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Cover

Practically Speaking

J. Dan Rothwell

Publication Date - November 2013

ISBN: 9780195337662

352 pages
Paperback
6 x 9 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $49.95

Tradition Meets Innovation

Description

Fresh and Practical Advice You Will Need
Sound Scholarship You Can Trust
All at a Price You Won't Believe


Practically Speaking is a brief text that covers the essentials of public speaking without sacrificing student interest or sound scholarship. Using a conversational and edgy style, author Dan Rothwell gives practical advice and a fresh perspective on classic and contemporary theories and research. This essential guide provides students with a solid foundation in public speaking and then teaches them how to add their own voices to the conversation.

Features
* Each chapter follows the rules of good organizational logic presented in Chapter 7
* Unique and humorous examples, stories, quotations, photos, and cartoons; intense, dramatic, and poignant illustrations; vivid language and metaphors; and startling statistics and historical facts
* Numerous pop-culture references and newsworthy events
* More than 500 sources, both classic and contemporary
* The "Communication Competence Model", carefully developed in Chapter 1, serves as the theoretical basis for all advice offered
* A unique Chapter (9), "Skepticism: Becoming Critical Thinking Speakers and Listeners"
* A separate chapter on speech anxiety
* A full chapter on gaining and maintaining attention
* Two full chapters on persuasive speaking that provide theoretical explanations for general and specific persuasive strategies

About the Author(s)

J. Dan Rothwell is chair of the Communication Studies Department at Cabrillo College. Dr. Rothwell has received numerous teaching awards, including among others: the 2010 "Ernest L. Boyer International Award for Excellence in Teaching, Learning, and Technology"; the 2010 Cabrillo College "Innovative Teacher of the Year"; the 2011 National Communication Association "Community College Educator of the Year" award; and a 2012 official resolution by the California State Senate acknowledging Dr. Rothwell's excellence in teaching. Also in 2012, the Western States Communication Association awarded the Cabrillo College Communication Studies department, under the leadership of Dr. Rothwell, the "Model Communication Studies" award.

Reviews

"The length is perfect. The chapters are easy to read and are full of relevant examples that are sure to capture students' attention. The author covers all of the usual topics dealing with public speaking, but does so in a unique and interesting dialogue with the reader."--Valerie Manno Giroux, University of Miami

"Rothwell's new text includes the most comprehensive, vitally important content on speech anxiety I have ever seen in a public speaking text. This book digs deeper than other texts into what students need to grasp while also providing techniques that they can readily apply."--Marilyn Simpkins Brimo, Mt. Hood Community College

" I love this book. I love the tone, content, and writing style and find it appropriate and engaging for college students. Overall great scholarship--way more than most other texts! Practically Speaking takes public-speaking texts to a new and exciting place. It is unlike any other public-speaking book I've encountered and I enjoyed and appreciated the breath of fresh air."--Brandi Quesenberry, Virginia Tech

"The sense of humor is brilliant, edgy, topical, and smart. I found myself literally LOL-ing numerous times."--Andrew Herrmann, East Tennessee State University

"Practically Speaking is fresh, current, and concise-a winning combination."--Scott McLean, Arizona Western College/Northern Arizona University-Yuma

"It is very rare to read a textbook and not want to put it down; a unique situation I found myself in as I read Practically Speaking. It is a refreshing new textbook that reads more like an informative narrative without succumbing to the fate of being simply entertainment. The text does not speak down to students; it talks to them and engages them in a way that only a good storyteller could do. All-in-all, this book is a great read!"--Matthew Sciarrino, St. John's University

"The text is very accessible and written in a conversational style. The stories are effective and current, which will help students relate to the material. Even with the goal of brevity, this textbook has the most developed section on persuasion and effectiveness that I have seen so far in introductory speaking textbooks."--Donata Nelson, Rockingham Community College

"I'm a fan of Rothwell's writing style--and my students are as well. Thumbs up again and again for writing style. His style is concise, yet full of substance and even humorous. It's not 'dumbed down.' The text is chock-full of terrific research, current and even edgy examples, and solid advice for students learning the art of public speaking."--Jill Alcorn, Green River Community College

"The writing style encourages/invites/compels students to continue reading."--Quinton Dale Davis, University of Texas at San Antonio

