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Cover

Practically Speaking

Fourth Edition

J. Dan Rothwell

Publication Date - November 2022

ISBN: 9780197648414

480 pages
Paperback
6 x 9 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $69.99

Edgy, current, funny--Practically Speaking compels students to keep reading

Description

Widely praised for its conversational tone and clear advice, Practically Speaking is the public speaking textbook your students will actually read. Filled with engaging stories and examples, sound scholarship and recent research, and useful tips and tricks, Practically Speaking shows students how to get started, practice thinking critically, and ultimately develop their own voice. Practically Speaking is a winner of the Textbook & Academic Authors Association's Textbook Excellence Award.

Instructors may find course preparation tools and more details on our robust digital offerings at www.oup.com/he/rothwell-ps4e.

New to this Edition

  • All new print and eBook versions of the text come with free access to a full suite of engaging digital learning tools that bring the content to life and build public speaking skills.
  • A new Chapter (18) on virtual speeches prepares students for the "new normal" of online public speaking in the classroom and the world of business and the workplace.
  • Speak Up prompts throughout the text encourage unlimited speech practice, one of the main strategies for combating speech anxiety. These practice prompts can be assigned in your learning management system or on our cloud-based platform, powered by GoReact.
  • Almost 200 new references--including a wealth of new studies, surveys, and statistics on a wide variety of topics--and new scholarship bring the text thoroughly up to date.
  • New examples, stories, humorous anecdotes, and pop culture references capture and maintain student attention.
  • A greatly expanded collection of interesting and engaging photos show more than a typical variety of individuals merely speaking at podiums.
  • Model informative and persuasive speeches, Appendices A and B, have been completely updated and significantly shortened.
  • A greatly expanded and updated video program includes new Student Web speeches, YouTube videos, and TED Talks. More than 125 TED Talks and YouTube speech links at the end of chapters provide valuable opportunities for students to see high-quality, and sometimes less than commendable, speeches for illustration and analysis.

Features

  • Not Reading?: Practically Speaking addresses the challenge of students not reading in this course by the use of engaging stories and examples, sound scholarship and recent research, and useful tips and tricks. It shows students how to get started, practice thinking critically, and ultimately develop their own voices as they master public speaking skills. Its brevity, style, affordability, unique chapter on skepticism, and enhanced digital package all help students become successful in this course and in their lives.
  • Not Prepared?: Another challenge that faculty face is students not being prepared for this course (and for college in general). Practically Speaking provides a wealth of online resources, videos, presentation topic ideas, flashcards, quizzes, and speech activities, all to help students who struggle in this course.

About the Author(s)

J. Dan Rothwell is the former chair of the Communication Studies Department at Cabrillo College. He has a BA in American history from the University of Portland (Oregon), an MA in rhetoric and public address, and a PhD in communication theory and social influence, both from the University of Oregon. He has authored five other books in addition to Practically Speaking and has received more than two dozen teaching awards during his lengthy academic career.

Table of Contents

    Brief Contents
    Preface
    1. Communication Competence and Public Speaking
    2. Speech Anxiety
    3. Audience Analysis and Topic Selection
    4. Gathering Material
    5. Using Supporting Materials Effectively
    6. Attention: Getting People to Listen
    7. Introductions and Conclusions
    8. Outlining and Organizing Speeches
    9. Speaking Style: Using Language
    10. Delivering Your Speech
    11. Visual Aids
    12. Skepticism: Becoming Critical Thinking Speakers and Listeners
    13. Argument, Reasoning, and Evidence
    14. Informative Speaking
    15. Foundations of Persuasive Speaking
    16. Persuasive Speaking Strategies
    17. Speeches for Special Occasions
    18. Virtual Public Speaking
    APPENDIX A. Text of an Informative Speech: "The Annual Plague"
    APPENDIX B. Text of a Persuasive Speech: "Get Big Money Out of College Sports"
    APPENDIX C. Group Oral Presentations
    Glossary
    References
    Credits
    Index

