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Of the People

Volume I: To 1877 with Sources

Fifth Edition

Author Michael McGerr, Camilla Townsend, Karen M. Dunak, Mark Summers, and Jan Ellen Lewis

Publication Date - 24 September 2021

ISBN: 9780197585955

800 pages
6 1/8 x 9 1/4 inches

In Stock

People, Places, and Power: The Story of American Democracy


Of the People: A History of the United States does more than tell the history of America--of its people and places, of its dealings and ideals. It unfolds the story of American democracy, carefully marking how this country's evolution has been anything but certain, from its complex beginnings to its modern challenges.

The authors see American history as a story "of the people," of their struggles to shape their lives and their land. Their narrative focuses on the social and political lives of people--some famous, some ordinary--revealing the compelling story of America's democracy from an individual perspective, from across the landscapes of diverse communities, and ultimately from within the larger context of the world.

The theme of democracy concentrates attention on the most fundamental concerns of history: people and power. These concerns have been especially relevant as the authors completed revising the book for this new edition. The tumultuous presidential campaign of 2020, one of the most divisive in American history, took place in the midst of a deadly pandemic and culminated in the extraordinary storming of the federal Capitol building in Washington, D.C. in January 2021. Recent history is always a challenge and always subject to revision, but the authors have wanted to show how contemporary struggles over democracy are rooted in the past. Their balanced, inclusive approach makes it more possible for teachers and students to deal with the most controversial events.

New to this Edition

  • Throughout the text the authors have continued to intensify the focus on the environment, diversity, and immigration and to offer coverage of events such as the devastation of Tenochtitlan in the face of smallpox in the sixteenth century, the influenza pandemic of 1918, and the Tulsa Race massacre of 1921 that speak to the contemporary challenges of the United States.
  • Acknowledging the upheavals of recent history, the authors have reorganized and rewritten chapters 29 and 30 to give full coverage to the twenty-first century.
  • New American Portrait, American Landscape, America in the World, and Struggles for Democracy Features: These popular features have been updated with three new American Portraits, seven new American Landscapes, five new America and in the World features, and three new Struggles for Democracy.
  • All versions of the text now include end-of-chapter primary source documents, both textual and visual, designed to reinforce students' understanding of the material by drawing connections among topics. Nearly all chapters in the fifth edition include at least one new source document.
  • The "Who, What, Where" glossary terms have been significantly revised so that the most essential and fundamental ideas, people, and places are consistently highlighted, and the terms are now boldfaced in the text.
  • Many chapters now include new "Common Thread" focus questions, and new maps have been added to Chapters 25 and 27.
  • Now available in OXFORD INSIGHT. Developed with a foundation in learning science, Oxford Insight enables instructors to deliver a personalized and engaging learning experience that empowers students by actively engaging them in course content. Oxford Insight delivers high quality content within powerful, data-driven courseware designed to optimize student success. Oxford Insight is available separately. To learn more, and to book a demo of Oxford Insight, go to https://oxfordinsight.oup.com/


  • Provides students with a history of the United States that focuses on the evolution of American democracy, people, and power.
  • Exceptionally strong portrayal of political and social history, written in a clear, compelling narrative voice.
  • Each chapter opens with an American Portrait feature, a story of someone whose life in one way or another embodies the basic theme of the pages to follow.
  • Select chapters include an American Landscape feature, a particular place in time where issues of power appeared in especially sharp relief. The new American Landscape features in the fifth edition more explicitly look at American places from an environmental perspective.
  • To underscore the fundamental importance of global relationships, select chapters include a feature on America in the World. Formerly called "America and the World," the subtle change to the name of this feature reflects the greater attention it now gives to topics related to immigration.
  • Each chapter includes a Struggles for Democracy feature, focusing on moments of debate and public conversation surrounding events that have contributed to the changing ideas of democracy, as well as the sometimes constricting but overall gradually widening opportunities that evolved for the American people as a result.
  • Common Threads, located at the beginning of each chapter, offer focus questions that ask the student to consider the main problems examined in the discussions that follow.
  • Timelines provide dates for all the key events discussed in the chapters.
  • A list of chapter-ending key terms, Who, What, Where, helps students recall the important people, events, and places of that chapter.
  • All chapters end with both Review Questions, which test students' memory and understanding of chapter content, and Critical-Thinking Questions, which ask students to analyze and interpret chapter content.

