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Of the People

A History of the United States, Volume I: To 1877, with Sources

Fourth Edition

Michael McGerr, Jan Ellen Lewis, James Oakes, Nick Cullather, Jeanne Boydston, Mark Summers, Camilla Townsend, and Karen M. Dunak

Publication Date - September 2018

ISBN: 9780190909963

768 pages
6-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $84.99

People, Places, and Power: The Story of American Democracy


Of the People: A History of the United States, Fourth Edition, does more than tell the history of America--of its people and places, of its dealings and ideals. It also unfolds the story of American democracy, carefully marking how this country's evolution has been anything but certain, from its complex beginnings to its modern challenges. This comprehensive survey focuses on the social and political lives of people--some famous, some ordinary--revealing the compelling story of America's democracy from an individual perspective, from across the landscapes of diverse communities, and ultimately from within the larger context of the world.

New to this Edition

  • New features throughout: fourteen new American Portrait, five new American Landscape, ten new America and the World, three new Struggles for Democracy features
  • More than thirty new primary sources
  • To improve narrative flow and to better align with syllabi, the number of Gilded Age chapters has been reduced from three to two
  • New and revised coverage throughout
  • A revised and significantly expanded Chapter 30: "A Nation Transformed, The Twenty-First Century" (formerly the Epilogue), that covers events since 2000
  • Numerous new photos

About the Author(s)

Michael McGerr is Paul V. McNutt Professor of History at Indiana University-Bloomington.

Jan Ellen Lewis is Professor of History and Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Rutgers University-Newark.

James Oakes is Distinguished Professor of History and Graduate School Humanities Professor at the City University of New York Graduate Center.

Nick Cullather is Professor of History and International Studies at Indiana University-Bloomington.

Jeanne Boydston was Robinson-Edwards Professor of American History at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Mark Summers is Thomas D. Clark Professor of History at the University of Kentucky.

Camilla Townsend is Professor of History at Rutgers University.

Karen M. Dunak is Associate Professor of History at Muskingum University.

Table of Contents

    New to the Fourth Edition
    Hallmark Features
    About the Authors

    Chapter 1: Worlds in Motion, 1450-1550
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Malinche, Cultural Translator
    The Worlds of Indian Peoples
    Great Migrations
    The Emergence of Farming
    The Cradle of the Americas
    The Northern World Takes Shape
    The Worlds of Christopher Columbus
    The Reconquista
    The Age of Exploration
    New Ideas Take Root
    Collision in the Caribbean
    Columbus's First Voyage
    The Origins of a New World Political and Economic Order
    The Division of the World
    Onto the Mainland
    The First Florida Ventures
    The Conquest of Mexico
    The Establishment of a Spanish Empire
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Native Americans Debate the Question of the Europeans
    The Return to North America
    The Consequences of Conquest
    Demographic Disaster
    The Columbian Exchange
    Men's and Women's Lives

    Chapter 1 Primary Sources
    1.1 Aztec Midwife's Prayer
    1.2 Visual Document: Chaco Culture National Historical Park, Pueblo Bonito
    1.3 King Fernando and Queen Isabella of Spain, "Granada Capitulations" (1492)
    1.4 Aztec Priests, Statement to the Franciscan Friars (1520s)
    1.5 Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Describing North America (1535)

    Chapter 2: Colonial Outposts, 1550-1650
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Paquiquineo Finds His Way Home
    Pursuing Wealth and Glory Along the North American Shore
    European Objectives
    The Huge Geographical Barrier
    Spanish Outposts
    New France: An Outpost in Global Politics and Economics
    The Five Nations of Iroquois and the Political Landscape
    Champlain Encounters the Hurons
    Creating a Middle Ground in New France
    An Outpost in a Global Political Economy
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The French and the Indians Learn to Compromise
    New Netherland: The Empire of a Trading Nation
    Colonization by a Private Company
    Slavery and Freedom in New Netherland
    The Dutch-Indian Trading Partnership
    The Beaver Wars
    England Attempts an Empire
    Competition with Spain
    Rehearsal in Ireland
    AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Indians on the Thames
    The Roanoke Venture
    The Abandoned Colony

