwriting
    II. Steps in Producing a Ghostwritten Speech
    A. Gathering Background
    B. Structuring and Developing the Speech
    C. Recycling Content
    D. Making Choices on Language
    III. Techniques for Preparing the Manuscript for Delivery
    IV. Relinquishing Ownership
    V. Evaluating Your Efforts
    A. Feedback to the Speechwriter
    B. Feedback to Speech Organizers
    C. Feedback to the Speaker
    D. Conclusion
    VI. Getting Work as a Freelance Writer
    A. Gaining Experience
    B. Advertising Your Work
    C. Negotiating a Contract and Professional Fees
    D. Establishing a Schedule for Completing the Work
    VII. Debate over the Ethics of Ghostwriting
    15. The Nature and Function of Rhetorical Criticism: A Rhetorical Analysis
    I. CCM Approach to Rhetorical Analysis
    A. Speaker
    B. Environment
    D. Message
    E. Impact
    F. Criteria for Judgments
    II. Positioning the Speaker Within a Larger Movement
    Appendix: Memorable Speeches, Historical Moments
    Barack Obama
    George W. Bush
    Earl Charles Spencer
    Hillary Rodham Clinton
    Mary Fisher
    Senator Edward M. Kennedy
    George H. W. Bush
    Harry Emerson Fosdick

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