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Cover

Motivation

A Biosocial and Cognitive Integration of Motivation and Emotion

Eva Dreikurs Ferguson

Publication Date - January 2000

ISBN: 9780195068665

416 pages
Hardcover
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

Retail Price to Students: $164.99

Description

Motivation: A Biosocial and Cognitive Integration of Motivation and Emotion shows how motivation relates to biological, social, and cognitive issues. A wide range of topics concerning motivation and emotion are considered, including hunger and thirst, circadian and other biological rhythms, fear and anxiety, anger and aggression, achievement, attachment, and love. Goals and incentives are discussed in their application to work, child rearing, and personality. This book reviews an unusual breadth of research and provides the reader with the scientific basis for understanding motivation as a major variable in human and animal life. It also offers insights that can be applied to immediate and practical problems. Various areas are examined in depth, such as the relationships between reward, incentives, and motivation. The discussion of biological rhythms shows that humans and animals are more alert at certain times than others, and these rhythms also affect performance. The topics in the book span the ways in which motivation connects with many aspects of contemporary psychology. Basic issues of design and methodology, details of research procedures, and important aspects of definition and measurement, are discussed throughout the book.
Motivation: A Biosocial and Cognitive Integration of Motivation and Emotion examines the way motivation functions and how it interacts with other important variables: physiological processes; learning, attention, and memory; rewards and stressors; the role of culture as well as species characteristics. The presentation makes clear in what important ways motivation, as a construct, contributes to the scientific understanding of behavior. The book offers advanced undergraduate and graduate students a broad overview of motivation. It also is of value for the professional psychologist who seeks an integrated overview of the classical and contemporary literature in the field of motivation. The book provides information on a broad range of issues and thus can be used also as supplementary reading for courses on cognition and biological as well as social psychology.

