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Police & Society

Eighth Edition

Kenneth Novak, Gary Cordner, Bradley Smith, and Roy Roberg

Publication Date - 01 November 2019

ISBN: 9780190940805

576 pages
8 x 10 inches

In Stock

Bridges the gap between research and practice


Police & Society, Eighth Edition, offers an in-depth and analytical look at policing, from police behavior and organization to operations and historical perspectives. Focusing on the relationship between the police and the community and how it has changed throughout the years, the authors explore the most important theoretical foundations and incisive research on contemporary policing and show how that research is put into practice. The text is enhanced by extensive pedagogy and a unique chapter on higher education and policing.

New to this Edition

  • Revised and updated with the latest research throughout
  • Provides additional coverage of critical emerging themes, including evidence-based strategies to prevent crime; evolving crime trends; policing in a changing American society; advances in technology; policing in an era of declining budgets; immigration; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues; legitimacy; procedural justice; terrorism/homeland security; and growing concerns about surveillance and privacy
  • Includes significantly expanded material on legitimacy, procedural justice, criminal procedure, misconduct, racial and gender diversity, officer stress and safety, contemporary policing interventions, national estimates on police use of force, social media, intelligence-led policing, competing police strategies, and the bottom line of policing
  • Combines Chapters 5 and 6 to cover police organization and management and organizational change
  • Significantly expands the discussion of field operations into two separate chapters: Chapter 7 focuses on foundations of field operations and investigations, and Chapter 8 focuses on policing innovations
  • Updated Voices from the Field interviews feature new, high-profile subjects
  • Thoroughly revised Inside Policing boxes reflect the tumultuous police-related events of recent years. Many of the boxes include links to a blog maintained by coauthor Gary Cordner, providing students with a wealth of additional resources and inviting students to participate in real time discussions about current events.

About the Author(s)

Kenneth Novak is Professor of Criminal Justice and Criminology at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.

Gary Cordner is Professor Emeritus of Criminal Justice at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

Brad Smith is Professor of Criminal Justice at Wayne State University.

Roy Roberg is Professor Emeritus of Justice Studies at San José State University.


"This is an accurate, concisely written text by real practitioners and scholars--which makes it a more meaningful text. It is straight to the point and contains a lot of practical applicable policing terms and concepts. The authors have worked diligently to make sure it matches today's perceptions of policing."--Chernoh M. Wurie, Virginia Commonwealth University

"Police & Society is a very comprehensive book with outstanding coverage of empirical data and research findings. It offers a good combination of theory and data and provides a nice approach that incorporates practitioners' views."--Mengyan Dai, Old Dominion University

"Police & Society, without a doubt, is the best book for teaching law enforcement or a similar course."--Dwayne Marshall, Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania

Table of Contents

    About the Authors


    Chapter 1. Police in a Democracy
    Policing a Free Society
    Police and Government
    Police and Rule of Law
    Police, Terrorism, and Homeland Security
    Police Systems
    The U.S. Police System
    Other Types of Law Enforcement Agencies
    Similarities and Differences
    Police Role and Purpose
    Law Enforcement or Politics?
    Crime-Fighting or Social Service?
    Proactive or Reactive?
    Police Activities and Workload
    Police Goals and Strategies
    Looking Ahead

    Chapter 2. Police History
    Foundations of Policing
    Early Policing
    Policing in Nineteenth-Century England
    The Emergence of Modern Policing in the United States
    The First City Police Forces
    The County Sheriff
    Vigilance Committees
    Modern American Policing
    The Political Era
    Police Development
    Criticism in the Political Era
    The Reform Era
    Southern Colonial and Frontier Police Development: A Minority Perspective on the Development of American Police
    State Police
    Texas and Massachusetts
    Highway Patrol
    Federal Law Enforcement
    The Revenue Cutter Service and the U.S. Marshal Service
    Postal Inspectors
    The Secret Service
    The Federal Bureau of Investigation

    Chapter 3. Legal Issues
    Criminal Procedure
    Searches and Seizures of Persons
    Searches and Seizures of Property
    Interrogations and Confessions
    Civil Liability
    Costs of Liability in Policing
    Avenues of Liability
    Civil Liability in State Courts
    Civil Liability in Federal Courts
    Emerging Liability Issues for the Twenty-First Century
    Use of Force
    Impact on Officers

    Chapter 4. Police Strategies
    Evolving Strategies of Policing
    Landmark Studies of Police Effectiveness
    Patrol Studies
    Response Time Studies
    Criminal Investigation Studies
    Strategic Developments
    Improving Crime-Control Effectiveness
    Improving Police-Community Relations
    Improving Professionalism
    Developing Evidence-Based Practices
    Strategic Alternatives
    Community Policing
    Problem-Oriented Policing
    Intelligence-Led Policing
    Predictive Policing
    What Works in Policing


    Chapter 5. Police Organization and Management

    The Managerial Process
    The Evolution of Police Management Classical Police Management Behavioral Police Management Contemporary Police Management
    Organizational Design Criticisms of the Paramilitary Design Influence of Community Policing Structuring Police Discretion
    Managing Police Performance Measuring What Matters Police Organizational Performance Police Unit Performance Supervision and Police Performance
    Managing Group Behavior Police Subcultures Employee Associations and Unions
    Managing Critical Incidents
    Media Relations and Strategic Communications
    Organizational Change Reorganizing Improving Leadership and Management Revising Policies and Procedures Changing Strategies and Tactics Changing Behavior and Culture
    The Change Process Resistance to Change Overcoming Resistance to Change
    Case Studies Madison, Wisconsin Chicago New York Los Angeles Cincinnati
    Critical Thinking Questions References