About the Author(s)

Michael McGerr is Paul V. McNutt Professor of History at Indiana University-Bloomington.

Camilla Townsend is Distinguished Professor of History at Rutgers University.

Karen M. Dunak is Associate Professor of History at Muskingum University.

Mark Summers is Thomas D. Clark Professor of History at the University of Kentucky.

Jan Ellen Lewis was Professor of History and Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Rutgers University-Newark.


"Of the People includes strong scholarship, written in a style that is unhurried and balanced. The features in each chapter that delve more deeply into particular aspects of that era allow the students to dig-in a little more, and there are good visuals to support the text in terms of maps, figures, and tables. Of the People is a really solid text and covers a lot of information without being too unwieldy."--Jennifer Lawrence, Tarrant County College

"The writing style is smooth, consistent, and flows well. The 'Struggles for Democracy' features are really well executed--they often open up some wonderful insights that are extensively developed in a way that is often not possible in textbooks."--Michael Holm, Boston University

"The text effectively weaves diverse voices to convey the complicated and contentious sweep of U.S. history, and its strengths include a thorough treatment of national politics, an innovative use of place and memory, and a highly readable, engaging style."--Ian Hartman, University of Alaska, Anchorage

"Of the People is affordable and easy to use for many types of learners. The writing is clear and accessible."--Ana Fodor, Danville Community College

Table of Contents

    New to the Fifth Edition
    Hallmark Features
    Learning Resources for Of the People
    About the Authors

    Chapter 1. Worlds in Motion, 1450-1550
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Malinche, Cultural Translator
    The Worlds of Indian Peoples
    Great Migrations
    The Emergence of Farming
    The Cradle of the Americas
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Tenochtitlan
    The Northern World Takes Shape
    The Worlds of Christopher Columbus
    The Reconquista
    The Age of Exploration
    New Ideas Take Root
    Collision in the Caribbean
    Columbus's First Voyage
    The Origins of a New World Political and Economic Order
    The Division of the World
    Onto the Mainland
    The First Florida Ventures
    The Conquest of Mexico
    The Establishment of a Spanish Empire
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Native Americans Debate the Question of the Europeans
    The Return to North America
    The Consequences of Conquest
    Demographic Disaster
    The Columbian Exchange
    Men's and Women's Lives

    Chapter 1. Primary Sources
    1.1 Aztec Songs
    1.2 Visual Documents: Chaco Culture National Historical Park, Pueblo Bonito
    1.3 King Fernando and Queen Isabella Of Spain, "Granada Capitulations" (1492)
    1.4 Aztec Priests, Statement to the Franciscan Friars (1520s)
    1.5 Alvar Núñez Cabeza De Vaca, Describing North America (1535)

    Chapter 2. Colonial Outposts, 1550-1650
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Paquiquineo Finds His Way Home
    Pursuing Wealth and Glory Along the North American Shore
    European Objectives
    The Huge Geographical Barrier
    Spanish Outposts
    New France: An Outpost in Global Politics and Economics
    The Five Nations of Iroquois and the Political Landscape
    Champlain Encounters the Hurons
    Creating a Middle Ground in New France
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Settlers and the Indians Learn to Compromise
    An Outpost in a Global Political Economy
    New Netherland: The Empire of a Trading Nation
    Colonization by a Private Company
    Slavery and Freedom in New Netherland
    The Dutch-Indian Trading Partnership
    The Beaver Wars
    England Attempts an Empire
    Competition with Spain
    Rehearsal in Ireland
    The Roanoke Venture
    AMERICA INTHE WORLD: Squanto Comes Back to America
    The Abandoned Colony

