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Neuroanatomy through Clinical Cases

Second Edition

Hal Blumenfeld

Publication Date - March 2010

ISBN: 9780878936137

976 pages
Paperback
8.5 x 11 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $108.95

A pioneering interactive approach to the teaching of neuroanatomy

Description

Neuroanatomy through Clinical Cases brings a pioneering interactive approach to the teaching of neuroanatomy, using over 100 actual clinical cases and high-quality radiologic images to bring the subject to life. The second edition is fully updated with the latest advances in the field, and includes several exciting new cases. This approach allows students to appreciate the clinical relevance of structural details as they are being learned, and to integrate knowledge of disparate functional systems, since a single lesion may affect several different neural structures and pathways.

About the Author(s)

Hal Blumenfeld is Professor in the Departments of Neurology, Neurobiology, and Neurosurgery at Yale University School of Medicine. He has taught neuroanatomy at Harvard, Yale, and Columbia Universities using the approach of Neuroanatomy through Clinical Cases, which the students greeted with highly favorable feedback. He recently received the prestigious Francis Gilman Blake Award, as the most outstanding teacher of medical sciences at the Yale School of Medicine, and the Dreifuss-Penry Epilepsy Research Award from the American Academy of Neurology. He has also been awarded several major grants (from the National Institutes of Health, and private foundations) to pursue his research, which focuses on epilepsy as a model system for investigating consciousness. Current projects include neuroimaging, neurophysiology, and behavioral experiments in animal models of epilepsy, and direct application to human patients. His clinical training included an internship in Internal Medicine at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, a residency in Neurology at Massachusetts General Hospital, and a fellowship in Epilepsy at Yale University School of Medicine. He studied Bioelectrical Engineering at Harvard University, then earned a Ph.D. (in Physiology and Cellular Biophysics) as well as his M.D. at Columbia University. Dr. Blumenfeld's previous publications include numerous articles in peer reviewed journals, as well as two volumes in the Let's Go travel guidebook series.

Previous Publication Date(s)

November 2001

Table of Contents

    Preface
    How to Use This Book

    Chapter 1. Introduction to Clinical Case Presentations
    Introduction
    The General History and Physical Exam
    Chief Complaint (CC)
    History of the Present Illness (HPI)
    Past Medical History (PMH)
    Review of Systems (ROS)
    Family History (FHx)
    Social and Environmental History (SocHx/EnvHx)
    Medications and Allergies
    Physical Exam
    Laboratory Data
    Assessment and Plan
    Neurologic Differential Diagnosis
    Relationship between the General Physical Exam and the Neurologic Exam
    Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 2. Neuroanatomy Overview and Basic Definitions
    Basic Macroscopic Organization of the Nervous System
    Main Parts of the Nervous System
    Orientation and Planes of Section
    Basic Cellular and Neurochemical Organization of the Nervous System
    CNS Gray Matter and White Matter; PNS Ganglia and Nerves
    Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nervous System
    Cerebral Cortex: Basic Organization and Primary Sensory and Motor Areas
    Lobes of the Cerebral Hemispheres
    Surface Anatomy of the Cerebral Hemispheres in Detail
    Primary Sensory and Motor Areas
    Cell Layers and Regional Classification of the Cerebral Cortex
    Motor Systems
    Main Motor Pathways
    Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia
    Somatosensory Systems
    Main Somatosensory Pathways
    Thalamus
    Stretch Reflex
    Brainstem and Cranial Nerves
    Limbic System
    Association Cortex
    Blood Supply to the Brain and Spinal Cord
    Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 3. The Neurologic Exam as a Lesson in Neuroanatomy
    Overview of the Neurologic Exam
    neuroexam.com
    The Neurologic Exam: Examination Technique and What Is Being Tested
    1. Mental Status
    2. Cranial Nerves
    3. Motor Exam
    4. Reflexes
    5. Coordination and Gait
    6. Sensory Exam
    The Neurologic Exam as a Flexible Tool
    Exam Limitations and Strategies
    Coma Exam
    General Physical Exam
    1. Mental Status
    2. Cranial Nerves
    3. Sensory Exam and 4. Motor Exam
    5. Reflexes
    6. Coordination and Gait
    Brain Death
    Conversion Disorder, Malingering, and Related Disorders
    The Screening Neurologic Exam
    Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 4. Introduction to Clinical Neuroradiology
    Introduction
    Imaging Planes
    Computerized Tomography
    CT versus MRI
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Neuroangiography
    Functional Neuroimaging
    Conclusions
    NEURORADIOLOGICAL ATLAS
    References

