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Microelectronic Circuits

Sixth Edition

Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith

Publication Date - December 2009

ISBN: 9780195323030

1456 pages
8 x 10 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $194.40

Modular and streamlined to help instructors respond to curriculum pressures.


Microelectronic Circuits, Sixth Edition, by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith

This market-leading textbook continues its standard of excellence and innovation built on the solid pedagogical foundation that instructors expect from Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith. All material in the sixth edition of Microelectronic Circuits is thoroughly updated to reflect changes in technology--CMOS technology in particular. These technological changes have shaped the book's organization and topical coverage, making it the most current resource available for teaching tomorrow's engineers how to analyze and design electronic circuits.


* Streamlined organization. Short, modular chapters can be rearranged to suit any class organization. Topics that can be skipped on a first reading, while the student is grasping the basics, or that look ahead to advanced industrial applications, are clearly marked.
* Digital Integrated Circuits covered in a new, separate section, to make it easier to teach Computer Engineering students.
* Parallel Treatment of MOSFETs and BJTs. 90% of the market works with MOSFETs, so this vital topic is placed first in the textbook. The chapters on BJTs and MOSFETs are exactly parallel, so instructors can teach whichever one first that they prefer, and speed through the second topic by concentrating only on the differences between the two transistors.
* Frequency response in a separate chapter. Frequency response is now condensed into a single chapter, rather than being integrated within other topics.

[Note: Instructor's Resource CD is bound in to ISM-ISBN 9780195340303]
* Instructor's Solutions Manual contains typed solutions to all in-text exercises and end-of-chapter problems.
* PowerPoint Overheads on CD contain all of the figures with captions, plus summary tables, from the main text.

* In-text CD contains SPICE circuit simulation exercises and lessons, and a free student version of two SPICE simulators: OrCAD PSpice and Electronics Workbench Multisim.
* Companion website www.sedrasmith.org http://www.sedrasmith.org features SPICE models and links to industry and academic sites.

New to this Edition

  • Digital Circuits Early and Modular: New chapters in Part III: Digital Integrated Circuits make it easier to teach digital topics to computer engineers in a single-semester course.
  • New Chapter 13: CMOS Digital Logic Circuits lays the foundation for all digital material.
  • Streamlined and Signposted: Shorter, more modular chapters are easier to customize to any class. Visual cues and icons make the book easier to navigate. Explanations to the reader of why to read sections-and how multiple techniques might be used-are much more prominent. A new icon clearly marks topics that can be skipped on a first reading, while the student is grasping the basics, or that look ahead to advanced industrial applications.
  • Semiconductor primer in a separate chapter: For students who have not taken a prior course in Semiconductor Device Physics, Chapter 3 concisely covers the basics necessary to study Microelectronics. (Students who have had a device physics course will also find this a handy refresher.)
  • Lab-on-a-Disc: Offers complete simulations with activities, investigations, and directions to students for examples in the chapters and study problems from the ends of chapters. Simulated in MultisimTM and PSpice®. Also includes full student versions of MultisimTM and PSpice® so students can simulate their own activities and designs.
  • New Technical Coverage, including: a unique development of cascoding techniques (Ch 7); modern techniques for the design of BJT op amps (Ch 12); and deep submicron design and technology scaling (Ch 13). Please see the Preface for a complete list of the exciting new additions.

About the Author(s)

Adel S. Sedra is Dean of the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Waterloo and former Provost of the University of Toronto.

Kenneth C. Smith (KC) is Professor Emeritus in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Mechanical Engineering, and Information Studies at the University of Toronto.