    Preface
    Chapter 1. Communication Competence and Public Speaking
    DEFINING COMMUNICATION
    Communication as a Transactional Process: Working with an Audience
    Communication as Sharing Meaning: Making Sense
    COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE IN PUBLIC SPEAKING
    Effectiveness: Achieving Goals
    --Degrees of Effectiveness: From Deficiency to Proficiency
    --Audience Orientation: You Are Not Talking to Yourself
    Appropriateness: Speaking by the Rules
    ACHIEVING COMPETENT PUBLIC SPEAKING
    Knowledge: Learning the Rules
    Skills: Showing, Not Just Knowing
    Sensitivity: Developing Receptive Accuracy
    Commitment: Acquiring a Passion for Excellence
    Ethics: Determining the Right and Wrong of Speaking
    --Ethical Standards: Judging Moral Correctness of Speech
    --Plagiarism: Never Inconsequential
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 2. Speech Anxiety
    SPEECH ANXIETY AS A CHALLENGE
    Pervasiveness of Speech Anxiety: A Common Experience
    Intensity of Speech Anxiety: Fate Worse than Death?
    --[Box Feature] First Speech: Sample Narrative Speech of Introduction on Speech Anxiety
    SYMPTOMS: FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT RESPONSE
    Basic Symptoms: Your Body's Response to Threat
    Appropriateness of Symptoms: Relevance to Public Speaking
    CAUSES OF DYSFUNCTIONAL ANXIETY
    Self-Defeating Thoughts: Sabotaging Your Speech
    --Catastrophic Thinking: Fear of Failure
    --Perfectionist Thinking: No Mistakes Permitted
    --The Illusion of Transparency: Being Nervous about Looking Nervous
    --Desire for Complete Approval: Trying Not to Offend
    Anxiety-Provoking Situations: Considering Context
    --Novelty of the Speaking Situation: Uncertainty
    --Conspicuousness: The Spotlight Effect
    --Types of Speeches: Varying Responses
    STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING SPEECH ANXIETY
    Prepare and Practice: Transforming Novelty into Familiarity
    Gain Realistic Perspective: Rational Not Irrational Thinking
    --Four Phases of Speech Anxiety
    --Rational versus Irrational Anxiety
    RATIONAL SPEECH ANXIETY
    Adopt a Noncompetitive Communication Orientation: Reframing
    Use Coping Statements: Rational Reappraisal
    Use Positive Imaging: Visualizing Success
    Use Relaxation Techniques: Reducing Fight-or-Flight Response
    Try Systematic Desensitization: Incremental Relaxation
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 3. Audience Analysis and Topic Selection
    TYPES OF AUDIENCES
    Captive Audience: Disengaged Listeners
    Committed Audience: Agreeable Listeners
    Contrary Audience: Hostile Listeners
    Concerned Audience: Eager Listeners
    Casual Audience: Unexpected Listeners
    AUDIENCE COMPOSITION
    Age: Possible Generation Gaps
    Gender: Go Beyond Simplistic Stereotypes
    Ethnicity and Culture: Sensitivity to Diversity
    Group Affiliations: A Window into Listeners' Views
    AUDIENCE ADAPTATION
    Establish Identification: Connecting with Your Audience
    --Likability: I Can Relate to You
    --Stylistic Similarity: Looking and Acting the Part
    --Substantive Similarity: Establishing Common Ground
    Build Credibility: Establishing Believability
    --Competence: Knowledge and Experience
    --Trustworthiness: Truthfulness
    --Dynamism: Display Energy
    --Composure: Stay in Control
    Adapt to the Situation: Influence of Circumstances
    Adapt While Speaking: Exhibit Sensitivity
    TOPIC CHOICE AND AUDIENCE ADAPTATION
    Exploring Potential Topics: Important Choice
    --Do a Personal Inventory: You as Topic Source
    --Brainstorm: New Possibilities
    --Crowdsourcing for Topics: Group Wisdom
    --Scanning for Topics: Quick Ideas
    Appropriateness of Topic: Blending Topic and Audience
    --Speaker Appropriateness: Suitability for You
    --Audience Appropriateness: Suitability for Your Listeners
    --Occasion Appropriateness: Suitability for the Event
    Narrowing the Topic: Making Subjects Manageable
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 4. Gathering Material
    THE INTERNET: ONLINE RESEARCH
    Search Engines
    Virtual Libraries
    Government Sites
    Survey Sites
    Wikipedia: Credible Scholarship or Mob Rule?
    News and Blogging Sites: Be Very Choosy
