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Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience

Second Edition

Dale Purves, Kevin S. LaBar, Michael L. Platt, Marty Woldorff, Roberto Cabeza, and Scott A. Huettel

Publication Date - November 2012

ISBN: 9780878935734

601 pages
Hardcover
8.5 x 11 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $156.95

Addresses the latest developments in the field, including expanded coverage of genetics, evolution, and neural development

Description

The new and rapidly evolving field of cognitive neuroscience brings together cognitive psychology and neuroscience, drawing conceptual and technical elements from both these traditional disciplines. This union has been motivated by the exciting possibility of better understanding complex human brain functions that have puzzled thinkers for centuries. The emergence of cognitive neuroscience as a discipline in its own right over the last two decades is thus an expression of what many see as the next logical step for both neuroscience and cognitive psychology, driven by powerful new methods for studying the human brain.

Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience, introduced in 2008, was written to inform readers at all levels about the growing canon of cognitive neuroscience, and to make clear the many challenges that remain to be solved. Now, in this Second Edition, the authors--all leaders in the field--offer what is in essence a completely new book:

*The 28 chapters of the original edition have been condensed and combined to 15 chapters for the new edition.

*The condensation makes the topics covered easier to assimilate, and better suited to presentation in a single-semester course.

*Each chapter has been updated to address the latest developments in the field, including expanded coverage of genetics, evolution, and neural development.

*Introductory Boxes in each chapter take up an especially interesting issue to better capture readers' attention.

*An appendix reviews the major features of human neuroanatomy and basic aspects of neural signaling.

As before, this edition includes an extensive glossary of key terms. And, with every copy, we offer a fully upgraded version of Sylvius 4 Online, which includes an interactive tutorial on human neuroanatomy as well as a magnetic resonance imaging atlas of the human brain.


RESOURCES

For Students
Companion Website
The Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience, Second Edition, Companion Website features review and study resources to help students master the material presented in the textbook. Access is free of charge and requires no access code. The site includes:

*Chapter Summaries: Concise overviews of the important topics covered in each chapter

*Flashcards: Flashcard activities help students to master the extensive vocabulary of cognitive neuroscience. Each chapter's set of flashcards includes all the key terms introduced in that chapter.

*Animations: A collection of detailed animations that depict some of the key processes and structures discussed in the textbook.

*Online Quizzes: For each chapter of the textbook, the Companion Website includes a multiple-choice quiz that covers all the main topics presented in the chapter. Instructors may assign these quizzes, or they may be made available to students as self-study tools. (Instructor registration is required for student access to the quizzes.)

Sylvius 4 Online: An Interactive Atlas and Visual Glossary of Human Neuroanatomy
S. Mark Williams and Leonard E. White

Sylvius 4 provides a unique digital learning environment for exploring and understanding the structure of the human central nervous system. Sylvius features fully annotated surface views of the human brain, as well as interactive tools for dissecting the central nervous system and viewing fully annotated cross-sections of preserved specimens and living subjects imaged by magnetic resonance. This new online version of Sylvius is more than a conventional atlas; it incorporates a comprehensive, visually-rich, searchable database of more than 500 neuroanatomical terms that are concisely defined and visualized in photographs, magnetic resonance images, and illustrations.


For Instructors
Instructor's Resource Library

The Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience, Second Edition, Instructor's Resource Library includes a variety of resources to help instructors in developing their course and delivering lectures. The Library includes:

*Textbook Figures and Tables: All the figures and tables from the textbook are provided in JPEG format (both high- and low-resolution).

*PowerPoint Presentations: All the figures and tables from each chapter are provided on PowerPoint slides, making it easy for instructors to add figures to their presentations.

*Sylvius Image Library: A range of images from the companion program Sylvius 4 Online are provided in PowerPoint format.

*Quiz Questions: All of the questions from the Companion Website's online quizzes are provided in Microsoft Word format.

*Animations: All of the animations from the companion website are provided as Flash files. The animations are also provided on PowerPoint slides for easy integration into instructor presentations

About the Author(s)

Dale Purves is Director of the Neuroscience and Behavioural Disorders program at Duke's Graduate Medical School and Executive Director of the Neuroscience Research Partnership at A*STAR (both located in Singapore).

Kevin S. LaBar is Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at the Duke University School of Medicine.

Michael L. Platt is Professor of Neurobiology at the Duke University School of Medicine and Director of the Duke Institute for Brain Science.