    Chapter 2. Primary Sources
    2.1 Letter from Fray Pedro De Feria To Phillip Ii, King of Spain, about Paquiquineo (1563)
    2.2 Richard Hakluyt, Excerpt from The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, And Discoveries Of The English Nation (1589-1600)
    2.3 A Smallpox Epidemic in Canada (1639-1640)
    2.4 John Heckewelder, Account of the Arrival of the Dutch at Manhattan

    Chapter 3. The English Come to Stay, 1600-1660
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: The Predicament of Pocahontas, Alias Rebecca
    The First Chesapeake Colonies
    Founding Virginia
    Starving Times
    Troubled Relations with the Powhatans
    Toward a New Economic Order and the Rise of Democracy
    Toward the Destruction of the Powhatans
    A New Colony in Maryland
    The Economy Based on Slavery Emerges
    The Insatiable Demand for Cheap Labor
    The Origins of African Slavery in the Chesapeake
    AMERICA IN THE WORLD: The English Enter the Slave Trade
    Gender and the Social Order in the Chesapeake
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The First African Arrivals Exercise Some Rights
    A Bible Commonwealth in the New England Wilderness
    The English Origins of the Puritan Movement
    What Did the Puritans Believe?
    The Pilgrim Colony at Plymouth
    The Puritan Colony at Massachusetts Bay
    The New England Way
    Changing the Landscape to Fit the Economic Needs of the Commonwealth
    The Puritan Family
    Dissension in the Puritan Ranks
    Roger Williams and Toleration
    Anne Hutchinson and the Equality of Believers
    Puritan Indian Policy and the Pequot War

    Chapter 3. Primary Sources
    3.1 Edward Waterhouse's Report on the Uprising of 1622
    3.2 Letter from Richard Frethorne to His Parents About Life in Virginia (1623)
    3.3 Excerpts from Anne Hutchinson's Trial Transcript (1637)
    3.4 Letter from Anne Bradstreet to Her Children (Undated)

    Chapter 4. Continental Empires, 1660-1720
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Mercy Lewis Learns to Fear the Devil
    The Plan of Empire
    Turmoil in England
    The Meaning of Mercantilism
    New Colonies, New Patterns
    New Netherland Becomes New York
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: New Amsterdam/New York
    Diversity and Prosperity in Pennsylvania
    Indians and Africans in the Political Economy of Carolina
    The Barbados Connection
    The Transformation of Virginia
    Social Change in Virginia
    Bacon's Rebellion and the Abandonment of the Middle Ground
    Virginia Becomes a Slave Society
    New England Under Assault
    Social Prosperity and the Fear of Religious Decline
    King Philip's War
    Indians and the Empire
    The Empire Strikes
    The Dominion of New England
    The Glorious Revolution in Britain and America
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Maryland's Colonists Demand a New Government
    The Rights of Englishmen
    Conflict in the Empire
    Massachusetts in Crisis
    The Social and Cultural Contexts of Witchcraft
    Witchcraft at Salem
    The End of Witchcraft
    Empires in Collision
    France Attempts an Empire
    The Spanish Outpost in Florida
    Conquest, Revolt, and Reconquest in New Mexico
    Native Americans and the Country Between

    Chapter 4. Primary Sources
    4.1 The Dutch Lose Power in America: A Meeting With Indians on the Delaware (1670)
    4.2 Letter from William Penn to His Backers (1683)
    4.3 Mary Rowlandson, Excerpts from The Sovereignty And Goodness of God (1682)
    4.4 Declaration of a Pueblo Indian Captured by the Spaniards (1680)
    4.5 Robert Calef, Excerpts from More Wonders Of The Invisible World (1700)