Previous Publication Date(s)

August 2007
June 1997
June 1995

Table of Contents

    Brief Table of Contents

    Part I. Devices and Basic Circuits
    1. Signals and Amplifiers
    2. Operational Amplifiers
    3. Semiconductors
    4. Diodes
    5. MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)
    6. Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs)
    Part II. Integrated-Circuit Amplifiers
    7. Building Blocks of Integrated-Circuit Amplifiers
    8. Differential and Multistage Amplifiers
    9. Frequency Response
    10. Feedback
    11. Output Stages and Power Amplifiers
    12. Operational Amplifier Circuits
    Part III. Digital Integrated Circuits
    13. CMOS Digital Logic Circuits
    14. Advanced MOS and Bipolar Logic Circuits
    15. Memory Circuits
    Part IV. Filters and Oscillators
    16. Filters and Tuned Amplifiers
    17. Signal Generators and Waveform-Shaping Circuits

    Full Table of Contents

    Part I. Devices and Basic Circuits
    Chapter 1. Signals and Amplifiers
    1.1 Signals
    1.2 Frequency Spectrum of Signals
    1.3 Analog and Digital Signals
    1.4 Amplifiers
    1.4.1 Signal Amplification
    1.4.2 Amplifier Circuit Symbol
    1.4.3 Voltage Gain
    1.4.4 Power Gain and Current Gain
    1.4.5 Expressing Gain in Decibels
    1.4.6 Amplifier Power Supplies
    1.4.7 Amplifier Saturation
    1.4.8 Symbol Convention
    1.5 Circuit Models for Amplifiers
    1.5.1 Voltage Amplifiers
    1.5.2 Cascaded Amplifiers
    1.5.3 Other Amplifier Types
    1.5.4 Relationships Between the Four Amplifier Models
    1.5.5 Determining Ri and Ro
    1.5.6 Unilateral Models
    1.6 Frequency Response of Amplifiers
    1.6.1 Measuring the Amplifier Frequency Response
    1.6.2 Amplifier Bandwidth
    1.6.3 Evaluating the Frequency Response of Amplifiers
    1.6.4 Single-Time-Constant Networks
    1.6.5 Classification of Amplifiers Based on Frequency Response
    Chapter 2. Operational Amplifiers (Op Amps)
    2.1 The Ideal Op Amp
    2.1.1 The Op-Amp Terminals
    2.1.2 Function and Characteristics of the Ideal Op Amp
    2.1.3 Differential and Common-Mode Signals
    2.2 The Inverting Configuration
    2.2.1 The Closed-Loop Gain
    2.2.2 Effect of the Finite Open-Loop Gain
    2.2.3 Input and Output Resistances
    2.2.4 An Important Application: The Weighted Summer
    2.3 The Noninverting Configuration
    2.3.1 The Closed-Loop Gain
    2.3.2 Effect of the Finite Open-Loop Gain
    2.3.3 Input and Output Resistances
    2.3.4 The Voltage Follower
    2.4 Difference Amplifiers
    2.4.1 A Single Op-Amp Difference Amplifier
    2.4.2 A Superior Circuit: The Instrumentation Amplifier
    2.5 Integrators and Differentiators
    2.5.1 The Inverting Configuration with General Impedances
    2.5.2 The Inverting Integrator
    2.5.3 The Op-Amp Differentiator
    2.6 DC Imperfections
    2.6.1 Offset Voltage
    2.6.2 Input Bias and Offset Currents
    2.6.3 Effect of Vos and Ios on the Operation of the Inverting Integrator
    2.7 Effect of Finite Open-Loop Gain and Bandwidth on Circuit Performance
    2.7.1 Frequency Dependence of the Open-Loop Gain
    2.7.2 Frequency Response of the Closed-Loop Amplifier
    2.8 Large-Signal Operation of Op Amps
    2.8.1 Output Voltage Saturation