    Chapter 5. Brain and Environs: Cranium, Ventricles, and Meninges
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Cranial Vault and Meninges
    Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid
    Blood-Brain Barrier
    KCC 5.1. Headache
    KCC 5.2. Intracranial Mass Lesions
    KCC 5.3. Elevated Intracranial Pressure
    KCC 5.4. Brain Herniation Syndromes
    KCC 5.5. Head Trauma
    KCC 5.6. Intracranial Hemorrhage
    KCC 5.7. Hydrocephalus
    KCC 5.8. Brain Tumors
    KCC 5.9. Infectious Disorders of the Nervous System
    KCC 5.10. Lumbar Puncture
    KCC 5.11. Craniotomy
    Clinical Cases
    5.1. An Elderly Man with Headaches and Unsteady Gait
    5.2. Altered Mental Status Following Head Injury
    5.3. Delayed Unresponsiveness after Head Injury
    5.4. Headache and Progressive Left-Sided Weakness
    5.5. Sudden Coma and Bilateral Posturing during Intravenous Anticoagulation
    5.6. Severe Head Injury
    5.7. A Child with Headaches, Nausea, and Diplopia
    5.8. Headaches and Progressive Visual Loss
    5.9. An Elderly Man with Progressive Gait Difficulty, Cognitive Impairment, and Incontinence
    5.10. A Young Man with Headache, Fever, Confusion, and Stiff Neck
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    A Scuba Expedition through the Brain
    References