Table of Contents

    Chapter 1 -- Introduction: What is Motivation
    Historical Considerations
    Understanding Motivation Helps to Explain Behavior
    Will, Drive, Instinct, and Motivation
    Motivation is an Intervening Variable
    Motivation is Energizing and Directional
    Variability and Stability
    Summary
    Chapter 2 -- How Do We Study Motivation?
    Definitions: How Do You Define Motivation?
    Defining a Construct
    Operational Definitions
    The Relationship Between Motivation and Other Variables
    Motivation Leads to Action
    How Do Rewards and Incentives Become Motivation?
    Summary
    Chapter 3 -- Arousal: The Energizing and Intensity Aspect of Motivation
    The Construct of Arousal
    Defining and Measuring Arousal
    The Reticular Activating System
    Physiological Measurements
    Arousal Has Many Aspects
    Situational Specificity and Response Sterotypy
    State Versus Trait: Arousal Compared to Arousability
    Tense Compared to Energetic Arousal
    Arousal -- Performance Relationships
    Motor Activity and Arousal
    Inverted-U Function and the "Yerkes-Dodson Law"
    Summary
    Chapter 4 -- Biological Rhythms and Sleep
    Relationship of Biological Rhythms to Motivation
    Biological Rhythms
    Introduction
    Biological Rhythms versus Biorhythms
    Measuring Circadian Rhythms
    Seasonal Rhythms
    Nonphotic Factors which Influence the Circadian System
    Control of Biological Rhythms
    The Mammalian Biological Clock
    Multiple Oscillators within the Circadian System
    Melatonin
    Advantages of Biological Timekeeping
    Effects of Disrupting Biological Rhythms
    Seasonal Affective Disorder and Phototherapy
    "Jet Lag"
    Sleep
    Stages of Sleep
    Why do we Sleep?
    Relationship of Sleep to Circadian Rhythms
    Effects of Aging on Biological Rhythms and Sleep
    Summary
    Chapter 5 -- Time of Day, Alertness, and Performance
    Variables of Importance in Addition to Time of Day
    Time Since Sleeping
    Prior Activity
    Stimulation and Goals
    Are There Several Rhythms?
    Sleep Compared to Temperature Rhythms
    Alertness-Sleepiness
    Performance Varies with Alertness and Time of Day
    Performance and Alertness
    Different Tasks Show Different Effects
    Time of Day Affects Shift Work and Mood
    Shift Work
    Mood Changes
    Personality Characteristics and "Morningness" Versus "Eveningness"
    Morningness-Eveningness
    Extraversion, Impulsiveness, and Morningness-Eveningness
    Summary
    Chapter 6 -- Emotion and Mood: I. Problems of Definition and Measurement
    How Are Motivation and Emotion Different?
    Emotion and Motivation: Duration and Congruence
    Situational Variables and Goals
    Definitions and Classifications of Emotion
    Historical Considerations
    Categories, Classification of Basic Emotions, and Face Muscle Movememt
    Intensity and Arousal of Emotions
    Emotion and Every-Day-Life
    Dimensions of Emotions
    Person-Environment Relationships
    How Can Emotions be Changed?
    Emotion, Mood, and Affect
    Are Emotion, Mood, and Affect Different?
    Pleasantness-Unpleasantness: Dimensions Are Different Than Categories
    Emotion and Opponent Processes
    Opponent Process Theory
    Test of the Opponent Process Theory
    Summary
    Chapter 7 -- Emotion and Mood: II. Cognition and Information Processing
    Complexity of Emotion and Cognition
    Multiple Targets at a Given Moment
    Developmental Factors and the Question of Blends Versus Pure Emotions
    An Ecological Perspective
    Long-Term Versus Short-Term Targets
    Emotion and Mood Have A Reciprocal Relationship With Cognition
    What Kinds of Cognitions Relate to Emotion?
    Bower's Studies of Emotion and Mood
    Emotion and Information Processing
    Are Emotion and Cognition One or Two Separate Systems?
    Emotion as a Node in an Associative Network
    Emotional States Regulate Allocation of Capacity
    State-Dependent Effects
    Are There Additional Issues?
    Approach and Withdrawal
    Emotion and Cerebral Asymmetry
    Visual Recognition of Emotional Stimuli
    Summary
    Chapter 8 -- Hunger and Thirst: Biological and Cultural Processes
    Biological Processes and the Regulation of Energy in Hunger
    Problems of Definition: Motivational States vs. Consummatory Responses
    Consummatory, Appetite, and Instrumental Responses
    Consummatory Responses and Subjective Descriptions
    Concepts and Terms
    Primary vs. Secondary
    Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, and Feedforward Regulation
    Short-Term vs Long-Term Regulation
    Hunger and Satiety, Onset and Cessation of Eating: The Role of the Central Nervous System
    The Role of the Lateral Hypothalamus
    The Role of the Ventromedial Hypothalamus
    The Role of Caudal Brainstem
    Hunger and Satiety, Onset and Cessation of Eating: The Role of Peripheral Sites
    The Autonomic Nervous System