Marty Woldorff is Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at the Duke University School of Medicine.

Roberto Cabeza is Professor of Psychology & Neuroscience at Duke University.

Scott A. Huettel is Professor of Psychology & Neuroscience and Director of the Duke Center for Interdisciplinary Decision Science.

Previous Publication Date(s)

November 2007

Reviews

"This textbook is an ideal introductory text for advanced undergraduates or graduate students studying cognitive neuroscience. I applaud the authors for creating a book that is not only educational but also enjoyable to read--something that cannot be said about most textbooks. Any instructor of an introductory cognitive neuroscience course, advanced and inquisitive undergraduate, or beginning researcher will likely find this text to be a valuable resource."--Amber Baysinger, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine

Table of Contents

    1. Cognitive Neuroscience: Definitions, Themes, and Approaches
    Introduction
    Cognition
    Natural philosophy and early psychology
    Behaviorism
    Cognitive science
    Neuroscience
    Cognitive Neuroscience: The Neurobiological Approach to Cognition
    Methods: Convergence and Complementarity
    Conclusions
    Box 1A. Convergence through Meta-analysis

    2. The Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience
    Introduction
    Brain Perturbations That Elucidate Cognitive Functions
    Perturbations imposed by stroke, trauma, or disease
    Pharmacological perturbations
    Perturbation by intracranial brain stimulation
    Perturbation by extracranial brain stimulation
    Optogenetics
    Measuring Neural Activity during Cognitive Processing
    Direct electrophysiological recording from neurons
    Electroencephalography (EEG)
    Event-related potentials (ERPs)
    Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (functional MRI or fMRI)
    Using fMRI to analyze activation patterns within a brain area
    Using fMRI to examine activity relationships between brain areas
    Optical brain imaging
    Assembling Evidence and Delineating Mechanisms
    Associations and dissociations
    Multimethodological approaches
    Introductory box. Early Brain Mapping in Humans
    Box 2A. An Introduction to Structural Brain Imaging Techniques
    Box 2B. Imaging Structural Connections in the Brain
    Box 2C. Neuroimaging Genomics

    3. Sensory Systems and Perception: Vision
    Introduction
    Visual Stimuli
    The Initiation of Vision
    Subcortical Visual Processing
    Cortical Visual Processing
    Other Key Characteristics of the Visual Cortex
    Topography
    Cortical magnification
    Cortical modularity
    Visual receptive fields
    Visual Perception
    Lightness and brightness
    Color
    Form
    Distance and depth
    Motion
    Object recognition
    Perceiving remembered images
    Introductory box. Prosopagnosia
    Box 3A. Synesthesia
    Box 3B. Measuring Perception
    Box 3C. The Inverse Problem

    4. Sensory Systems and Perception: Auditory, Mechanical, and Chemical Senses
    Introduction
    The Auditory System
    Sound stimuli
    The peripheral auditory system
    The auditory cortices
    The perception of sound
    Perceiving the location of sound sources
    The Mechanosensory Systems
    The cutaneous/subcutaneous system
    The pain system
    The Chemosensory Modalities
    The olfactory system
    The taste system
    Trigeminal chemosensation
    Some Final Points about Sensory Systems
    Coding and labeled lines
    The malleability of sensory circuitry
    Awareness of sensory stimuli
    The representation of sensory percepts
    Introductory box. The Remarkable Success of Cochlear Implants
    Box 4A. Measuring Loudness
    Box 4B. Music and Its Effects
    Box 4C. Somatosensory Illusions
    Box 4D. Phantom Limbs

    5. Motor Systems: The Organization of Action
    Introduction
    Motor Control Is Hierarchical
    Anatomical organization of motor systems
    Cortical Pathways for Motor Control
    Organization of the primary motor cortex
    Movement maps in the primary motor cortex
    Coding Movements by the Activity of Neuronal Populations
    Planning Movements
    Selecting goals for action
    Motivational control of goal selection
    Sequential Movements and the Supplementary Motor Area
    Sensory-Motor Coordination
    Initiation of Movement by the Basal Ganglia
    Basal Ganglia and Cognition
    Error Correction and Motor Coordination by the Cerebellum
    Cerebellar Contributions to Cognitive Behavior
    Introductory box. Apraxia
    Box 5A. Reflexes, Central Pattern Generators, and Rhythmic Behaviors
    Box 5B. Motor Control of Facial Expressions
    Box 5C. Motor Systems and Interval Timing