    2.8.2 Output Current Limits
    2.8.3 Slew Rate
    2.8.4 Full-Power Bandwidth
    Chapter 3. Semiconductors
    3.1 Intrinsic Semiconductors
    3.2 Doped Semiconductors
    3.3 Current Flow in Semiconductors
    3.3.1 Drift Current
    3.3.2 Diffusion Current
    3.3.3 Relationship Between D and ?
    3.4 The pn Junction with Open-Circuit Terminals (Equilibrium)
    3.4.1 Physical Structure
    3.4.2 Operation with Open-Circuit Terminals
    3.5 The pn Junction with Applied Voltage
    3.5.1 Qualitative Description of Junction Operation
    3.5.2 The Current-Voltage Relationship of the Junction
    3.5.3 Reverse Breakdown
    3.6 Capacitive Effects in the pn Junction
    3.6.1 Depletion or Junction Capacitance
    3.6.2 Diffusion Capacitance
    Chapter 4. Diodes
    4.1 The Ideal Diode
    4.1.1 Current-Voltage Characteristic
    4.1.2 A Simple Application: The Rectifier
    4.1.3 Another Application: Diode Logic Gates
    4.2 Terminal Characteristics of Junction Diodes
    4.2.1 The Forward-Bias Region
    4.2.2 The Reverse-Bias Region
    4.2.3 The Breakdown Region
    4.3 Modelling the Diode Forward Characteristic
    4.3.1 The Exponential Model
    4.3.2 Graphical Analysis Using the Exponential Model
    4.3.3 Iterative Analysis Using the Exponential Model
    4.3.4 The Need for Rapid Analysis
    4.3.5 The Constant-Voltage Drop Model
    4.3.6 The Ideal-Diode Model
    4.3.7 The Small-Signal Model
    4.3.8 Use of the Diode Forward Drop in Voltage Regulation
    4.4 Operation in the Reverse Breakdown Region-Zener Diodes
    4.4.1 Specifying and Modeling the Zener Diode
    4.4.2 Use of the Zener as a Shunt Regulator
    4.4.3 Temperature Effects
    4.4.4 A Final Remark
    4.5 Rectifier Circuits
    4.5.1 The Half-Wave Rectifier
    4.5.2 The Full-Wave Rectifier
    4.5.3 The Bridge Rectifier
    4.5.4 The Rectifier with a Filter Capacitor-The Peak Rectifier
    4.5.5 Precision Half-Wave Rectifier-The Super Diode
    4.6 Limiting and Clamping Circuits
    4.6.1 Limiter Circuits
    4.6.2 The Clamped Capacitor or DC Restorer
    4.6.3 The Voltage Doubler
    4.7 Special Diode Types
    4.7.1 The Schottky-Barrier Diode (SBD)
    4.7.2 Varactors
    4.7.3 Photodiodes
    4.7.4 Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
    Chapter 5. MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)
    5.1 Device Structure and Physical Operation
    5.1.1 Device Structure
    5.1.2 Operation with Zero Gate Voltage
    5.1.3 Creating a Channel for Current Flow
    5.1.4 Applying a Small ?DS
    5.1.5 Operation as ?DS is Increased
    5.1.6 Operation for ?DS ? VOV
    5.1.7 The p-Channel MOSFET
    5.1.8 Complementary MOS or CMOS
    5.1.9 Operating the MOS Transistor in the Subthreshold Region
    5.2 Current-Voltage Characteristics
    5.2.1 Circuit Symbol
    5.2.2 The iD- ?DS Characteristics
    5.2.3 The iD-nuGS Characteristic
    5.2.4 Finite Output Resistance in Saturation
    5.2.5 Characteristics of the p-Channel MOSFET
    5.3 MOSFET Circuits at DC
    5.4 Applying the MOSFET in Amplifier Design
    5.4.1 Obtaining a Voltage Amplifier
    5.4.2 The Voltage Transfer Characteristic (VTC)
    5.4.3 Biasing the MOSFET to Obtain Linear Amplification
    5.4.4 The Small-Signal Voltage Gain
    5.4.5 Determining the VTC by Graphical Analysis