    Chapter 2 Primary Sources
    2.1 Letter from Fray Pedro de Feria to Phillip II, King of Spain, about Paquiquineo (1563)
    2.2 Richard Hakluyt, Excerpt from The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of the English Nation (1589-1600)
    2.3 Father Pierre Cholonec, Life of Kateri (1715)
    2.4 John Heckewelder, Account of the Arrival of the Dutch at Manhattan

    Chapter 3: The English Come to Stay, 1600-1660
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: The Predicament of Pocahontas, Alias Rebecca
    The First Chesapeake Colonies
    Founding Virginia
    Starving Times
    Troubled Relations with the Powhatans
    Toward a New Economic Order and the Rise of Democracy
    Toward the Destruction of the Powhatans
    A New Colony in Maryland
    The Political Economy of Slavery Emerges
    The Problem of a Labor Supply
    AMERICA AND THE WORLD: The English Enter the Slave Trade
    The Origins of African Slavery in the Chesapeake
    Gender and the Social Order in the Chesapeake
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The First African Arrivals Exercise Some Rights
    A Bible Commonwealth in the New England Wilderness
    The English Origins of the Puritan Movement
    What Did the Puritans Believe?
    The Pilgrim Colony at Plymouth
    The Puritan Colony at Massachusetts Bay
    The New England Way
    Changing the Landscape to Fit the Political Economy
    The Puritan Family
    Dissension in the Puritan Ranks
    Roger Williams and Toleration
    Anne Hutchinson and the Equality of Believers
    Puritan Indian Policy and the Pequot War

    Chapter 3 Primary Sources
    3.1 Edward Waterhouse's Report on the Uprising of 1622
    3.2 Letter from Richard Frethorne to His Parents About Life in Virginia (1623)
    3.3 Excerpts from Anne Hutchinson's Trial Transcript (1637)
    3.4 Letter from Anne Bradstreet to Her Children (Undated)

    Chapter 4: Continental Empires, 1660-1720
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Mercy Lewis Learns to Fear the Devil
    The Plan of Empire
    Turmoil in England
    The Political Economy of Mercantilism
    New Colonies, New Patterns
    New Netherland Becomes New York
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: New Amsterdam/New York
    Diversity and Prosperity in Pennsylvania
    Indians and Africans in the Political Economy of Carolina
    The Barbados Connection
    The Transformation of Virginia
    Social Change in Virginia
    Bacon's Rebellion and the Abandonment of the Middle Ground
    Virginia Becomes a Slave Society
    New England Under Assault
    Social Prosperity and the Fear of Religious Decline
    King Philip's War
    Indians and the Empire
    The Empire Strikes
    The Dominion of New England
    The Glorious Revolution in Britain and America
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Maryland's Colonists Demand a New Government
    The Rights of Englishmen
    Conflict in the Empire
    Massachusetts in Crisis
    The Social and Cultural Contexts of Witchcraft
    Witchcraft at Salem
    The End of Witchcraft
    Empires in Collision
    France Attempts an Empire
    The Spanish Outpost in Florida
    Conquest, Revolt, and Reconquest in New Mexico
    Native Americans and the Country Between

    Chapter 4 Primary Sources
    4.1 The Navigation Act of 1651
    4.2 Letter from William Penn to His Backers (1683)
    4.3 Mary Rowlandson, Excerpts from The Sovereignty and Goodness of God (1682)
    4.4 Declaration of a Pueblo Indian Captured by the Spaniards (1680)
    4.5 Robert Calef, Excerpts from More Wonders of the Invisible World (1700)