    6. Attention and Its Effects on Stimulus Processing
    Introduction
    The Concept of Attention
    Global states, arousal, and attention
    The selective nature of attention
    Behavioral Studies of Attention Capacity and Selection
    The level at which selection occurs
    Endogenously versus exogenously driven selective attention
    Neuroscience Approaches to Studying Attention
    Studying the neural effects of attention on stimulus processing
    Studying the control of attention in the brain
    Neural Effects of Attention on Stimulus Processing: Auditory Spatial Attention
    Electrophysiological studies of the effects of auditory spatial attention
    Neuroimaging studies of the effects of auditory spatial attention
    Animal studies of the effects of auditory spatial attention
    The effects of auditory spatial attention on auditory feature processing
    Neural Effects of Attention on Stimulus Processing: Visual Spatial Attention
    Electrophysiological studies of the effects of visual spatial attention
    Neuroimaging studies of the effects of visual spatial attention
    Combining electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies of visual spatial attention
    Animal studies of the effects of visual spatial attention
    The effects of visual spatial attention on visual feature processing
    Neural Effects of Attending to Nonspatial Stimulus Attributes
    The neural effects of attention to nonspatial auditory features
    The neural effects of attention to nonspatial visual features
    The effects of visual attention to objects
    Neural Effects of Attention across Sensory Modalities
    Introductory box. The Cocktail Party Effect
    Box 6A. The Attentional Blink and Late Attentional Selection
    Box 6B. Attention-Related
    7. The Control of Attention
    Introduction
    Clinical Evidence for Brain Regions Involved in Attentional Control
    Control of Voluntary Attention
    Activation in frontal and parietal cortex during endogenous attentional tasks
    Delineating the role of the frontoparietal network in the control of attention
    Ascertaining the temporal flow of brain activations underlying attentional control
    Single-neuron recordings in frontal and parietal cortex during attentional control
    Preparatory activation of sensory cortices during attentional control
    Control of Exogenously Induced Changes in Attention
    Attentional shifts triggered by sudden stimulus onsets
    Attentional reorienting activates a ventral frontoparietal system
    Visual Search
    Behavioral studies of visual search
    Theoretical models of visual search
    Neural processes underlying visual search
    Attentional Control as a System of Interacting Brain Areas
    Interactions between Components of the Attentional System
    Generality of Attentional Control Systems
    Attention, Levels of Arousal, and Consciousness
    Sleep and wakefulness
    Consciousness
    Neural correlates of consciousness in normal subjects
    Neural correlates of consciousness in pathological conditions
    Introductory box. Hemispatial Neglect Syndrome
    Box 7A. The Default-Mode Network

    8. Memory: Varieties and Mechanisms
    Introduction
    Memory Phases, Processes, Systems, and Tasks
    Dissociating Memory Systems
    Working memory versus declarative memory
    Declarative versus nondeclarative memory
    Nondeclarative Memory
    Priming
    Perceptual priming
    Conceptual priming
    Semantic priming
    Repetition enhancement
    Skill Learning
    Motor skill learning
    Perceptual skill learning
    Cognitive skill learning
    Conditioning
    Cellular Mechanisms of Memory
    Habituation and sensitization
    Long-term potentiation and depression
    Linking LTP to memory performance
    Learning-related changes in synaptic morphology
    Introductory box. The Case of H.M.
    Box 8A. Investigating Declarative Memory in Non-Human Animals
    Box 8B. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions beyond Declarative Memory
    Box 8C. Connectionist Models

    9. Declarative Memory
    Introduction
    Basic Concepts and Assumptions
    A taxonomy of declarative memory
    A simple neurological model of encoding, storage, and retrieval
    Using the model to explain the effects of brain damage
    The Nature of Medial Temporal Lobe Representations
    Theories of hippocampal memory function
    Differences between medial temporal lobe subregions
    Cortical Regions Storing Semantic and Episodic Memory Representations
    The organization of semantic knowledge in the cortex
    The reactivation of cortical regions for recent episodic memories
    Contributions of the Prefrontal Cortex to Encoding and Retrieval
    Functional neuroimaging of episodic encoding
    Functional neuroimaging of episodic retrieval
    Effects of frontal lobe lesions
    Contributions of the Posterior Parietal Cortex to Encoding and Retrieval
    The role of posterior parietal cortex during retrieval
    The role of posterior parietal cortex during encoding
    Memory Consolidation
    Synaptic versus system consolidation
    Theories of system consolidation in declarative memory
    Consolidation, reactivation, and sleep
    Introductory box. Developmental Amnesia
    Box 9A. Organization of the Medial Temporal Lobe Memory System
    Box 9B. Functional Neuroimaging Methods to Study Episodic Memory
    Box 9C. ERP Studies of Episodic Retrieval