    Chapter 6. Corticospinal Tract and Other Motor Pathways
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Motor Cortex, Sensory Cortex, and Somatotopic Organization
    Basic Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
    Spinal Cord Blood Supply
    General Organization of the Motor Systems
    Lateral Corticospinal Tract
    Autonomic Nervous System
    KCC 6.1. Upper Motor Neuron versus Lower Motor Neuron Lesions
    KCC 6.2. Terms Used to Describe Weakness
    KCC 6.3. Weakness Patterns and Localization
    KCC 6.4. Detecting Subtle Hemiparesis at the Bedside
    KCC 6.5. Unsteady Gait
    KCC 6.6. Multiple Sclerosis
    KCC 6.7. Motor Neuron Disease
    Clinical Cases
    6.1 . Sudden Onset of Right Hand Weakness
    6.2 . Sudden Onset of Left Foot Weakness
    6.3 . Sudden Onset of Right Face Weakness
    6.4 . Pure Motor Hemiparesis I
    6.5 . Pure Motor Hemiparesis II
    6.6 . Progressive Weakness, Muscle Twitching, and Cramps
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Chapter 7. Somatosensory Pathways
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Main Somatosensory Pathways
    Posterior Column-Medial Lemniscal Pathway
    Spinothalamic Tract and Other Anterolateral Pathways
    Somatosensory Cortex
    Central Modulation of Pain
    The Thalamus
    Relay Nuclei
    Intralaminar Nuclei
    Reticular Nucleus
    KCC 7.1. Paresthesias
    KCC 7.2. Spinal Cord Lesions
    KCC 7.3. Sensory Loss: Patterns and Localization
    KCC 7.4. Spinal Cord Syndromes
    KCC 7.5. Anatomy of Bowel, Bladder, and Sexual Function
    Clinical Cases
    7.1. Sudden Onset of Right Arm Numbness
    7.2. Sudden Onset of Right Face, Arm, and Leg Numbness
    7.3. A Fall Causing Paraplegia and a Sensory Level
    7.4. Left Leg Weakness and Right Leg Numbness
    7.5. Sensory Loss over Both Shoulders
    7.6. Body Tingling and Unsteady Gait
    7.7. Hand Weakness, Pinprick Sensory Level, and Urinary Retention
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Chapter 8. Spinal Nerve Roots
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Segmental Organization of the Nervous System
    Nerve Roots in Relation to Vertebral Bones, Discs, and Ligaments
    Dermatomes and Myotomes
    KCC 8.1. Disorders of Nerve, Neuromuscular Junction, and Muscle
    KCC 8.2. Back Pain
    KCC 8.3. Radiculopathy
    Simplification: Three Nerve Roots to Remember in the Arm
    Simplification: Three Nerve Roots to Remember in the Leg
    KCC 8.4. Cauda Equina Syndrome
    KCC 8.5. Common Surgical Approaches to the Spine
    Clinical Cases
    8.1. Unilateral Neck Pain and Tingling Numbness in the Thumb and Index Finger
    8.2. Unilateral Occipital and Neck Pain
    8.3. Unilateral Shoulder Pain and Weakness
    8.4. Blisters, Pain, and Weakness in the Left Arm
    8.5. Unilateral Shoulder Pain and Numbness in the Index and Middle Fingers
    8.6. Unilateral Neck Pain, Hand Weakness, and Numbness in the Ring and Little Fingers
    8.7. Pain and Numbness in the Medial Arm
    8.8. Low Back Pain Radiating to the Sole of the Foot and the Small Toe
    8.9. Unilateral Thigh Weakness with Pain Radiating to the Anterior Shin
    8.10. Low Back Pain Radiating to the Big Toe
    8.11. Saddle Anesthesia with Loss of Sphincteric and Erectile Function
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Chapter 9. Major Plexuses and Peripheral Nerves
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Brachial Plexus and Lumbosacral Plexus
    Simplification: Five Nerves to Remember in the Arm
    Simplification: Three Nerves Acting on the Thumb
    Intrinsic and Extrinsic Hand Muscles
    Simplification: Five Nerves to Remember in the Leg
    KCC 9.1. Common Plexus and Nerve Syndromes
    KCC 9.2. Electromyography (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Studies
    Clinical Cases
    9.1. Complete Paralysis and Loss of Sensation in One Arm
    9.2 . A Newborn with Weakness in One Arm
    9.3 . A Blow to the Medial Arm Causing Hand Weakness and Numbness
    9.4 . Nocturnal Pain and Tingling in the Thumb, Pointer, and Middle Finger
    9.5. Hand and Wrist Weakness after a Fall
    9.6 . Numbness and Tingling in the Pinky and Ring Finger
    9.7 . Shoulder Weakness and Numbness after Strangulation
    9.8 . Unilateral Thigh Pain, Weakness, and Numbness in a Diabetic
    9.9 . Tingling and Paralysis of the Foot after a Fall
    9.10. A Leg Injury Resulting in Foot Drop
    9.11. Lateral Thigh Pain and Numbness after Pregnancy
    9.12. Dysarthria, Ptosis, and Decreased Exercise Tolerance
    9.13. Generalized Weakness and Areflexia
    9.14. Mysterious Weakness after Dinner
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Chapter 10. Cerebral Hemispheres and Vascular Supply