    Chapter 5: The Eighteenth-Century World, 1700-1775
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Young Alexander Hamilton: One Immigrant's Story
    The Population Explosion of the Eighteenth Century
    The Dimensions of Population Growth
    Bound for America: European Immigrants
    Bound for America: African Slaves
    The Great Increase of Offspring
    The Transatlantic Economy: Producing and Consuming
    The Nature of Colonial Economic Growth
    The Transformation of the Family Economy
    Sources of Regional Prosperity
    Merchants and Dependent Laborers in the Transatlantic Economy
    Consumer Choices and the Creation of Gentility
    The Varieties of Colonial Experience
    Creating an Urban Public Sphere
    The Diversity of Urban Life
    The Maturing of Rural Society
    The World That Slavery Made
    Georgia: From Frontier Outpost to Plantation Society
    The Head and the Heart in America: The Enlightenment and Religious Awakening
    The Ideas of the Enlightenment
    The Economic and Social Foundations of Democracy
    Enlightened Institutions
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Books Become More Accessible
    Origins of the Great Awakening
    The Grand Itinerant
    Cultural Conflict and Challenges to Authority
    What the Awakening Wrought

    Chapter 5 Primary Sources
    5.1 Benjamin Franklin, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (1771-1790)
    5.2 Sansom Occum, Excerpts from A Short Narrative of My Life (1768)
    5.3 Olaudah Equiano, Excerpts from The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings (1789)
    5.4 George Whitefield, Account of a Visit to Georgia (1738)
    5.5 Phyllis Wheatley, "To the University of Cambridge, in New England" (1773)

    Chapter 6: Conflict in the Empire, 1713-1774
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Susannah Willard Johnson Experiences the Empire
    The Victory of the British Empire
    New War, Old Pattern
    The Local Impact of Global War
    The French Empire Crumbles from Within
    The Virginians Ignite a War
    From Local to Imperial War
    Problems with British-Colonial Cooperation
    The British Gain the Advantage
    Enforcing the Empire
    Pontiac's Rebellion and Its Aftermath
    Paying for the Empire: Sugar and Stamps
    AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Paying for War
    The British Empire in Crisis
    An Argument About Constitutional Government
    The Imperial Crisis in Local Context
    The Theory and Practice of Resistance
    A Revolution in the Empire
    "Massacre" in Boston
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Boston Massacre
    The Empire Comes Apart
    The First Continental Congress

    Chapter 6 Primary Sources
    6.1 Letter from George Washington to Robert Dinwidde, Governor of Virginia (1755)
    6.2 Pontiac's Speech to the Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Hurons (1763)
    6.3 Benjamin Franklin, Excerpts from "A Narrative of the Late Massacres" (1764)
    6.4 A Visiting Frenchman's Account of Patrick Henry's Caesar-Brutus Speech (1765)
    6.5 The Stamp Act Riots: The Destruction of Thomas Hutchinson's House (1765)
    6.6 The Intolerable Acts (1774)

    Chapter 7: Creating a New Nation, 1775-1788
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Abigail Adams and the Wartime Economy
    The War Begins
    The First Battles
    Congress Takes the Lead
    Military Ardor
    Declaring Independence
    Creating a National Government
    Creating State Governments
    Winning the Revolution
    Competing Strategies
    The British on the Offensive: 1776
    AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Mercenaries in Global Perspective
    A Slow War: 1777-1781
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: The South Carolina Backcountry
    Securing a Place in the World
    The Challenge of the Revolution
    The Departure of the Loyalists
    The Challenge of the Economy
    Contesting the New Economy
    Can Women Be Citizens?
    The Challenge of Slavery
    A New Policy in the West
    The Indians' Revolution
    The End of the Middle Ground
    Settling the West
    A Government of the People
    A Crippled Congress
    Writing a New Constitution
    Ratifying the Constitution: Politics
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Ratification of the Constitution
    Ratifying the Constitution: Ideas

    Chapter 7 Primary Sources
    7.1 Thomas Paine, Common Sense (1776)
    7.2 Alexander Hamilton Recommends Arming Slaves and George Washington Rejects the Idea (1779)
    7.3 Letter from Abigail Adams to John Adams (1776)
    7.4 Slave Petition for Freedom to the Massachusetts Legislature (1777)
    7.5 Patrick Henry, Excerpt from Speech to the Virginia Ratifying Convention (1788)