    5.4.6 Locating the Bias Point Q
    5.5 Small-Signal Operation and Models
    5.5.1 The DC Bias Point
    5.5.2 The Signal Current in the Drain Terminal
    5.5.3 Voltage Gain
    5.5.4 Separating the DC Analysis and the Signal Analysis
    5.5.5 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit Models
    5.5.6 The Transconductance gm
    5.5.7 The T Equivalent Circuit Model
    5.5.8 Summary
    5.6 Basic MOSFET Amplifier Configurations
    5.6.1 The Three Basic Configurations
    5.6.2 Characterizing Amplifiers
    5.6.3 The Common-Source Configuration
    5.6.4 The Common-Source Amplifier with a Source Resistance
    5.6.5 The Common-Gate Amplifier
    5.6.6 The Common-Drain Amplifier or Source Follower
    5.6.7 Summary and Comparisons
    5.7 Biasing in MOS Amplifier Circuits
    5.7.1 Biasing by Fixing VGS
    5.7.2 Biasing by Fixing VG and Connecting a Resistance in the Source
    5.7.3 Biasing Using a Drain-to-Gate Feedback Resistance
    5.7.4 Biasing Using a Constant-Current Source
    5.7.5 A Final Remark
    5.8 Discrete-Circuit MOS Amplifiers
    5.8.1 The Basic Structure
    5.8.2 The Common-Source (CS) Amplifier
    5.8.3 The Common-Source Amplifier with a Source Resistance
    5.8.4 The Common-Gate Amplifier
    5.8.5 The Source Follower
    5.8.6 The Amplifier Bandwidth
    5.9 The Body Effect and Other Topics
    5.9.1 The Role of the Substrate-The Body Effect
    5.9.2 Modeling the Body Effect
    5.9.3 Temperature Effects
    5.9.4 Breakdown and Input Protection
    5.9.5 Velocity Saturation
    5.9.6 The Depletion-Type MOSFET
    Chapter 6. Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs)
    6.1 Device Structure and Physical Operation
    6.1.1 Simplified Structure and Modes of Operation
    6.1.2 Operation of the npn Transistor in the Active Mode
    Current Flow
    The Collector Current
    The Base Current
    The Emitter Current
    Recapitulation and Equivalent-Circuit Models
    6.1.3 Structure of Actual Transistors
    6.1.4 Operation in the Saturation Mode
    6.1.5 The pnp Transistor
    6.2 Current-Voltage Characteristics
    6.2.1 Circuit Symbols and Conventions
    The Constant n
    Collector-Base Reverse Current (ICBO)
    6.2.2 Graphical Representation of Transistor Characteristics
    6.2.3 Dependence of iC on the Collector Voltage-The Early Effect
    6.2.4 An Alternative Form of the Common-Emitter Characteristics
    The Common-Emitter Current Gain ?
    The Saturation Voltage VCEsat and Saturation Resistance RCEsat
    6.3 BJT Circuits at DC
    6.4 Applying the BJT in Amplifier Design
    6.4.1 Obtaining a Voltage Amplifier
    6.4.2 The Voltage Transfer Characteristic (VTC)
    6.4.3 Biasing the BJT to Obtain Linear Amplification
    6.4.4 The Small-Signal Voltage Gain
    6.4.5 Determining the VTC by Graphical Analysis
    6.4.6 Locating the Bias Point Q
    6.5 Small-Signal Operation and Models
    6.5.1 The Collector Current and the Transconductance
    6.5.2 The Base Current and the Input Resistance at the Base
    6.5.3 The Emitter Current and the Input Resistance at the Emitter
    6.5.4 Voltage Gain
    6.5.5 Separating the Signal and the DC Quantities
    6.5.6 The Hybrid-? Model
    6.5.7 The T Model
    6.5.8 Small-Signal Models of the pnp Transistor