"The writing style is excellent--very straightforward, easy to understand, clear, and concise. The author previews his points and then makes them in a very direct manner, using vivid examples."--Kathy Berggren, Cornell University

Table of Contents

    1. Communication Competence and Public Speaking
    DEFINING COMMUNICATION
    Communication as Transactional: Working with an Audience
    Communication as Process: The Continuous Flow
    Communication as Sharing Meaning: Making Sense
    DEFINING COMMUNICATION: COMPETENCE IN PUBLIC SPEAKING
    Effectiveness: Achieving Goals
    --Degrees of Effectiveness: From Deficiency to Proficiency
    --Audience Orientation: You are Not Talking to Yourself
    Appropriateness: Speaking by the Rules
    ACHIEVING COMPETENT PUBLIC SPEAKING
    Knowledge: Learning the Rules
    Skills: Showing not Just Knowing
    Sensitivity: Developing Receptive Accuracy
    Commitment: Acquiring a Passion for Excellence
    Ethics: Determining the Right and Wrong of Speaking
    2. Speech Anxiety
    SPEECH ANXIETY AS A CHALLENGE
    Pervasiveness of Speech Anxiety: The General Population
    Anxiety and Professionals: Not Just the Novices
    SYMPTOMS: FIGHTORFLIGHT RESPONSE
    Basic Symptoms: Your Body's Response to Threat
    Appropriateness of Symptoms: Relevance to Public Speaking
    CAUSES OF DYSFUNCTIONAL ANXIETY
    Self-Defeating Thoughts: Sabotaging Your Speech
    --Catastrophic Thinking: Fear of Failure
    --Perfectionist Thinking: No Mistakes Permitted
    --Desire for Complete Approval: Trying Not to Offend
    --The Illusion of Transparency: Being Nervous About Looking Nervous
    Anxiety-Provoking Situations: Considering Context
    --Novelty of the Speaking Situation: Uncertainty
    --Conspicuousness: In the Spotlight
    --Types of Speeches: Varying Responses
    STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING SPEECH ANXIETY
    Prepare and Practice: Transforming Novelty into Familiarity
    Gain Realistic Perspective: Rational Not Irrational Thinking
    Adopt a Noncompetitive Communication Orientation: Reframing
    Use Coping Statements: Rational Reappraisal
    Use Positive Imaging: Visualizing Success
    Use Relaxation Techniques: Reducing Fight-or-Flight Response
    Try Systematic Desensitization: Incremental Relaxation
    3. Delivering Your Speech
    METHODS OF COMPETENT DELIVERY
    Manuscript Speaking: Looking for Precision
    Memorized Speaking: Memory Do Not Fail Me Now
    Impromptu Speaking: Off the Cuff Presentations
    Extemporaneous Speaking: The Virtues of an Outline
    DEVELOPING COMPETENT DELIVERY
    Eye contact: Connecting with Your Audience
    Voice: Developing Vocal Variety
    Fluency: Avoiding Excessive Vocal Fillers
    Speaking Rate: Finding the Right Pace
    Articulation and Pronunciation: Striving for Clarity of Speech
    Body Movements: Finding the Right Balance
    Podium Usage: Avoiding the Lectern Lean
    Microphone Usage: Amplifying Your Delivery
    Distracting Behaviors: Avoiding Interference
    Audience-Centered Delivery: Matching the Context
    4. Audience Analysis
    TYPES OF AUDIENCES
    Captive Audience: Disengaged Listener
    Committed Audience: Agreeable Listeners
    Contrary Audience: Hostile Listeners
    Concerned Audience: Eager Listeners
    Casual Audience: Unexpected Listener
    AUDIENCE COMPOSITION
    Age: Possible Generation Gaps
    Gender: Go Beyond Simplistic Stereotypes
    Ethnicity and Culture: Sensitivity to Diversity
    Group Affiliations: A Window into Listeners' Views
    ADAPTING TO DIVERSE AUDIENCES
    Establish Identification: Connecting with Your Audience
    --Likeability: I Can Relate to You
    --Stylistic Similarity: Looking and Acting the Part