    Chapter 8: Contested Republic, 1789-1800
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Ona Judge Finds Her Freedom
    The Struggle to Form a Government
    Creating a National Government
    The States and the Bill of Rights
    Debating the Economy
    A Society in Transition
    A People on the Move
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Philadelphia
    The First Emancipation Movements
    Conflicting Visions of Republican Society
    The Culture of the Republic
    Securing the Nation
    Borders and Boundaries
    Controlling the Borderlands
    The Whiskey Rebellion
    Democratic Revolutions
    Between France and England
    To the Brink of War
    The Administration of John Adams
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Sedition and the Limits of Dissent
    Tensions at Home

    Chapter 8 Primary Sources
    8.1 Alexander Hamilton, Report on Manufactures (1791)
    8.2 Thomas Jefferson's Letter to Philip Mazzei (1796)
    8.3 George Washington, Farewell Address (1796)
    8.4 The House of Representatives, Testimony of Congressman S. Sitgreaves (1798) and Visual Document: Engraving, "Congressional Pugilists" (1798)
    8.5 United States Congress, "An act to establish an uniform rule of naturalization" (1790) and an Act Respecting Alien Enemies (1798)
    8.6 The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798-1799)
    8.7 Excerpts from "An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery," in Laws of the State of New York, 22nd Session (1799)

    Chapter 9: A Republic in Transition, 1800-1819
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Andrew Jackson: A Man of the People
    A Politics of Transition
    A Contested Election, an Anxious Nation
    Democratic Republicans in Office
    The Louisiana Purchase
    The War of 1812
    Madison and the War
    Federalist Response
    An Economy in Transition
    International Markets
    Crossing the Appalachian Mountains
    Invention and Exploration
    Early Industrial Society in New England
    The Rule of Law and Lawyers
    Ways of Life in Flux
    Indian Resistance to American Expansion
    Winners and Losers in the New Economy
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Religion in the Backcountry: Cane Ridge, Kentucky
    The Problem of Trust in a Changing Society
    The Panic of 1819

    Chapter 9 Primary Sources
    9.1 Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address (1801)
    9.2 Samuel Mitchill, Account of Aaron Burr's Farewell Speech to the Senate (1805)
    9.3 Felix Grundy, Predictions About the War of 1812
    9.4 Constitution of the Lowell Factory Girls Association (1834)
    9.5 Elder David Purviance's Description of the Cane Ridge Revival (1801)
    9.6 Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William Henry Harrison (1803)

    Chapter 10: Jacksonian Democracy, 1820-1840
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: John Ross and the Limits of Democracy
    A New National Politics
    Changes in the Democratic Republican Party
    James Monroe and National Republicanism
    The Missouri Compromise
    The Election of 1824 and the "Corrupt Bargain"
    The Adams Presidency and the Gathering Forces of Democracy
    The Social and Political Bases of Jacksonian Democracy
    Free Labor
    Suffrage Reform
    Opposition to Special Privilege and Secret Societies
    Southern Slavery
    "Property in Man"
    The Domestic Slave Trade
    Plantation Slavery
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Gowrie: The Story of Profit and Loss on an American Plantation
    Other Varieties of Slavery
    Resistance and Creation Among Southern Slaves
    Slavery and National Development
    Slavery and Industrialization in the North
    Slavery and the Laws of the Nation
    Free Black People in a Republic of Slavery
    Jacksonian Democracy in Action
    The Election of 1828
    The Bank War
    Dismembering the Bank
    The Specie Act
    A Policy of Removing Indigenous People
    Jackson and Native Peoples
    The Removal Act
    History, Destiny, and the Remaking of Indian Societies
    The Growth of Sectional Tension
    The Sources of Southern Discontent
    South Carolina's Protest
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Federal Government Responds to Abolitionism
    The Nullification Crisis

    Chapter 10 Primary Sources
    10.1 David Walker, Excerpts from "Walker's Appeal" (1829)
    10.2 Rufus King, Excerpts from The Substance of Two Speeches Delivered in the Senate of the United States, on the Subject of the Missouri Bill (1820) and William Pinkney, Excerpts from His Response on the Missouri Question (1820)
    10.3 Andrew Jackson, Excerpts from Bank Veto Message (1832) and Visual Document: H.R. Robinson, "General Jackson Slaying the Many Headed Monster" (1836)
    10.4 Andrew Jackson, Message to Congress "On Indian Removal" (1830)
    10.5 Frances Kemble's Journal (1838-1839)