    Chapter 6. Selection and Development
    Recruitment Methods
    Recruiting for Diversity
    Recruitment Toolkit
    Preemployment Standards
    General Suitability
    Preemployment Testing
    Recruit Screening Methods
    Americans with Disabilities Act
    Recruit Training
    Program Orientation
    Philosophy and Instructional Methods
    Curriculum Development and Content
    Curriculum Updates
    Effectiveness of Recruit Training
    Field Training
    Field Training Officer Program
    Police Training Officer Program
    Career Growth

    Chapter 7. Field Operations: Foundations
    The Patrol Function
    Historical Development
    Patrol Methods
    Use of Patrol Resources
    Proactive Arrests and Crackdowns
    Police Pursuits
    The Investigative Function
    Historical Development
    Selected Research on Investigative Operations
    Crime Gun Intelligence Centers
    Advances in Physical Evidence: The Automated Fingerprint Identification System and DNA
    Bias Crime Programs
    Detective-Patrol Relationships

    Chapter 8: Innovations in Field Operations
    Community-Based Approaches
    Procedural Justice and Police Legitimacy
    Broken Windows Policing
    Place-Based Approaches
    Focused Interventions
    Hot Spot Policing
    Gun Violence
    Intelligence-Led Policing
    Predictive Policing
    Person-Based Approaches
    Focused Deterrence Initiatives
    What Works in Policing


    Chapter 9. Behavior and Misconduct

    Perspectives of Police Behavior
    Universalistic Perspectives
    Particularistic Perspectives
    Socialization Versus Predisposition
    Early Examinations of Police Behavior
    Decision Making and Police Discretion
    Organizational Variables
    Neighborhood Variables
    Situational Variables
    Individual (Officer) Variables
    Police Deviance
    Types of Deviance and Misconduct
    The Prevalence of Police Deviance
    Deviant Officers
    The Persistence of Corruption
    Are Gratuities a Type of Misconduct?
    Police Sexual Misconduct
    The Drug War and Police Deviance
    Organizational Reponses

    Chapter 10. Force and Coercion
    Police-Citizen Interactions
    Context of Force
    National Estimates on Police Use of Force
    Learning to Use Force
    Reengineering Training
    Areas of Training
    Police Culture and the Use of Force
    Controversy and the Use of Force
    Inappropriate Force
    Brutality and Excessive Force
    Physical and Psychological Force in Police History
    Frequency of Excessive Force and Brutality
    Brutality in the Twenty-First Century
    Deadly Force
    Category 1: Death
    Category 2: Injury
    Category 3: Noninjury
    Individual and Situational Factors
    Environmental and Departmental Variations
    Racial Considerations
    Legal and Policy Changes

    Chapter 11. Accountability and Ethics
    Internal Accountability Mechanisms
    Bureaucratic Organization and Management
    Internal Investigation
    Issues in Internal Investigations
    Early Warning/Early Identification Systems
    Body-Worn Cameras
    Effectiveness of Internal Investigations
    External Accountability Mechanisms
    Civilian Review
    Police Auditor Systems
    The Limits of Oversight Mechanisms
    Professional Standards
    The Police Professionalization Movement
    Criteria of Police Professionalization
    Ethical Standards
    Ethical Perspectives
    Ethical Dilemmas
    The Limits of Professional and Ethical Standards


    Chapter 12. Diversity and Inclusion

    Racial Minorities in Policing
    Unequal Treatment
    Performance of African American Police
    Women in Policing
    Unequal Treatment
    Performance of Women Officers
    Affirmative Action
    Equal Employment Opportunity
    Increasing Diversity in Police Departments
    Promotional Opportunities
    Integration of Minorities and Women into Policing
    Police Culture
    Structural Characteristics
    Sexual Harassment
    Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Officers
    Future Prospects

    Chapter 13. Stress and Officer Safety
    The Concept of Stress
    Occupational Stress
    Overview of Stressors
    Police Stressors
    Emerging Sources of Stress
    Line-of-Duty and Crisis Situations
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    Shift Work
    Social Supports and Police Stress
    Consequences of Stress
    Alcohol Abuse
    Drug Abuse
    Stress and the Impact on Families
    Policies and Programs
    Officer Safety
    Danger and Police Work
    Improving Safety and Reducing Fatalities

    Chapter 14. Higher Education
    The Development of Higher-Education Programs for Police
    Federal Programs and Support for Higher Education
    Quality of Higher-Education Programs
    Higher-Education Requirements for Police
    The Impact of Higher Education on Policing
    Higher Education and Attitudes
    Higher Education and Performance
    Higher Education and Use of Force
    Higher Education and Promotion
    Higher Education and Job Satisfaction
    Higher Education and Terrorism
    Validating Higher Education for Police
    Higher Education as a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification
    Higher Education and Discrimination
    Higher-Education Incentive Programs
    Higher-Education Requirements and Policy Implications
    Moving Forward: Beyond Traditional University-Based Education?

    Chapter 15. Emerging Issues
    Changes in American Society
    Generational Differences
    Cultural Diversity
    Immigration and Migration
    Shifting Economics
    Modern Problems
    Crime Trends
    Mass Shootings
    Mental Health
    Modern Technology
    Crime Detection and Crime Solving
    Surveillance and Privacy
    Officer Safety and Accountability
    Social Media
    Long-Term Trends
    Terrorism and Homeland SecuritySummary
    Voices from the Field: Biographical Sketches

    Name Index
    Subject Index

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