    --Substantive Similarity: Establishing Common Ground
    Build Credibility: Establishing Believability
    Adapt While Speaking: Exhibit Sensitivity
    TOPIC CHOICE AND AUDIENCE ADAPTATION
    Exploring Potential Topics: Important Choice
    Do a Personal Inventory: You as Topic Source
    Brainstorm: New Possibilities
    --Scanning for Topics: Quick Ideas
    Appropriateness of Topic: Blending Topic and Audience
    --Speaker Appropriateness: Suitability for You
    --Audience Appropriateness: Suitability for Your Listeners
    --Occasion Appropriateness: Suitability for the Event
    Narrowing the Topic: Making Subjects Manageable
    5. Attention: Getting People to Listen
    NATURE OF ATTENTION
    Selective Attention of Listeners: Filtering Stimuli
    Mindful Listening: Focused Attention
    ATTENTION STRATEGIES: TRIGGERING LISTENING
    Novelty: The Allure of the New
    --Unusual Topics: Choosing Outside the Box
    --Unusual Examples: The Anti-Sedative
    --Unusual Stories: Nothing Like a Good Tale
    --Unusual Phrasing: It is in the Wording
    Startling Appeal: Shake Up Your Listeners
    --Inappropriate Use: Beware of Bizarre Behavior
    The Vital Appeal: Meaningfulness
    Humorous Appeal: Keep Listeners Laughing
    --Do Not Force Humor: Not Everyone is Funny
    --Use Only Relevant Humor: Stay Focused
    --Be Sensitive to Audience and Occasion: Humor Can Backfire
    --Consider Using Self-Deprecating Humor: "I'm Not Worthy"
    Movement and Change: Our Evolutionary Protection
    Intensity: Extreme Degree of a Stimulus
    6. Introductions and Conclusions
    OBJECTIVES FOR COMPETENT INTRODUCTIONS
    Gain Attention: Focusing Your Listeners
    --Begin With a Clever Quotation: Let Others Grab Attention
    --Use Questions: Engage Your Listeners
    --Begin with a Simple Visual Aid: Show and Tell
    --Tell a Relevant Story: Use Narrative Power
    --Refer to Remarks of Introduction: Acknowledging Praise
    Make a Clear Purpose Statement: Providing Intent
    Establish Topic Significance: Making Your Listeners Care
    Establish Your Credibility: Why Listeners Should Believe You
    Preview the Main Points: The Coming Attractions
    OBJECTIVES FOR COMPETENT CONCLUSIONS
    Summarize the Main Points: Connecting the Dots
    Refer to the Introduction: Bookending Your Speech
    Make a Memorable Finish: Sizzle Do Not Fizzle
    7. Outlining and Organizing Speeches
    EFFECTIVE OUTLINING
    Standard Formatting: Using Correct Symbols
    Division: Dividing the Pie
    Coherence: Logical Consistency and Clarity
    Completeness: Using Full Sentences
    Balance: No Lopsided Time Allotment
    EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION: CREATING PATTERNS
    Topical Pattern: By the Subjects
    Chronological Pattern: According to Time
    Spatial Pattern: Visualization
    Causal Pattern: Who or What is Responsible
    Problem-Solution Pattern: Meeting Needs
    Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern: Knowing Why and How
    Comparative Advantages Pattern: Who or What is Better
    Monroe's Motivated Sequence: Five-Step Pattern
    Narrative Pattern: Telling a Story
    CONNECTING THE DOTS: ADDITIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL TIPS
    Provide Definitions
    Use Signposts
    Make Transitions
    Use Internal Previews
    Give Internal Summaries
    CULTURAL CHALLENGES
    8. Gathering Material
    THE INTERNET: ONLINE RESEARCH
    Search Engines
    Directories
    Metasearch Engines
    Virtual Libraries
    Internet Search Tips
    Wikipedia: Credible Scholarship or Mob Rule?
    Blogging Sites: Be Very Choosy
    Evaluating Internet Information: Basic Steps
    LIBRARIES: BRICKSANDMORTAR RESEARCH FACILITY