    Chapter 11: Reform and Conflict, 1820-1848
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Sarah and Angelina Grimké
    Perfectionism and the Theology of Human Striving
    Millennialism and Communitarians
    The Benevolent Empire
    AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Frederick Douglass Tours the British Isles
    The Politics of Slavery
    The Antislavery Movement
    Black Abolitionists
    Antiabolition Violence
    The Emergence of Political Abolitionism
    Freedom National, Slavery Local
    Reform and the Urban Classes
    Wage Dependency and Labor Protest
    A New Urban Middle Class
    Immigration and Nativism
    Internal Migration
    Self-Reform and Social Regulation
    A Culture of Self-Improvement
    The Common School Movement and Democracy
    Penal Reform
    Electoral Politics and Moral Reform
    Women's Rights
    Women and Reform Movements
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls Convention

    Chapter 11 Primary Sources
    11.1 William Lloyd Garrison, Excerpt from the First Issue of The Liberator (1831)
    11.2 Angelina Grimké, Excerpt from An Appeal to the Women of the Nominally Free States (1838)
    11.3 Louisa May Alcott, Excerpts from "Transcendental Wild Oats" (1873)
    11.4 Alexis de Tocqueville, Excerpts from Democracy in America: Volume II (1840)
    11.5 John Taylor, Account of the Murders of Joseph and Hyrum Smith (1844)

    Chapter 12: Manifest Destiny, 1836-1848
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Elias Boudinot Dies in Oklahoma
    The Decline of Jacksonianism
    Political Parties in Crisis
    Van Buren and the Legacy of Jackson
    The Political Economy of the Trans-Mississippi West
    Manifest Destiny in Antebellum Culture
    Pacific Bound
    Nations of the Trans-Mississippi West
    Slavery and the Political Economy of Expansion
    Log Cabins and Hard Cider: The Election of 1840
    And Tyler, Too
    Occupy Oregon, Annex Texas
    AMERICA AND THE WORLD: John Riley and the Mexican War
    War with Mexico
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Mexicans in California Lose Their Rights

    Chapter 12 Primary Sources
    12.1 Chief John Ross, The Petition and Memorial of the Delegates and Representatives of the Cherokee Nation (1840)
    12.2 Visual Document: Thomas Cole, Landscape (1825); Frederic Edwin Church, Niagara Falls (1857); Louis Rémy Mignot, Landscape in Ecuador (1859)
    12.3 Lydia Allen Rudd, Account of Westward Journey (1852)
    12.4 John O'Sullivan, "Annexation" (1845)
    12.5 María Amparo Ruiz de Burton, The Squatter and the Don (1885)

    Chapter 13: The Politics of Slavery, 1848-1860
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Frederick Douglass
    The Political Economy of Freedom and Slavery
    A Changing Economy in the North
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: City of Broad Shoulders and Broader Implications: Chicago
    The Slave Economy
    The Importance of the West
    Slavery Becomes a Political Issue
    Wilmot Introduces His Proviso
    A Compromise Without Compromises
    The Fugitive Slave Act Provokes a Crisis
    The Election of 1852 and the Decline of the Whig Party
    Nativism and the Origins of the Republican Party
    The Nativist Attack on Immigration
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act Revives the Slavery Issue
    The Labor Problem and the Politics of Slavery
    AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Slavery as a Foreign Policy
    "Bleeding Kansas"
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Settling and Unsettling of Kansas
    A New Political Party Takes Shape
    The First Sectional Election
    The Dred Scott Decision
    The Lecompton Constitution Splits the Democratic Party
    The "Irrepressible" Conflict
    The Retreat from Union
    John Brown's War Against Slavery
    Northerners Elect a President