    Chapter 5. The Eighteenth-Century World, 1700-1775
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Young Alexander Hamilton: One Immigrant's Story
    The Population Explosion of the Eighteenth Century
    The Dimensions of Population Growth
    Bound for America: European Immigrants
    Bound for America: Enslaved Africans
    The Great Increase of Offspring
    The Transatlantic Economy: Producing and Consuming
    The Nature of Colonial Economic Growth
    The Transformation of the Family Economy
    Sources of Regional Prosperity
    Merchants and Dependent Laborers in the Transatlantic Economy
    Consumer Choices and the Creation of Gentility
    The Varieties of Colonial Experience
    Creating an Urban Public Sphere
    The Diversity of Urban Life
    The Maturing of Rural Society
    The World That Slavery Made
    Georgia: From Frontier Outpost to Plantation Society
    The Head and the Heart in America: The Enlightenment and Religious Awakening
    The Ideas of the Enlightenment
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Books Become More Accessible
    The Economic and Social Foundations of Democracy
    Enlightened Institutions
    Origins of the Great Awakening
    The Grand Itinerant
    Cultural Conflict and Challenges to Authority
    What the Awakening Wrought

    Chapter 5. Primary Sources
    5.1 Benjamin Franklin, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (1771-1790)
    5.2 Samson Occom, Excerpts from A Short Narrative of My Life (1768)
    5.3 Olaudah Equiano, Excerpts from The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings (1789)
    5.4 George Whitefield, Account of a Visit to Carolina (1740)
    5.5 Phillis Wheatley, "To The University Of Cambridge, In New England" (1773)

    Chapter 6. Conflict in the Empire, 1713-1774
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Susannah Willard Johnson Experiences the Empire
    The Victory of the British Empire
    New War, Old Pattern
    The Local Impact of Global War
    The French Empire Crumbles from Within
    The Virginians Ignite a War
    From Local to Imperial War
    Problems with British-Colonial Cooperation
    The British Gain the Advantage
    Enforcing the Empire
    Pontiac's Rebellion and Its Aftermath
    Paying for the Empire: Sugar and Stamps
    AMERICA IN THE WORLD: Paying for War
    The British Empire in Crisis
    An Argument About Constitutional Government
    The Theory and Practice of Resistance
    Contesting the Townshend Duties
    A Revolution in the Empire
    "Massacre" in Boston
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Boston Massacre
    TheBoston Tea Party and Its Effects
    The First Continental Congress

    Chapter 6. Primary Sources
    6.1 Letters between Sir Jeffrey Amherst and Henry Bouquet (1763)
    6.2 Benjamin Franklin, Excerpts from "A Narrative of the Late Massacres" (1764)
    6.3 A Visiting Frenchman's Account of Patrick Henry's Caesar-Brutus Speech (1765)
    6.4 The Stamp Act Riots: The Destruction of Thomas Hutchinson's House (1765)
    6.5 The Intolerable Acts (1774)

    Chapter 7. Creating a New Nation, 1775-1788
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Abigail Adams and the Wartime Economy
    The War Begins
    The First Battles
    Congress Takes the Lead
    Military Ardor
    Declaring Independence
    Creating a National Government
    Creating State Governments
    Winning the Revolution
    Competing Strategies
    The British on the Offensive: 1776
    A Slow War: 1777-1781
    AMERICA IN THE WORLD: Mercenaries Arrive in America
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: The South Carolina Backcountry
    Securing a Place in the World
    The Challenge of the Revolution
    The Departure of the Loyalists
    The Challenge of the Economy
    Contesting the New Economy
    Can Women Be Citizens?
    The Challenge of Slavery
    A New Policy in the West
    The Indians' Revolution
    The End of the Middle Ground
    Settling the West
    A Government of the People
    A Crippled Congress
    Writing a New Constitution
    Ratifying the Constitution: Politics
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Ratification of the Constitution
    Ratifying the Constitution: Ideas

    Chapter 7. Primary Sources
    7.1 Thomas Paine, Common Sense (1776)
    7.2 Alexander Hamilton Recommends Arming Slaves and George Washington Rejects The Idea (1779)
    7.3 Letter from Abigail Adams to John Adams (1776)
    7.4 Slave Petition for Freedom to the Massachusetts Legislature (1777)
    7.5 The Federalists and the Anti-Federalists (1787-1788)