    Librarian: Expert Navigator
    Library Catalogues: Computer Versions
    Periodicals: Popular Information Sources
    Newspapers: An Old Standby
    Reference Works: Beyond Wikipedia
    INTERVIEWING: QUESTIONING EXPERTS
    Interview Plan: Be Prepared
    Interview Conduct: Act Appropriately
    Interviewing by Email: Surprise Yourself
    PLAGIARISM AND ETHICS: CUTTING CORNERS ON RESEARCH
    9. Skepticism: Becoming Critical Thinking Speakers and Listeners
    SKEPTICISM, TRUE BELIEF, AND CYNICISM
    DANGERS OF TRUE BELIEF
    THE PROCESS OF TRUE BELIEVING
    Confirmation Bias: Searching for Support
    Rationalization of Disconfirmation: Clinging to Falsehoods
    Shifting the Burden of Proof: Whose Obligation Is It?
    THE PROCESS OF SKEPTICISM: INQUIRING MINDS WANT TO KNOW
    Probability Model: Likely but Not Certain
    --Possibility: Could Happen, but Do Not Bet on it
    --Plausibility: Making a Logical Case
    --Probability: What are the Odds?
    --Certainty: Without Exception
    Skepticism and Open-Mindedness: Inquiring Minds, Not Empty Minds
    10. Argument, Reasoning, and Evidence
    AN ARGUMENT: STAKING YOUR CLAIM
    Syllogism: Formal Logic
    Toulmin Structure of Argument: Informal Logic
    CRITERIA FOR REASONING AND EVIDENCE: IS IT FACT OR FALLACY?
    Credibility: Should We Believe You?
    --Questionable Statistics: Does It Make Sense?
    --Biased Source: Grinding an Ax
    --Incomplete Source Citation: Something to Hide?
    --Expert Quoted Out of Field: No Generic Experts Allowed
    --Relevance: Does it Follow?
    --Ad hominem Fallacy: Diversionary Tactic
    --Ad populum Fallacy: Arguing from Public Opinion
    --Sufficiency: Got enough?
    --Self-Selected Sample: Partisan Power
    --Inadequate Sample: Large Margin of Error
    --Hasty Generalization: Arguing from Example
    --Correlation Mistaken for Causation: X Does not Necessarily Cause Y
    --False Analogy: Ming Apples and Oranges
    11. Presenting Supporting Materials
    USING EXAMPLES COMPETENTLY
    Types of Examples: Specific Illustrations
    --Hypothetical Examples: It Could Happen
    --Real Examples: It Did Happen
    --Brief Examples: Short and to the Point
    --Extended Examples: Telling a Story
    How to Use Examples: Choose Carefully
    --Use Relevant Examples: Stay on Point
    --Choose Vivid Examples: Create Images
    --Use Representative Examples: Reflect What is Accurate
    Stack Examples: When One is Not Enough
    USING STATISTICS COMPETENTLY
    Measures of Central Tendency: Determining What is Typical
    --Mean: Your Average Statistic
    --Median: An in-the-Center Statistic
    --Mode: Most Frequent Statistic
    How to Use Statistics: Beyond Numbing Numbers
    --Use Accurate Statistics Accurately: No Distorting
    --Make Statistics Concrete: Meaningful Numbers
    --Make Statistical Comparisons: Gaining Perspective
    --Stack Statistics: Creating Impact
    --Use Credible Sources: Build Believability
    USING TESTIMONY COMPETENTLY
    Types of Testimony: Relying on Others
    --Testimony of Experts: Relying on Those in the Know
    --Eyewitness Testimony: You Had To be there
    --Testimony of Non-Experts: Ordinary Folks Adding Color to Events
    How to Use Testimony
    --Quote or Paraphrase Accurately: Consider Context
    --Use Qualified Sources: Credibility Matters
    GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ACROSS TYPES
    Choose Interesting Supporting Materials: Counteracting Boredom
    Abbreviate Source Citations: Brief Reference Reminders
    Combine Examples, Stats, and Quotes: The Power of Three
    12. Speaking Style
    ORAL VERSUS WRITTEN STYLE
    STYLE IN THE ELECTRONIC AGE
    STANDARDS OF COMPETENT ORAL STYLE