    Chapter 13 Primary Sources
    13.1 John Greenleaf Whittier, "The Haschish" (1854)
    13.2 Frithjof Meidell, Account of Life on the Prairies (1855)
    13.3 James H. Hammond, "Speech on the Admission of Kansas" (1858)
    13.4 Abraham Lincoln, Speech at Springfield, Illinois (1857)

    Chapter 14: A War for Union and Emancipation, 1861-1865
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Laura M. Towne and the Sea Island Invasion
    Liberty and Union
    The Deep South Secedes
    The Upper South Makes Its Choice
    Civilians Demand a Total War
    What Were Soldiers Fighting For?
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The Citizen Soldier Learns a Profession
    Mobilizing for War
    The Military Scorecard
    Union Naval Supremacy
    King Cotton's Failed Diplomacy
    The Political Economy of Total War
    Filling the Ranks-and the Jails
    Sinews of War
    The Civil War as Social Revolution
    Union Victories in the West
    Richmond Is a Hard Road to Travel
    A New Birth of Freedom
    The Turn of the Tide-Gettysburg and Vicksburg
    Emancipation in Practice
    The War at Home
    The "Butcher's Bill"
    Discontent on Both Sides
    Union Victory at Terrible Cost
    Grant Takes Command
    No Turning Back: Hard War in an Election Year
    Atlanta to Appomattox
    AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: "Burnwell": Sherman's March from the Sea and the Long-Term Cost of Devastation
    From Emancipation to Abolition
    The Meaning of the Civil War

    Chapter 14 Primary Sources
    14.1 John Sherman, A Letter on the Crisis to Philadelphians (1860)
    14.2 Julia Ward Howe, "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" (1862)
    14.3 Cornelia Hancock, Letter to Her Sister (1863)
    14.4 John Beauchamp Jones Observes the Deterioration on the Confederate Home Front (1863-1864)
    14.5 Henry Clay Work, "Kingdom Coming" (1862)
    14.6 Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address (1865)

    Chapter 15: Reconstructing a Nation, 1865-1877
    AMERICAN PORTRAIT: John Dennett Visits a Freedmen's Bureau Court
    Wartime Reconstruction
    Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan Versus the Wade-Davis Bill
    The Meaning of Freedom
    Experiments with Free Labor
    Presidential Reconstruction, 1865-1867
    The Political Economy of Contract Labor
    Resistance to Presidential Reconstruction
    Congress Clashes with the President
    Origins of the Fourteenth Amendment
    Congressional Reconstruction
    The South Remade
    The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson
    Radical Reconstruction in the South
    Achievements and Failures of Radical Government
    The Political Economy of Sharecropping
    The Gospel of Prosperity
    A Counterrevolution of Terrorism and Economic Pressure
    AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Reconstructing America's Foreign Policy
    A Reconstructed West
    The Overland Trail
    The Origins of Indian Reservations
    The Destruction of Indian Subsistence
    The Retreat from Republican Radicalism
    Republicans Become the Party of Moderation
    Reconstructing the North
    The Fifteenth Amendment and Nationwide African American Suffrage
    Women and Suffrage
    The End of Reconstruction
    Corruption Is the Fashion
    Liberal Republicans Revolt
    "Redeeming" the South
    STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: An Incident at Coushatta, August 1874
    The Twice-Stolen Election of 1876
    Sharecropping Becomes Wage Labor

    Chapter 15 Primary Sources
    15.1 Petroleum V. Nasby [David Ross Locke], A Platform for Northern Democrats (1865)
    15.2 Mississippi Black Code (1865)
    15.3 Sharecropping Contract Between Alonzo T. Mial and Fenner Powell (1886)
    15.4 Joseph Farley, An Account of Reconstruction
    15.5 A Southern Unionist Judge's Daughter Writes the President for Help (1874)
    15.6 Red Cloud Pleads the Plains Indians' Point of View at Cooper Union (1870)

    Appendix A. Historical Documents
    The Declaration of Independence
    The Constitution of the United States of America
    Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
    Appendix B. Historical Facts and Data
    US Presidents and Vice Presidents
    Admission of States into the Union

    Photo Credits

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