    Cholecystokinin (CCK)
    The Role of Glucose, Insulin, and Lipids in Onset and Offset of Eating
    Glucose
    Insulin
    Lipids
    Biological Processes in Thirst and Fluid Level Regulation
    Different Kinds of Thirst and Definitions
    Osmoreceptors, Vasopressin, and the Lateral Hypothalamus
    Salt Appetite
    Drinking, Drinking Offset, and Non-Primary Factors
    The Role of Culture and Learning in Hunger and Eating
    Taste and Appetite
    Culture
    Learned Aversions
    Appetite and Appetizing
    Weight Maintenance and Eating Disorders
    Cues, Obesity, and Eating Restraint
    Anorexia, Bulimia, and Obesity: Disorders and Disease
    Is There an Ideal Figure and an Ideal Weight?
    Effects of Hunger, Thirst, and Glucose on Responding and Information Processing
    The Directional Effects of Hunger and Thirst
    Sensitivity to Cues
    The Interactive Effects of Hunger and Food
    Information Processing and Learning in Nonhuman Animals
    Human Information Processing
    Effects of Sweets and Hunger on Measures of Memory
    Sugar Can Enhance Memory Performance
    Event-Related Brain Potentials and Memory Performance
    Summary
    Chapter 9 -- Rewards, Incentives, and Goals: Addictive Processes, Extrinsic Incentives, and Intrinsic Motivation
    General Theoretical Issues
    In What Ways Has the Effect of Reward Been Studied?
    Instrumental and Operant Conditioning: A Brief Historical Overview
    Praise as a Verbal Reinforcer
    Reward Variables That Affect Learning and Performance
    Unlearned and Conditioned Rewards and Motivations
    Delay and Magnitude of Reward
    Brain Stimulation, Reward Systems, and Drug Abuse
    Reward Systems
    Addiction and Substance Abuse
    Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Incentives, and Achievement Motivation
    Incentive and Incentive Motivation
    Intrinsic Motivation and External Rewards
    Does Intrinsic Motivation Decrease with Extrinsic Rewards?
    Additional Perspectives
    Incentives, Success and Failure, and the Achievement Motive
    Achievement Motivation Theory: McClelland and Atkinson
    Expectancy-Value Theory and Success and Failure
    Summary
    Chapter 10 -- Goals and Success-Failure Beliefs
    Goals, Level of Aspiration, and Level of Expectation
    The Work of Kurt Lewin and Colleagues
    Other Research on Level of Aspiration and Level of Expectation
    Individual Differences in Goal Setting
    Goal Setting and the Achievement Motive
    Dweck: Performance Goals Versus Learning Goals
    Other Goal-Expectancy Approaches
    Beliefs Regarding Success (Versus Failure) and Reinforcement
    Belief About Success and Failure on Tasks and Self-Efficacy
    Locus of Control of Reinforcement
    Goals and Performance Attainment
    Locke and Goal Setting Theory
    Research by Others on Goal Setting and Goal Striving
    Summary
    Chapter 11 -- Aggression and Anger: Attribution Mastery Power, Competition
    Attribution and Achievement
    Weine and Attribution Theory
    Other Research Approaches
    Anger
    Anger in Everyday Life
    Measurement of Anger
    Hostility, Anger, and Type A Personality
    Hostility
    Type A Personality and Coronary Heart Disease
    Summary
    Chapter 12 -- Aggression, Power, and Mastery
    What is Meant By Aggression?
    The Motivational Aspects of Aggression
    The Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
    Aggression in Animals
    Is There an Aggression Drive?
    Conspecific Aggression
    Situational Variables
    Interspecies Aggressive Behavior
    Brain Areas and Hormones
    Brain Areas
    Hormones
    Self-Interest vs. Collective Interest: Competition and Human Aggression
    Self-Interest Versus Collective Interest
    Sports and Games
    Culture
    Human Aggression: Power, Arousal, and Learning
    Power
    Arousal and Learning
    Machiavellianism, Mastery, and Assertiveness
    Machiavellianism
    Mastery
    Assertiveness
    Summary
    Chapter 13 -- Fear and Anxiety
    General Considerations
    Early Experimental Work
    Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Studies of Fear and Anxiety
    Punishment, Fear, and Anxiety
    Learned Helplessness and Flooding
    Contemporary Research in Fear Learning
    Psychobiological Findings
    Human Conditioning Studies
    Social Variables Involved in Fear Learning
    Anxiety, Individual Differences, Cognition, and Coping
    State and Trait Anxiety
    Cognition and Coping
    Summary
    Chapter 14 -- Sex, Gender, and Love
    Hormonal Effects, Sexual Dimorphism, and Sexual Motivation
    Gonadal Steroid Hormones
    Social Animals: Prairie Voles and Spotted Hyenas
    Human Studies
    Gender
    The Importance of Gender
    Gender Identity, Gender Schema, and Gender Differences
    Love
    Parent-Child Love
    Peer Relationships and Friendship
    Romantic Love and Adult Love Relationships
    Summary

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