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Review of Main Functional Areas of Cerebral Cortex
    Circle of Willis: Anterior and Posterior Circulations
    Anatomy and Vascular Territories of the Three Main Cerebral Arteries
    Vascular Territories of the Superficial Cerebral Structures
    Vascular Territories of the Deep Cerebral Structures
    KCC 10.1. Clinical Syndromes of the Three Cerebral Arteries
    KCC 10.2. Watershed Infarcts
    KCC 10.3. Transient Ischemic Attack and Other Transient Neurologic Episodes
    KCC 10.4. Ischemic Stroke: Mechanisms and Treatment
    KCC 10.5. Carotid Stenosis
    KCC 10.6. Dissection of the Carotid or Vertebral Arteries
    Venous Drainage of the Cerebral Hemispheres
    KCC 10.7. Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis
    Clinical Cases
    10.1 . Sudden-Onset Worst Headache of Life
    10.2 . Left Leg Weakness and Left Alien Hand Syndrome
    10.3 . Decreased Vision on One Side
    10.4 . Transient Episodes of Left Eye Blurriness or Right Hand Weakness
    10.5 . Nonfluent Aphasia with Right Face and Arm Weakness
    10.6 . 10.7 . Dysarthria and Hemiparesis
    10.8 . Global Aphasia, Right Hemiplegia, and Hemianopia
    10.9 . Left Face and Arm Weakness
    10.10. Left Hemineglect
    10.11. Left Hemineglect, Hemiplegia, and Hemianopia
    10.12. Unilateral Proximal Arm and Leg Weakness
    10.13. Right Frontal Headache and Left Arm Numbness in a Woman with Gastric Carcinoma
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Chapter 11. Visual System
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Eyes and Retina
    Optic Nerves, Optic Chiasm, and Optic Tracts
    Lateral Geniculate Nucleus and Extrageniculate Pathways
    Optic Radiations to Primary Visual Cortex
    Visual Processing in the Neocortex
    Parallel Channels for Analyzing Motion, Form, and Color
    Ocular Dominance Columns and Orientation Columns
    KCC 11.1. Assessment of Visual Disturbances
    KCC 11.2. Localization of Visual Field Defects
    KCC 11.3. Blood Supply and Ischemia in the Visual Pathways
    KCC 11.4. Optic Neuritis
    Clinical Cases
    11.1. A Dark Spot Seen with One Eye
    11.2. Vision Loss in One Eye
    11.3. Menstrual Irregularity and Bitemporal Hemianopia
    11.4. Hemianopia after Treatment for a Temporal Lobe Tumor
    11.5. Visual Changes Caused by Migraine Headaches?
    11.6. Sudden Loss of Left Vision
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Chapter 12. Brainstem I: Surface Anatomy and Cranial Nerves
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Surface Features of the Brainstem
    Skull Foramina and Cranial Nerve Exit Points
    Sensory and Motor Organization of the Cranial Nerves
    Functions and Course of the Cranial Nerves
    CN I: Olfactory Nerve
    KCC 12.1. Anosmia (CN I)
    CN II: Optic Nerve
    CN III, IV, and VI: Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nerves
    CN V: Trigeminal Nerve
    Trigeminal Somatic Sensory Functions
    Trigeminal Branchial Motor Functions
    KCC 12.2. Trigeminal Nerve Disorders (CN V)
    CN VII: Facial Nerve
    KCC 12.3. Facial Nerve Lesions (CN VII)
    KCC 12.4. Corneal Reflex and Jaw Jerk Reflex (CN V, VII)
    CN VIII: Vestibulocochlear Nerve
    Auditory Pathways
    Vestibular Pathways
    KCC 12.5. Hearing Loss (CN VIII)
    KCC 12.6. Dizziness and Vertigo (CN VIII)
    CN IX: Glossopharyngeal Nerve
    CN X: Vagus Nerve
    CN XI: Spinal Accessory Nerve
    CN XII: Hypoglossal Nerve
    KCC 12.7. Disorders of CN IX, X, XI, and XII
    KCC 12.8. Hoarseness, Dysarthria, Dysphagia, and Pseudobulbar Affect
    Review: Cranial Nerve Combinations
    Clinical Cases
    12.1. Anosmia and Visual Impairment
    12.2. Cheek Numbness and a Bulging Eye
    12.3. Jaw Numbness and Episodes of Loss of Consciousness
    12.4. Isolated Facial Weakness
    12.5. Hearing Loss and Dizziness
    12.6. Hoarse Voice following Cervical Disc Surgery
    12.7. Hoarseness, with Unilateral Wasting of the Neck and Tongue Muscles
    12.8. Uncontrollable Laughter, Dysarthria, Dysphagia, and Left-Sided Weakness
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Chapter 13. Brainstem II: Eye Movements and Pupillary Control
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Extraocular Muscles, Nerves, and Nuclei
    Extraocular Muscles
    Extraocular Nerves and Nuclei
    KCC 13.1. Diplopia
    KCC 13.2. Oculomotor Palsy (CN III)
    KCC 13.3. Trochlear Palsy (CN IV)
    KCC 13.4. Abducens Palsy (CN VI)
    The Pupils and Other Ocular Autonomic Pathways
    KCC 13.5. Pupillary Abnormalities
    KCC 13.6 Ptosis
    Cavernous Sinus and Orbital Apex
    KCC 13.7. Cavernous Sinus Syndrome (CN III, IV, VI, V1) and Orbital Apex Syndrome (CN II, III, IV, VI, V1)