    6.5.9 Application of the Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits
    6.5.10 Performing Small-Signal Analysis Directly on the Circuit Diagram
    6.5.11 Augmenting the Small-Signal Model to Account for the Early Effect
    6.5.12 Summary
    6.6 Basic BJT Amplifier Configurations
    6.6.1 The Three Basic Configurations
    6.6.2 Characterizing Amplifiers
    6.6.3 The Common-Emitter Amplifier
    Characteristic Parameters of the CE Amplifier
    Overall Voltage Gain
    Alternative Gain Expressions
    Performing the Analysis Directly on the Circuit
    6.6.4 The Common-Emitter Amplifier with An Emitter Resistance
    6.6.5 The Common-Base (CB) Amplifier
    6.6.6 The Common-Collector Amplifier or Emitter Follower
    The Need for Voltage Buffers
    Characteristic Parameters of the Emitter Follower
    Overall Voltage Gain
    Thévenin Representation of the Emitter Follower Output
    6.6.7 Summary and Comparisons
    6.7 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuits
    6.7.1 The Classical Discrete-Circuit Biasing Arrangement
    6.7.2 A Two-Power-Supply Version of the Classical Bias Arrangement
    6.7.3 Biasing Using a Collector-to-Base Feedback Resistor
    6.7.4 Biasing Using a Constant-Current Source
    6.8 Discrete-Circuit BJT Amplifier
    6.8.1 The Basic Structure
    6.8.2 The Common-Emitter Amplifier
    6.8.3 The Common-Emitter Amplifier with an Emitter Resistance
    6.8.4 The Common-Base Amplifier
    6.8.5 The Emitter Follower
    6.8.6 The Amplifier Frequency Response
    6.9 Transistor Breakdown and Temperature Effects
    6.9.1 Transistor Breakdown
    6.9.2 Dependence of ? on IC and Temperature
    Part II. Integrated-Circuit Amplifiers
    Chapter 7. Building Blocks of Integrated-Circuit Amplifiers
    7.1 IC Design Philosophy
    7.2 The Basic Gain Cell
    7.2.1 The CS and CE Amplifiers with Current-Source Loads
    7.2.2 The Intrinsic Gain
    7.2.3 Effect of the Output Resistance of the Current-Source Load
    7.2.4 Increasing the Gain of the Basic Cell
    7.3 The Cascode Amplifier
    7.3.1 Cascoding
    7.3.2 The MOS Cascode
    7.3.3 Distribution of Voltage Gain in a Cascode Amplifier
    7.3.4 The Output Resistance of a Source-Degenerated CS Amplifier
    7.3.5 Double Cascoding
    7.3.6 The Folded Cascode
    7.3.7 The BJT Cascode
    7.3.8 The Output Resistance of an Emitter-Degenerated CE Amplifier
    7.3.9 BiCMOS Cascodes
    7.4 IC Biasing-Current Sources, Current Mirrors, and Current-Steering Circuits
    7.4.1 The Basic MOSFET Current Source
    7.4.2 MOS Current-Steering Circuits
    7.4.3 BJT Circuits
    7.5 Current-Mirror Circuits with Improved Performance
    7.5.1 Cascode MOS Mirrors
    7.5.2 A Bipolar Mirror with Base-Current Compensation
    7.5.3 The Wilson Current Mirror
    7.5.4 The Wilson MOS Mirror
    7.5.5 The Widlar Current Source
    7.6 Some Useful Transistor Pairings
    7.6.1 The CC-CE, CD-CS, and CD-CE Configurations
    7.6.2 The Darlington Configuration
    7.6.3 The CC-CB and CD-CG Configurations
    Appendix 7.A: Comparison of the MOSFET and BJT
    7.A.1 Typical Values of IC MOSFET Parameters
    7.A.2 Typical Values of IC BJT Parameters
    7.A.3 Comparison of Important Characteristics
    7.A.4 Combining MOS and Bipolar Transistors: BiCMOS Circuits