    Famous Quotation Sites: The Wisdom of Others
    Evaluating Internet Information: Basic Steps
    LIBRARIES: BRICKS-AND-MORTAR RESEARCH FACILITIES
    Librarian: Expert Navigator
    Library Catalogues: Computer Versions
    Periodicals: Popular Information Sources
    Newspapers: An Old Standby
    Reference Works: Beyond Wikipedia
    Databases: Computerized Collections of Credible Information
    INTERVIEWING: QUESTIONING EXPERTS
    Interview Plan: Be Prepared
    Interview Conduct: Act Appropriately
    Interviewing by Email: Surprise Yourself
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 5. Using Supporting Materials Effectively
    USING EXAMPLES COMPETENTLY
    Types of Examples: Specific Illustrations
    --Hypothetical Examples: It Could Happen
    --Real Examples: It Did Happen
    --Brief Examples: Short and to the Point
    --Extended Examples: Telling a Story
    Using Examples Effectively: Choose Carefully
    --Choose Vivid Examples: Create Images
    --Use Representative Examples: Reflect What Is Accurate
    --Stack Examples: When One Is Not Enough
    USING STATISTICS COMPETENTLY
    Choose Statistics for Effect: Beyond Numbing Numbers
    Use Accurate Statistics Accurately: No Distorting
    Make Statistics Concrete: Meaningful Numbers
    Make Statistical Comparisons: Gaining Perspective
    Use Credible Sources: Build Believability
    Stack Statistics: Creating Impact
    Use Statistics Sparingly: Don't Overwhelm Your Listeners
    Use Visual Aids: Clarify Statistical Trends and Analysis
    USING TESTIMONY COMPETENTLY
    Types of Testimony: Relying on Others
    --Testimony of Experts: Relying on Those in the Know
    --Eyewitness Testimony: You Had to Be There
    --Testimony of Non-Experts: Ordinary Folks Adding Color to Events
    How to Use Testimony Effectively
    --Quote or Paraphrase Accurately: Consider Context
    --Use Qualified Sources: Credibility Matters
    GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ACROSS TYPES
    Choose Interesting Supporting Materials: Counteracting Boredom
    Be Aware of Source Bias: Choose Carefully
    Cite Sources Completely: No Vague References
    Abbreviate Repetitive Source Citations: Oral Reference Reminders
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 6. Attention: Getting People to Listen
    NATURE OF ATTENTION: A TRANSACTIONAL PROCESS
    Selective Attention of Listeners: Filtering Stimuli
    How to Be a Mindful Listener: Assisting the Speaker
    SPEAKER'S ATTENTION STRATEGIES: TRIGGERING LISTENING
    The Vital Appeal: Meaningfulness
    Novelty: The Allure of the New
    --Unusual Topics: Choosing Outside the Box
    --Unusual Examples: The Anti-Sedative
    --Unusual Stories: Compelling Attention
    --Unusual Phrasing: Wording Matters
    --Unusual Presentation: Song and Dance
    Humorous Appeal: Keep Listeners Laughing
    --Do Not Force Humor: Not Everyone Is Funny
    --Use Only Relevant Humor: Stay Focused
    --Be Sensitive to Audience and Occasion: Humor Can Backfire
    --Consider Using Self-Deprecating Humor: "I'm Not Worthy"
    Startling Appeal: Shake Up Your Listeners
    --Startling Statements, Facts, or Statistics: The "Oh WOW" Effect
    --Inappropriate Use: Beware Bizarre Behavior
    Movement and Change: Our Evolutionary Protection
    Intensity: Extreme Degree of a Stimulus
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 7. Introductions and Conclusions
    OBJECTIVES FOR COMPETENT INTRODUCTIONS
    Gain Attention: Focusing Your Listeners
    --Begin with a Clever Quotation: Let Others Grab Attention
    --Startle Your Audience: Surprise Opener
    --Use Questions: Engage Your Listeners
    --Tell a Relevant Story: Use Narrative Power
    --Begin with a Simple Visual Aid: Show and Tell
    --Refer to Remarks of Introduction: Acknowledging Praise
    Make a Clear Purpose Statement: Providing Intent
    Establish Topic Significance: Making Your Listeners Care
    Establish Your Credibility: Why Listeners Should Believe You
    Preview the Main Points: The Coming Attractions
    OBJECTIVES FOR COMPETENT CONCLUSIONS
    Summarize the Main Points: Connecting the Dots
    Refer to the Introduction: Bookending Your Speech
    Make a Memorable Finish: Sizzle, Don't Fizzle
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 8. Outlining and Organizing Speeches
    EFFECTIVE OUTLINING