    Supranuclear Control of Eye Movements
    Brainstem Circuits for Horizontal Eye Movements
    KCC 13.8. Brainstem Lesions Affecting Horizontal Gaze
    Brainstem Circuits for Vertical and Vergence Eye Movements
    KCC 13.9. Parinaud's Syndrome
    Control of Eye Movements by the Forebrain
    KCC 13.10. Right-Way Eyes and Wrong-Way Eyes
    Cerebellar, Vestibular, and Spinal Control of Voluntary and Reflex Eye Movements
    Clinical Cases
    13.1. Double Vision and Unilateral Eye Pain
    13.2. A Diabetic with Horizontal Diplopia
    13.3. Vertical Diplopia
    13.4. Left Eye Pain and Horizontal Diplopia
    13.5. Unilateral Headache, Ophthalmoplegia, and Forehead Numbness
    13.6. Ptosis, Miosis, and Anhidrosis
    13.7. Wrong-Way Eyes
    13.8. Horizontal Diplopia in a Patient with Multiple Sclerosis
    13.9. Headaches and Impaired Upgaze
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Chapter 14. Brainstem III: Internal Structures and Vascular Supply
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Main Components of the Brainstem
    Brainstem Sections
    Cranial Nerve Nuclei and Related Structures
    Long Tracts
    KCC 14.1. Locked-In Syndrome
    Cerebellar Circuitry
    Reticular Formation and Related Structures
    The Consciousness System
    Widespread Projection Systems of Brainstem and Forebrain: Consciousness, Attention, and Other Functions
    Anatomy of the Sleep-Wake Cycle
    KCC 14.2. Coma and Related Disorders
    Reticular Formation: Motor, Reflex, and Autonomic Systems
    Brainstem Vascular Supply
    KCC 14.3. Vertebrobasilar Vascular Disease
    Clinical Cases
    14.1. Face and Contralateral Body Numbness, Hoarseness, Horner's Syndrome, and Ataxia
    14.2. Hemiparesis Sparing the Face
    14.3. Dysarthria and Hemiparesis
    14.4. Unilateral Face Numbness, Hearing Loss, and Ataxia
    14.5. Locked In
    14.6. Wrong-Way Eyes, Limited Upgaze, Decreased Responsiveness, and Hemiparesis with an Amazing
    Recovery
    14.7. Diplopia and Unilateral Ataxia
    14.8. Intermittent Memory Loss, Diplopia, Sparkling Lights, and Somnolence
    14.9. Intractable Hiccups
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Chapter 15. Cerebellum
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Cerebellar Lobes, Peduncles, and Deep Nuclei
    Microscopic Circuitry of the Cerebellum
    Cerebellar Output Pathways
    Cerebellar Input Pathways
    Vascular Supply to the Cerebellum
    KCC 15.1. Cerebellar Artery Infarcts and Cerebellar
    Hemorrhage
    KCC 15.2. Clinical Findings and Localization of Cerebellar
    Lesions
    KCC 15.3. Differential Diagnosis of Ataxia
    Clinical Cases
    15.1. Sudden Onset of Unilateral Ataxia
    15.2. Walking Like a Drunkard
    15.3. A Boy with Headaches, Nausea, Slurred Speech, and Ataxia
    15.4. Nausea, Progressive Unilateral Ataxia, and Right Face Numbness
    15.5. A Family with Slowly Progressive Ataxia and Dementia
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Chapter 16. Basal Ganglia
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Basic Three-Dimensional Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia
    Input, Output, and Intrinsic Connections of the Basal Ganglia
    Inputs to the Basal Ganglia
    Outputs from the Basal Ganglia
    Intrinsic Basal Ganglia Connections
    Hyperkinetic and Hypokinetic Movement Disorders
    Parallel Basal Ganglia Pathways for General Movement, Eye Movement, Cognition, and Emotion
    Ansa Lenticularis, Lenticular Fasciculus, and the Fields of Forel
    KCC 16.1. Movement Disorders
    KCC 16.2. Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders
    KCC 16.3. Huntington's Disease
    KCC 16.4. Stereotactic Surgery and Deep Brain Stimulation
    Clinical Cases
    16.1. Unilateral Flapping and Flinging
    16.2. Irregular Jerking Movements and Marital Problems
    16.3. Asymmetrical Resting Tremor, Rigidity, Bradykinesia, and Gait Difficulties
    16.4. Bilateral Bradykinesia, Rigidity, and Gait Instability with No Tremor
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Chapter 17. Pituitary and Hypothalamus
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Overall Anatomy of the Pituitary and Hypothalamus
    Important Hypothalamic Nuclei and Pathways
    Major Hypothalamic Nuclei
    Hypothalamic Control of the Autonomic Nervous System
    Hypothalamic-Limbic Pathways
    Other Regionalized Functions of the Hypothalamus
    Endocrine Functions of the Pituitary and Hypothalamus
    KCC 17.1. Pituitary Adenoma and Related Disorders
    KCC 17.2. Diabetes Insipidus and SIADH
    KCC 17.3. Panhypopituitarism
    Clinical Cases
    17.1. Moon Facies, Acne, Amenorrhea, and Hypertension