    Clarity: Saying What You Mean
    Precision: Picking the Apt Words
    Vividness: Painting a Picture
    Metaphor and Simile: Figures of Speech
    Alliteration: Several of the Same Sounds
    --Repetition: Rhythmic Cadence
    Antithesis: Using Opposites
    13. Visual Aids
    BENEFITS OF VISUAL AIDS: REASONS TO USE THEM
    TYPES OF VISUAL AIDS: MAKING APPROPRIATE CHOICES
    Objects: Show and Tell
    Models: Practical Representations
    Graphs: Making Statistics Clear and Interesting
    Maps: Making a Point Geographically
    Tables: Factual and Statistical Comparisons
    Photographs: Very Visual Aids
    Drawings: Photo Substitutes
    VISUAL AIDS MEDIA: SIMPLE TO TECHNOLOGICALLY ADVANCED
    Chalkboard and Whiteboard: All Dinosaurs are not Extinct
    Poster Board: Simplicity Itself
    Handouts: An Old Standby
    Video Excerpts: DVDs, YouTube, and Visual Power
    Projection Equipment: Blowing it Up
    Computer-Assisted Presentations: PowerPoint
    GUIDELINES FOR COMPETENT USE: AIDS NOT DISTRACTIONS
    Keep Aids Simple
    Make Aids Visible
    Make Aids Neat, Attractive, and Accurate
    Do not Block the Audience's View
    Keep Aids Close to You
    Put the Aid Out of Sight When Not in Use
    Practice with Aids
    Do Not Circulate Your Aids
    Do Not Talk in the Dark
    Anticipate Problems
    14. Informative Speaking
    DISTINGUISHING INFORMATIVE FROM PERSUASIVE SPEAKING
    Noncontroversial Information: Staying Neutral
    Precursor to Persuasion: No Call to Action
    TYPES OF INFORMATIVE SPEECHES
    Reports: Facts in Brief
    Explanations: Deeper Understanding
    Demonstrations: Acting Out
    Narratives: Storytelling
    Speeches that Compare: Balancing the Pros and Cons
    GUIDELINES FOR COMPETENT INFORMATIVE SPEAKING
    Be Informative: Tell Us What We Do Not Know
    Adapt to Your Audience: Topic Choice and Knowledge Base
    Avoid Information Overload: Beware of the Data Dump
    Tell Your Story Well: Narrative Tips
    15. Foundations of Persuasive Speaking
    DEFINING PERSUASION
    ATTITUDE. BEHAVIOR CONSISTENCY
    Direct Experience: No Second-Hand Attitudes
    Social Pressure: Getting Heat from Others
    Effort Required: Degree of Difficulty
    GOALS OF PERSUASION
    Conversion: Radical Persuasion
    Modification: Do Not Ask for the Moon
    Maintenance: Keep 'em Coming Back
    ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL
    CULTURE AND PERSUASION
    16. Persuasive Speaking Strategies
    ENHANCE THE SPEAKER: IDENTIFICATION AND CREDIBILITY
    BUILD ARGUMENTS: PERSUASIVE LOGIC AND EVIDENCE
    Propositions: Fact, Value, and Policy Claims
    Persuasive Arguments: Quality and Quantity
    Persuasive Evidence: Statistics versus Narratives
    TRY EMOTIONAL APPEALS: BEYOND LOGIC
    General Emotional Appeals: Motivating Change
    Fear Appeals: Are You Scared Yet?
    Anger Appeals: Moderately Upset
    Ethics and Emotional Appeals: Is it Wrong to be Peripheral?
    FRAME YOUR CASE: SHAPING ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR WITH LANGUAGE
    INDUCE COGNITIVE DISSONANCE: CREATING TENSION
    USE THE CONTRAST EFFECT: MINIMIZE THE MAGNITUDE
    Use a Two-Sided Organizational Pattern: Refutation
    17. Speeches for Special Occasions
    TRIBUTE ADDRESSES
    Toasts: Raising a Glass in Tribute
    Roasts: Poking Fun with Admiration
    Tribute to Colleagues: Honoring the Departing
    Eulogies: Praising the Departed
    INTRODUCTIONS OF FEATURED SPEAKERS
    SPEECHES OF PRESENTATION
    SPEECHES OF ACCEPTANCE
    COMMENCEMENT ADDRESSES
    AFTER DINNER SPEECHES
    --Appendix A. Text of an Informative Speech: "The Annual Plague"
    --Appendix B. Text of a Persuasive Speech: "Get Big Money Out of College Sports"