    Chapter 8. Contested Republic, 1789-1800
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Ona Judge Finds Her Freedom
    The Struggle to Form a Government
    Creating a National Government
    The States and the Bill of Rights
    Debating the Economy
    A Society in Transition
    A People on the Move
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Philadelphia
    The First Emancipation Movements
    Conflicting Visions of Republican Society
    The Culture of the Republic
    Securing the Nation
    Borders and Boundaries
    Controlling the Borderlands
    The Whiskey Rebellion
    Democratic Revolutions
    Between France and England
    To the Brink of War
    The Administration of John Adams
    Tensions at Home
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Sedition and the Limits of Dissent

    Chapter 8. Primary Sources
    8.1 Henry Knox, Report on the Indians (1789)
    8.2 Alexander Hamilton, Report on Manufactures (1791)
    8.3 Thomas Jefferson's Letter to Philip Mazzei (1796)
    8.4 Charles Brockden Brown's Defense of Education for Women (1798)
    8.5 United States Congress, "An Act to Establish An Uniform Rule Of Naturalization" (1790) And An Act Respecting Alien Enemies (1798)
    8.6 The Virginia And Kentucky Resolutions (1798-1799)
    8.7 Excerpts From "An Act for The Gradual Abolition Of Slavery," In Laws Of The State Of New York, 22nd Session (1799)

    Chapter 9. A Republic in Transition, 1800-1819
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Andrew Jackson: A Man of the People
    A Politics of Transition
    A Contested Election, an Anxious Nation
    Democratic Republicans in Office
    The Louisiana Purchase
    The War of 1812
    Madison and the War
    Federalist Response
    An Economy in Transition
    International Markets
    Crossing the Appalachian Mountains
    Invention and Exploration
    Early Industrial Society in New England
    The Rule of Law and Lawyers
    Ways of Life in Flux
    Indian Resistance to American Expansion
    Winners and Losers in the New Economy
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: American Indians Watch Home Slip Away
    The Problem of Trust in a Changing Society
    The Panic of 1819

    Chapter 9. Primary Sources
    9.1 Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address (1801)
    9.2 Tecumseh's Speech to Governor Harrison, August 20, 1810
    9.3 Felix Grundy, Predictions About The War Of 1812
    9.4 Constitution Of The Lowell Factory Girls Association (1834)
    9.5 Elder David Purviance's Description Of The Cane Ridge Revival (1801)

    Chapter 10. Jacksonian Democracy, 1820-1840
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: John Ross and the Limits of Democracy
    A New National Politics
    Changes in the Democratic Republican Party
    James Monroe and National Republicanism
    The Missouri Compromise
    The Election of 1824 and the "Corrupt Bargain"
    The Adams Presidency and the Gathering Forces of Jacksonianism
    The Social and Political Bases of Jacksonian Democracy
    Free Labor
    Suffrage Reform
    Opposition to Special Privilege and Secret Societies
    Southern Slavery
    "Property in Man"
    The Domestic Slave Trade
    Plantation Slavery
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Gowrie: The Story of Profit and Loss on an American Plantation
    Other Varieties of Slavery
    Resistance and Creativity Among Southern Enslaved People
    Slavery and National Development
    Slavery and Industrialization in the Northeast
    Slavery and the Laws of the Nation
    Free Black People in a Republic of Slavery
    Jacksonian Democracy in Action
    The Election of 1828
    The Bank War
    Dismembering the Bank
    The Specie Circular
    A Policy of Removing Indigenous People
    Jackson and Native Peoples
    The Removal Act
    History, Destiny, and the Remaking of Indian Societies
    The Growth of Sectional Tension
    The Sources of Southern Discontent
    South Carolina's Protest
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Federal Government Responds to Abolitionism
    The Nullification Crisis

    Chapter 10. Primary Sources
    10.1 Rufus King, Excerpts From THE SUBSTANCE OF TWO SPEECHES DELIVERED IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES, ON THE SUBJECT OF THE MISSOURI BILL (1820) And William Pinkney, Excerpts From His Response On The Missouri Question (1820)
    10.2 Andrew Jackson, Excerpts from Bank Veto Message (1832) and Visual Document: H. R. Robinson, "General Jackson Slaying the Many Headed Monster" (1836)
    10.3 Theodore Frelinghuysen's Argument Against the Removal Act (1830)
    10.4 Frances Kemble's Journal (1838-1839)