    Standard Formatting: Using Correct Symbols
    Division: Dividing the Pie
    Coherence: Logical Consistency and Clarity
    Completeness: Using Full Sentences
    Balance: No Lopsided Time Allotment
    [Box Feature] A Student Outline: Rough Draft and Revision
    EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION: CREATING PATTERNS
    Topical Pattern: By the Subjects
    Chronological Pattern: According to Time
    Spatial Pattern: Visualization
    Causal Pattern: Who or What Is Responsible
    Problem-Solution Pattern: Meeting Needs
    Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern: Knowing Why and How
    Comparative Advantages Pattern: Who or What Is Better
    Monroe's Motivated Sequence: Five-Step Pattern
    Narrative Pattern: Telling a Story
    CONNECTING THE DOTS: ADDITIONAL TIPS
    Provide Definitions
    Use Signposts
    Make Transitions
    Use Internal Previews
    Give Internal Summaries
    PREPARATION VERSUS PRESENTATION OUTLINES
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 9. Speaking Style: Using Language
    ORAL VERSUS WRITTEN STYLE
    STYLE IN THE ELECTRONIC AGE
    STANDARDS OF COMPETENT ORAL STYLE
    Clarity: Concise and on Point
    --Jargon: Beware Confusion
    --Euphemism: Linguistic Novocaine
    --Slang: Trying to Sound Cool
    Precision: Picking the Apt Words
    Vividness: Painting a Picture
    --Metaphor and Simile: Figures of Speech
    --Alliteration: Several of the Same Sounds
    --Repetition: Rhythmic Cadence
    --Antithesis: Using Opposites
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 10. Delivering Your Speech
    METHODS OF COMPETENT DELIVERY
    Manuscript Speaking: Looking for Precision
    Memorized Speaking: Memory, Do Not Fail Me Now
    Impromptu Speaking: Off-the-Cuff Presentations
    Extemporaneous Speaking: The Virtues of an Outline
    DEVELOPING COMPETENT DELIVERY
    Eye Contact: Connecting with Your Audience
    Voice: Developing Vocal Variety
    Fluency: Avoiding Excessive Vocal Fillers
    Speaking Rate: Finding the Right Pace
    Articulation and Pronunciation: Striving for Clarity of Speech
    Body Movements: Finding the Right Balance Nonverbally
    Podium Usage: Avoiding the Lectern Lean
    Microphone Usage: Amplifying Your Delivery
    Distracting Behaviors: Avoiding Interference
    Audience-Centered Delivery: Matching the Context
    Q & A: They Have Questions, You Have Answers
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 11. Visual Aids
    BENEFITS: REASONS TO USE AIDS
    TYPES: MAKING APPROPRIATE CHOICES
    Objects: Show and Tell
    Models: Practical Representations
    Graphs: Making Statistics Clear and Interesting
    Maps: Making a Point Geographically
    Tables: Factual and Statistical Comparisons
    Photographs: Very Visual Aids
    Drawings: Photo Substitutes
    VISUAL AIDS MEDIA: VAST CHOICES
    Chalkboard and Whiteboard: All Dinosaurs Are Not Extinct
    Poster Board: Simplicity Itself
    Handouts: An Old Standby
    Video Excerpts: DVDs, YouTube, and Visual Power
    Projection Equipment: Blowing It Up
    Computer-Assisted Presentations
    [Box Feature] PowerPoint: Lots of Power, Little Point?
    GUIDELINES: AIDS, NOT DISTRACTIONS
    Keep Aids Simple
    Make Aids Visible
    Make Aids Neat, Attractive, and Accurate
    Do Not Block the Audience's View
    Keep Aids Close to You
    Put the Aid Out of Sight When Not in Use
    Practice with Aids
    Do Not Circulate Your Aids
    Do Not Talk in the Dark
    Anticipate Problems
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 12. Skepticism: Becoming Critical Thinking Speakers and Listeners
    SKEPTICISM, TRUE BELIEF, AND CYNICISM
    DANGERS OF TRUE BELIEF
    THE PROCESS OF TRUE BELIEVING
    Confirmation Bias: Searching for Support
    Rationalization of Disconfirmation: Clinging to Falsehoods
    Burden of Proof: Whose Obligation Is It?
    SKEPTICISM PROCESS: INQUIRING MINDS WANT TO KNOW
    Probability Model: Likely but Not Certain
    --Possibility: Could Happen, but Do Not Bet on It
    --Plausibility: Making a Logical Case
    --Probability: What Are the Odds?
    --Certainty: Without Exception
    Skepticism and Open-Mindedness: Inquiring, Not Empty, Minds
    Becoming a Skeptic: Practically Speaking
    --What Speakers as Skeptics Do
    --What Listeners as Skeptics Do