    10. Emotion
    Introduction
    What Is Emotion?
    Psychological Classification of Emotions
    Categorical theories
    Dimensional theories
    Component process theories
    Early Neurobiological Theories of Emotion
    The James-Lange feedback theory
    The Cannon-Bard diencephalic theory
    The Papez circuit and Klüver-Bucy syndrome
    The limbic system theory and its challenges
    Contemporary Approaches to Studying the Neurobiology of Emotion
    Hemispheric-asymmetry hypotheses
    Vertical integration models: Fear acquisition
    Vertical integration models: Fear modification
    Interoception and the somatic marker hypothesis
    In search of categories of emotional experience
    Interactions with Other Cognitive Functions
    Emotional influences on perception and attention
    Emotional influences on memory consolidation
    Regulation of Emotion
    Introductory box. The Neuroscience and Neuroethics of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    Box 10A. Psychophysiology and the Brain-Body Link
    Box 10B. Stress and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary- Adrenal Axis

    11. Social Cognition
    Introduction
    The Self
    Self-reflection
    Embodiment
    Perception of Social Cues Evident in the Face and Body
    Face perception
    Perception of biological motion
    Interpersonal attention and action direction
    Social Categorization
    Perception of social category information
    Stereotypes and automatic racial biases
    Monitoring and controlling racial bias
    Impression formation and trust
    Understanding the Actions and Emotions of Others
    Mirror neurons
    Perspective taking and mental-state attribution
    Theory of mind in children and apes
    Empathy, sympathy, and prosocial behavior
    Social Competition
    Social rank and stress
    Power motivation and dominance contests
    Introductory box. Autism
    Box 11A. Measuring Implicit and Explicit Racial Attitudes
    Box 11B. Social Bonds and Kinship

    12. Language
    Introduction
    Speech
    Producing speech
    Comprehending speech
    Interpreting speech sounds
    Sentences, grammar, and syntax
    The importance of context
    Acquiring Speech and Language
    Learning a vocabulary
    The shaping of phonemes and phones
    A critical period for language acquisition
    Mechanisms of language learning
    Effects of language deprivation
    Theories of Language
    Is there a Connectionist theory
    The Neural Bases of Language
    Neural bases for producing speech and language
    Neural bases for comprehending language
    Additional evidence from neurosurgery
    Contributions of the right hemisphere to language
    Noninvasive Studies of Language Organization
    Evidence that the neural basis of language is fundamentally symbolic
    Genetic Determination of Language Functions
    Is Human Language Unique?
    The Origins of Human Language
    Introductory box. Dyslexia
    Box 12A. Representing Speech Sounds in Written Form
    Box 12B. Language, Handedness, and Cerebral Dominance
    Box 12C. Representing Number
    Box 12D. Learned Vocal Communication in Non-human Species

    13. Executive Functions
    Introduction
    A Taxonomy of Executive Function
    Prefrontal Cortex: A Key Contributor to Executive Function
    Organization and connectivity of the prefrontal cortex
    Consequences of damage to the prefrontal cortex
    Establishing and Modifying Behavioral Rules
    Initiating rules for behavior
    Inhibiting rules for behavior
    Inhibiting socially inappropriate behaviors
    Shifting among rules for behavior
    Relating rules to create higher-order models of the world
    Hierarchical models for executive function
    Control: Matching Behavior to Context
    Conflict monitoring
    Challenges to the conflict-monitoring model
    Functional organization of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex
    Working Memory: Maintaining Information and Rules over Time
    Neural substrates of working memory
    Introductory box. Environmental Dependency Syndrome
    Box 13A. Comparative Anatomy of the Prefrontal Cortex
    Box 13B. The Neurobiology of Intelligence
    Box 13C. Reasoning