    Chapter 11. Reform and Conflict, 1820-1848
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Sarah and Angelina Grimké
    Perfectionism and the Theology of Human Striving
    Millennialism and Communitarians
    The Benevolent Empire
    Organizing Against Slavery
    The Antislavery Movement
    AMERICA IN THE WORLD: Harriet Forten Purvis Invites the World's Ideas Home
    Black Abolitionists
    Antiabolition Violence
    The Emergence of Political Abolitionism
    Freedom National, Slavery Local
    Reform and the Urban Classes
    Wage Dependency and Labor Protest
    A New Urban Middle Class
    Immigration and Nativism
    Internal Migration
    Self-Reform and Social Regulation
    A Culture of Self-Improvement
    The Common School Movement and Democracy
    Penal Reform
    Electoral Politics and Moral Reform
    Women's Rights
    Women and Reform Movements
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls Convention

    Chapter 11. Primary Sources
    11.1 David Walker, Excerpts from "Walker's Appeal" (1829)
    11.2 William Lloyd Garrison, Excerpt from the First Issue of THE LIBERATOR (1831)
    11.3 William Apess, "An Indian's Looking Glass for the White man" (1833)
    11.4 Angelina Grimké, Excerpt from AN APPEAL TO THE WOMEN OF THE NOMINALLY FREE STATES (1838)
    11.5 Louisa May Alcott, Excerpts from "Transcendental Wild Oats" (1873)
    11.6 Alexis de Tocqueville, Excerpts from DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA: VOLUME II (1840)

    Chapter 12. Manifest Destiny, 1836-1848
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Joe, an Enslaved Man at the Alamo
    The Decline of Jacksonianism
    Political Parties in Crisis
    Van Buren and the Legacy of Jackson
    Acquiring the Trans-Mississippi West
    Manifest Destiny in Antebellum Culture
    On to Oregon
    Nations of the Trans-Mississippi West
    Slavery's Connection to Geographic Expansion
    Log Cabins and Hard Cider: The Election of 1840
    And Tyler, Too
    Occupy Oregon, Annex Texas
    AMERICA IN THE WORLD: John Riley and the Mexican War
    War with Mexico
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Mexicans in California Lose Their Rights

    Chapter 12. Primary Sources
    12.1 Chief John Ross, The Petition and Memorial of the Delegates and Representatives of the Cherokee Nation (1840)
    12.2 Visual Documents: Thomas Cole, LANDSCAPE (1825); Frederic Edwin Church, NIAGARA FALLS (1857); Louis Rémy Mignot, LANDSCAPE IN ECUADOR (1859)
    12.3 Lydia Allen Rudd, Account of Westward Journey (1852)
    12.4 John O'Sullivan, "Annexation" (1845)
    12.5 María Amparo Ruiz De Burton, The Squatter And The Don (1885)

    Chapter 13. The Politics of Slavery, 1848-1860
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Frederick Douglass
    The Political Economy of Freedom and Slavery
    A Changing Economy in the North
    The Slave Economy
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: City of Broad Shoulders and Broader Implications: Chicago
    The Importance of the West
    Slavery Becomes a Political Issue
    Wilmot Introduces His Proviso
    A Compromise Without Compromises
    The Fugitive Slave Act Provokes a Crisis
    The Election of 1852 and the Decline of the Whig Party
    The Origins of the Republican Party
    Slavery as a Foreign Policy
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act Revives the Slavery Issue
    The Labor Problem and the Politics of Slavery
    "Bleeding Kansas"
    AMERICA IN THE WORLD: The Nativist Attack on Immigration
    A New Political Party Takes Shape
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Settling and Unsettling of Kansas
    The First Sectional Election
    The Dred Scott Decision
    The Lecompton Constitution Splits the Democratic Party
    The "Irrepressible" Conflict
    The Retreat from Union
    John Brown's War Against Slavery
    Northerners Elect a President