    17.2. Impotence, Anorexia, Polyuria, Blurred Vision, Headaches, and Hearing Loss
    17.3. A Child with Giggling Episodes and Aggressive Behavior
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Chapter 18. Limbic System: Homeostasis, Olfaction, Memory, and Emotion
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    Overview of Limbic Structures
    Olfactory System
    Hippocampal Formation and Other Memory-Related Structures
    Hippocampal Formation and Parahippocampal Gyrus
    Intrinsic Circuitry of the Hippocampal Formation
    Input and Output Connections of the Medial Temporal Lobe Memory System
    The Fornix and Medial Diencephalic Memory Pathways
    KCC 18.1. Memory Disorders
    The Amygdala: Emotions, Drives, and Other Functions
    Other Limbic Pathways
    KCC 18.2. Seizures and Epilepsy
    KCC 18.3. Anatomical and Neuropharmacological Basis of Psychiatric Disorders
    Clinical Cases
    18.1. Sudden Memory Loss after a Mild Head Injury
    18.2. Progressive Severe Memory Loss, with Mild Confabulation
    18.3. Transient Diplopia, Lethargy, and Hemiparesis, Followed by a Sustained Memory Deficit
    18.4. Episodes of Panic, Olfactory Hallucinations, and Loss of Awareness
    18.5. Episodes of Staring, Lip Smacking, and Unilateral Semipurposeful Movements
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Chapter 19. Higher-Order Cerebral Function
    Anatomical and Clinical Review
    KCC 19.1. The Mental Status Exam
    Unimodal and Heteromodal Association Cortex
    Principles of Cerebral Localization and Lateralization
    The Dominant Hemisphere: Language Processing and Related Functions
    Anatomy of Language Processing
    KCC 19.2. Differential Diagnosis of Language Disorders
    KCC 19.3. Bedside Language Exam
    KCC 19.4. Broca's Aphasia
    KCC 19.5. Wernicke's Aphasia
    KCC 19.6. Simplified Aphasia Classification Scheme
    KCC 19.7. Other Syndromes Related to Aphasia
    KCC 19.8. Disconnection Syndromes
    The Nondominant Hemisphere: Spatial Processing and Lateralized Attention
    Lateralized Aspects of Attention
    Spatial Analysis and Integration
    KCC 19.9. Hemineglect Syndrome
    KCC 19.10. Other Clinical Features of Nondominant Hemisphere Lesions
    The Frontal Lobes: Anatomy and Functions of an Enigmatic Brain Region
    Regional Anatomy of the Frontal Lobes
    Connections of the Prefrontal Cortex
    Functions of the Frontal Lobes
    KCC 19.11. Frontal Lobe Disorders
    Visual Association Cortex: Higher-Order Visual Processing
    KCC 19.12. Disorders of Higher-Order Visual Processing
    KCC 19.13. Auditory Hallucinations
    The Consciousness System Revisited: Anatomy of Attention and Awareness
    General Mechanisms of Attention
    Anatomy of Attention
    Awareness of Self and Environment
    KCC 19.14. Attentional Disorders
    KCC 19.15. Delirium and Other Acute Mental Status Disorders
    KCC 19.16. Dementia and Other Chronic Mental Status Disorders
    Clinical Cases
    19.1 . Acute Severe Aphasia, with Improvement
    19.2 . Nonsensical Speech
    19.3 . Aphasia with Preserved Repetition
    19.4 . Impaired Repetition
    19.5 . Inability to Read, with Preserved Writing Skills
    19.6 . Left Hemineglect
    19.7 . Abulia
    19.8 . Blindness without Awareness of Deficit
    19.9 . Sudden Inability to Recognize Faces
    19.10. Musical Hallucinations
    19.11. Progressive Dementia, Beginning with Memory Problems
    Additional Cases
    Brief Anatomical Study Guide
    References

    Epilogue: A Simple Working Model of the Mind
    Case Index
    Subject Index

Teaching Resources

For Students

The NeuroExam Video
Available on DVD and and online, The NeuroExam Video demonstrates how to perform a complete neurologic examination. It is intended for medical students, residents, and other students in the health care professions.

For Instructors

Instructor's Resource Library
The Neuroanatomy through Clinical Cases, Second Edition, Instructor's Resource Library features:

* Textbook Figures and Tables: All of the textbook's figures, photos, and tables are provided as both high- and low-resolution JPEG files. In addition, ready-to-use PowerPoint presentations of all figures and tables are included.

* Clinical Cases: All of the cases presented in the textbook, prepared as PowerPoint presentations for easy use in class.

* Case Conferences: A set of five PowerPoint presentations that consist of twenty new teaching cases that do not appear in the textbook. These cases are ideal for teaching or examining students using examples that are unknown to them. Also included are handouts with questions and answers.

* NeuroExam Videos: All of the segments of The NeuroExam Video are provided for use in class.