    14. Decision Making
    Introduction
    Decision Making: From Rational Choice to Behavioral Economics
    Reward and Utility
    Dopamine: Pleasure or motivation?
    Reward prediction error
    Responses to negative outcomes
    Uncertainty: Risk, Ambiguity, and Delay
    Risk and ambiguity
    Delay: Discounting future rewards
    Social Context
    Social rewards
    Social cooperation
    Social punishment
    Integration: Combining and Comparing Information to Reach a Decision
    Perceptual decision making
    Value-based decision making
    Heuristics in Decision Making
    Future Directions
    Introductory box. Addiction to Gambling
    Box 14A. Learning Values and Forming Habits
    Box 14B. Modeling Simple Decisions
    Box 14C. Neuromarketing

    15. Evolution and Development of Brain and Cognition
    Introduction
    Early Thinking about the Evolution and Development of Cognition
    Early Brain Development
    Neuronal differentiation and myelination
    The development of neural connections
    Linking Brain and Cognitive Development
    Brain size and the evolution of cognition
    Relative brain size and cerebral complexity
    Evolution of Brain Development
    Evolutionary Specializations of Brain and Behavior
    Evolution and development of learning and memory
    Evolution and development of quantitative cognition
    Evolution and development of social cognition
    Evolution and development of language
    Introductory box. Savant Syndrome
    Box 15A. Darwin and the Brain
    Box 15B. Brain Differences in Modern Humans: Implications for Cognition
    Box 15C. Evolution of Human Brain and Cognition Evident in the Fossil Record

    APPENDIX. The Human Nervous System
    Cellular Components of the Nervous System
    Nerve Cells and Their Signaling Functions
    Functional Organization of the Human Nervous System
    Neural circuits
    Neural systems
    Structural Organization of the Human Nervous System
    Major Subdivisions of the Central Nervous System
    The brainstem
    The spinal cord
    Surface features of the brain
    Internal features of the brain
    The ventricular system
    The Brain's Blood Supply
    Box A1. Intracellular Recording from Nerve Cells
    Box A2. Organization of the Cerebral Cortex
    Box A3. Anatomical Terminology

    Glossary
    Illustration Credits
    Index

Teaching Resources

For Students
Companion Website
The Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience, Second Edition,Companion Website features review and study resources to help students master the material presented in the textbook. Access is free of charge and requires no access code. The site includes:

*Chapter Summaries: Concise overviews of the important topics covered in each chapter

*Flashcards: Flashcard activities help students to master the extensive vocabulary of cognitive neuroscience. Each chapter's set of flashcards includes all the key terms introduced in that chapter.

*Animations: A collection of detailed animations that depict some of the key processes and structures discussed in the textbook.

*Online Quizzes: For each chapter of the textbook, the Companion Website includes a multiple-choice quiz that covers all the main topics presented in the chapter. Instructors may assign these quizzes, or they may be made available to students as self-study tools. (Instructor registration is required for student access to the quizzes.)

Sylvius 4 Online: An Interactive Atlas and Visual Glossary of Human Neuroanatomy
S. Mark Williams and Leonard E. White

Sylvius 4 provides a unique digital learning environment for exploring and understanding the structure of the human central nervous system. Sylvius features fully annotated surface views of the human brain, as well as interactive tools for dissecting the central nervous system and viewing fully annotated cross-sections of preserved specimens and living subjects imaged by magnetic resonance. This new online version of Sylvius is more than a conventional atlas; it incorporates a comprehensive, visually-rich, searchable database of more than 500 neuroanatomical terms that are concisely defined and visualized in photographs, magnetic resonance images, and illustrations.


For Instructors
Instructor's Resource Library

The Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience, Second Edition, Instructor's Resource Library includes a variety of resources to help instructors in developing their course and delivering lectures. The Library includes:

*Textbook Figures and Tables: All the figures and tables from the textbook are provided in JPEG format (both high- and low-resolution).

*PowerPoint Presentations: All the figures and tables from each chapter are provided on PowerPoint slides, making it easy for instructors to add figures to their presentations.

*Sylvius Image Library: A range of images from the companion program Sylvius 4 Online are provided in PowerPoint format.

*Quiz Questions: All of the questions from the Companion Website's online quizzes are provided in Microsoft Word format.

*Animations: All of the animations from the companion website are provided as Flash files. The animations are also provided on PowerPoint slides for easy integration into instructor presentations

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