    7.A.5 Validity of the Square-Law MOSFET Model
    Chapter 8. Differential and Multistage Amplifiers
    8.1 The MOS Differential Pair
    8.1.1 Operation with a Common-Mode Input Voltage
    8.1.2 Operation with a Differential Input Voltage
    8.1.3 Large-Signal Operation
    8.2 Small-Signal Operation of the MOS Differential Pair
    8.2.1 Differential Gain
    8.2.2 The Differential Half-Circuit
    8.2.3 The Differential Amplifier with Current-Source Loads
    8.2.4 Cascode Differential Amplifier
    8.2.5 Common-Mode Gain and Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)
    8.3 The BJT Differential Pair
    8.3.1 Basic Operation
    8.3.2 Input Common-Mode Range
    8.3.3 Large-Signal Operation
    8.3.4 Small-Signal Operation
    8.3.5 Common-Mode Gain and CMRR
    8.4 Other Nonideal Characteristics of the Differential Amplifier
    8.4.1 Input Offset Voltage of the MOS Differential Amplifier
    8.4.2 Input Offset Voltage of the Bipolar Differential Amplifier
    8.4.3 Input Bias and Offset Currents of the Bipolar Differential Amplifier
    8.4.4 A Concluding Remark
    8.5 The Differential Amplifier with Active Load
    8.5.1 Differential to Single-Ended Conversion
    8.5.2 The Active-Loaded MOS Differential Pair
    8.5.3 Differential Gain of the Active-Loaded MOS Pair
    8.5.4 Common-Mode Gain and CMRR
    8.5.5 The Bipolar Differential Pair with Active Load
    8.6 Multistage Amplifiers
    8.6.1 A Two-Stage CMOS Op Amp
    8.6.2 A Bipolar Op Amp
    Chapter 9. Frequency Response
    9.1 Low-Frequency Response of the CS and CE Amplifiers
    9.1.1 The CS Amplifier
    9.1.2 The CE Amplifier
    9.2 Internal Capacitive Effects and the High-Frequency Model of the MOSFET and the BJT
    9.2.1 The MOSFET
    9.2.2 The BJT
    9.3 High-Frequency Response of the CS and CE Amplifiers
    9.3.1 The Common-Source Amplifier
    9.3.2 The Common-Emitter Amplifier
    9.4 Useful Tools for the Analysis of the High-Frequency Response of Amplifiers
    9.4.1 The High-Frequency Gain Function
    9.4.2 Determining the 3-dB Frequency fH
    9.4.3 Using Open-Circuit Time Constants for the Approximate Determination of fH
    9.4.4 Miller's Theorem
    9.5 A Closer Look at the High-Frequency Response of the CS and CE Amplifiers
    9.5.1 The Equivalent Circuit
    9.5.2 Analysis Using Miller's Theorem
    9.5.3 Analysis Using Open-Circuit Time Constants
    9.5.4 Exact Analysis
    9.5.5 Adapting the Formulas for the Case of the CE Amplifier
    9.5.6 The Situation when Rsig is Low
    9.6 High-Frequency Response of the CG and Cascode Amplifiers
    9.6.1 High-Frequency Response of the CG Amplifier
    9.6.2 High-Frequency Response of the MOS Cascode Amplifier
    9.6.3 High-Frequency Response of the Bipolar Cascode Amplifier
    9.7 High-Frequency Response of the Source and Emitter Followers
    9.7.1 The Source Follower
    9.7.2 The Emitter Follower
    9.8 High-Frequency Response of Differential Amplifiers
    9.8.1 Analysis of the Resistively Loaded MOS Amplifier
    9.8.2 Analysis of the Active-Loaded MOS Amplifier
    9.9 Other Wideband Amplifier Configurations
    9.9.1 Obtaining Wideband Amplification by Source and Emitter Degeneration
    9.9.2 The CD-CS, CC-CE and CD-CE Configurations