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 13. Argument, Reasoning, and Evidence
    AN ARGUMENT: STAKING YOUR CLAIM
    Syllogism: Formal Logic
    Toulmin Structure of Argument: Informal Logic
    CRITERIA: IS IT FACT OR FALLACY?
    Credibility: Should We Believe You?
    --Manufactured or Questionable Statistics: Does It Make Sense?
    --Biased Sources: Grinding an Ax
    --Expert Quoted Out of Field: No Generic Experts Allowed
    --False Dichotomies: Either-Or Thinking
    Relevance: Does It Follow?
    --Ad Hominem Fallacy: Diversionary Tactic
    --Ad Populum Fallacy: Arguing from Public Opinion
    Sufficiency: Got Enough?
    --Self-Selected Sample: Partisan Power
    --Inadequate Sample: Large Margin of Error
    --Hasty Generalization: Arguing from Example
    --Correlation Mistaken for Causation: X Does Not Necessarily Cause Y
    --False Analogy: Mixing Apples and Oranges
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 14. Informative Speaking
    INFORMATIVE VERSUS PERSUASIVE SPEAKING
    Noncontroversial Information: Staying Neutral
    Precursor to Persuasion: No Call to Action
    TYPES OF INFORMATIVE SPEECHES
    Reports: Facts in Brief
    Explanations: Deeper Understanding
    Demonstrations: Acting Out
    Narratives: Storytelling
    Speeches That Compare: Balancing the Pros and Cons
    COMPETENT INFORMATIVE SPEAKING GUIDELINES
    Be Informative: Tell Us What We Do Not Know
    Adapt to Your Audience: Topic Choice and Knowledge Base
    Avoid Information Overload: Beware the Data Dump
    Tell Your Story Well: Narrative Tips
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 15. Foundations of Persuasive Speaking
    DEFINING PERSUASION
    GOALS OF PERSUASION
    Conversion: Radical Persuasion
    Modification: Do Not Ask for the Moon
    Maintenance: Keep 'Em Coming Back
    ATTITUDE-BEHAVIOR CONSISTENCY
    Direct Experience: No Secondhand Attitudes
    Social Pressure: Getting Heat from Others
    Effort Required: Degree of Difficulty
    ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL
    PROPOSITIONS: FACT, VALUE, AND POLICY CLAIMS
    CULTURE AND PERSUASION
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 16. Persuasive Speaking Strategies
    ENHANCE THE SPEAKER: IDENTIFICATION AND CREDIBILITY
    USE LOGIC AND EVIDENCE: A PERSUASIVE FOCUS
    Persuasive Arguments: Quality and Quantity
    Persuasive Evidence: Statistics Versus Narratives
    TRY EMOTIONAL APPEALS: BEYOND LOGIC
    General Emotional Appeals: Motivating Change
    Fear Appeals: Are You Scared Yet?
    Anger Appeals: Moderately Upset
    Ethics and Persuasion: Emotional Appeals Revisited
    FRAMING: USING LANGUAGE TO SHAPE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR
    INDUCE COGNITIVE DISSONANCE: CREATING TENSION
    USE THE CONTRAST EFFECT: MINIMIZE THE MAGNITUDE
    TRIGGER PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE: CRY FREEDOM
    ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN: REFUTATION
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 17. Speeches for Special Occasions
    TRIBUTE ADDRESSES
    Toasts: Raising a Glass in Tribute
    Roasts: Poking Fun with Admiration
    Tribute to Colleagues: Honoring the Departing
    Eulogies: Praising the Departed
    INTRODUCTIONS OF FEATURED SPEAKERS
    SPEECHES OF PRESENTATION
    SPEECHES OF ACCEPTANCE
    COMMENCEMENT ADDRESSES
    AFTER-DINNER SPEECHES
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

    Chapter 18. Virtual Public Speaking
    ONLINE SPEECH OPTIONS
    Asynchronous: Recorded Presentations
    Synchronous: Immediate but Remote Audience
    Hybrid: Live and Recorded
    BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF ONLINE SPEECHES
    Asynchronous Speech: Anyone Out There?
    Synchronous Speech: Resembling In-Person Presentations
    Hybrid Speech: Doing the Splits
    DEVELOPING COMPETENT ONLINE SPEECHES
    Setting the Stage
    Delivering the Speech
    SUMMARY
    TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
    CHECKLIST
    CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS
    APPENDIX A. Text of an Informative Speech: "The Annual Plague"
    APPENDIX B. Text of a Persuasive Speech: "Get Big Money Out of College Sports"
    APPENDIX C. Group Oral Presentations
    Glossary
    References
    Credits
    Index

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