    Chapter 13. Primary Sources
    13.1 John Greenleaf Whittier, "The Haschish" (1854)
    13.2 The Fugitive Slave Law Claims a Victim (1852)
    13.3 Letter from Edward Bridgman about Kansas Warfare (1856)
    13.4 James H. Hammond, "Speech on the Admission of Kansas" (1858)
    13.5 Abraham Lincoln, Speech at Springfield, Illinois (1857)

    Chapter 14. A War for Union and Emancipation, 1861-1865
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Laura M. Towne and the Sea Island Invasion
    Liberty and Union
    The Deep South Secedes
    The Upper South Makes Its Choice
    Civilians Demand a Total War
    What Were Soldiers Fighting For?
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Citizen Soldier Learns a Profession
    Mobilizing for War
    The Military Scorecard
    Union Naval Supremacy
    King Cotton's Failed Diplomacy
    The Political Economy of Total War
    Filling the Ranks-and the Jails
    Sinews of War
    The Civil War as Social Revolution
    Union Victories in the West
    Richmond Is a Hard Road to Travel
    A New Birth of Freedom
    The Turn of the Tide-Gettysburg and Vicksburg
    Emancipation in Practice
    The War at Home
    The "Butcher's Bill"
    Discontent on Both Sides
    Union Victory at Terrible Cost
    Grant Takes Command
    No Turning Back: Hard War in an Election Year
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: "Burnwell": Sherman's March from the Sea and the Long-Term Cost of Devastation
    Atlanta to Appomattox
    From Emancipation to Abolition
    The Meaning of the Civil War

    Chapter 14. Primary Sources
    14.1 John Sherman, A Letter on the Crisis to Philadelphians (1860)
    14.2 Julia Ward Howe, "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" (1862)
    14.3 Louisa May Alcott nurses the wounded (1863)
    14.4 John Beauchamp Jones Observes the Deterioration on the Confederate Home Front (1863-1864)
    14.5 Henry Clay Work, "Kingdom Coming" (1862)
    14.6 Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address (1865)

    Chapter 15. Reconstructing a Nation, 1865-1877
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: John Dennett Visits a Freedmen's Bureau Court
    Wartime Reconstruction
    Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan Versus the Wade-Davis Bill
    The Meaning of Freedom
    Experiments with Free Labor
    Presidential Reconstruction, 1865-1867
    The Political Economy of Contract Labor
    Resistance to Presidential Reconstruction
    Congress Clashes with the President
    Origins of the Fourteenth Amendment
    Congressional Reconstruction
    The South Remade
    The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson
    Radical Reconstruction in the South
    Achievements and Failures of Radical Government
    The Political Economy of Sharecropping
    The Gospel of Prosperity
    A Counterrevolution of Terrorism and Economic Pressure
    AMERICA IN THE WORLD: Reconstructing America's Foreign Policy
    A Reconstructed West
    The Overland Trail
    The Origins of Indian Reservations
    Reforming Native American Tribes out of Existence
    The Retreat from Republican Radicalism
    Republicans Become the Party of Moderation
    Reconstructing the North
    The Fifteenth Amendment and Nationwide African American Suffrage
    Women and Suffrage
    The End of Reconstruction
    Corruption Is the Fashion
    Liberal Republicans Revolt
    "Redeeming" the South
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: An Incident at Coushatta, August 1874
    The Twice-Stolen Election of 1876
    Sharecropping Becomes Wage Labor

    Chapter 15. Primary Sources
    15.1 Petroleum V. Nasby [David Ross Locke], A Platform for Northern Democrats (1865)
    15.2 A Black tenant farmer describes working conditions
    15.3 Sharecropping Contract Between Alonzo T. Mial and Fenner Powell (1886)
    15.4 Joseph Farley, An Account of Reconstruction
    15.5 A Southern Unionist Judge's Daughter Writes the President for Help (1874)
    15.6 Red Cloud Pleads the Plains Indians' Point of View at Cooper Union (1870)

    Appendix A Historical Documents
    The Declaration of Independence
    The Constitution of the United States of America
    Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
    Appendix B Historical Facts and Data
    US Presidents and Vice Presidents
    Admission of States into the Union

    Photo Credits

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