    9.9.3 The CC-CB and CD-CG Configurations
    9.10 High-Frequency Response of Multistage Amplifiers
    9.10.1 Frequency Response of the Two-Stage CMOS Op Amp
    9.10.2 Frequency Response of the Bipolar Op Amp of Section 8.5.2.
    Chapter 10. Feedback
    10.1 The General Feedback Structure
    10.2 Some Properties of Negative Feedback
    10.2.1 Gain Desensitivity
    10.2.2 Bandwidth Extension
    10.2.3 Noise Reduction
    10.2.4 Reduction in Nonlinear Distortion
    10.3 The Four Basic Feedback Topologies
    10.3.1 Voltage Amplifiers
    10.3.2 Current Amplifiers
    10.3.3 Transconductance Amplifiers
    10.3.4 Transresistance Amplifiers
    10.3.5 A Concluding Remark
    10.4 The Feedback Voltage-Amplifier (Series-Shunt)
    10.4.1 The Ideal Case
    10.4.2 The Practical Case
    10.4.3 Summary
    10.5 The Feedback Transconductance-Amplifier (Series-Series)
    10.5.1 The Ideal Case
    10.5.2 The Practical Case
    10.5.3 Summary
    10.6 The Feedback Transresistance-Amplifier (Shunt-Shunt)
    10.6.1 The Ideal Case
    10.6.2 The Practical Case
    10.6.3 Summary
    10.7 The Feedback Current-Amplifier (Shunt-Series)
    10.7.1 The Ideal Case
    10.7.2 The Practical Case
    10.8 Summary of the Feedback Analysis Method
    10.9 Determining the Loop Gain
    10.9.1 An Alternative Approach for Finding A?
    10.9.2 Equivalence of Circuits from a Feedback-Loop Point of View
    10.10 The Stability Problem
    10.10.1 The Transfer Function of the Feedback Amplifier
    10.10.2 The Nyquist Plot
    10.11 Effect of Feedback on the Amplifier Poles
    10.11.1 Stability and Pole Location
    10.11.2 Poles of the Feedback Amplifier
    10.11.3 Amplifier with a Single-Pole Response
    10.11.4 Amplifier with a Two-Pole Response
    10.11.5 Amplifier with Three or More Poles
    10.12 Stability Study Using Bode Plots
    10.12.1 Gain and Phase Margins
    10.12.2 Effect of Phase Margin on Closed-Loop Response
    10.12.3 An Alternative Approach for Investigating Stability
    10.13 Frequency Compensation
    10.13.1 Theory
    10.13.2 Implementation
    10.13.3 Miller Compensation and Pole Splitting
    Chapter 11. Output Stages and Power Amplifiers
    11.1 Classification of Output Stages
    11.2 Class A Output Stage
    11.2.1 Transfer Characteristic
    11.2.2 Signal Waveforms
    11.2.3 Power Dissipation
    11.2.4 Power Conversion Efficiency
    11.3 Class B Output Stage
    11.3.1 Circuit Operation
    11.3.2 Transfer Characteristic
    11.3.3 Power-Conversion Efficiency
    11.3.4 Power Dissipation
    11.3.5 Reducing Crossover Distortion
    11.3.6 Single-Supply Operation
    11.4 Class AB Output Stage
    11.4.1 Circuit Operation
    11.4.2 Output Resistance
    11.5 Biasing the Class AB Circuit
    11.5.1 Biasing Using Codes
    11.5.2 Biasing Using the VBE Multiplier
    11.6 CMOS Class AB Output Stages
    11.6.1 The Classical Configuration
    11.6.2 An Alternative Circuit Utilizing Common-Source Transistors
    11.7 Power BJTs
    11.7.1 Junction Temperature
    11.7.2 Thermal Resistance
    11.7.3 Power Dissipation versus Temperature
    11.7.4 Transistor Case and Heat Sink
    11.7.5 The BJT Safe Operating Area
    11.7.6 Parameter Values of Power Transistors
    11.8 Variations on the Class AB Configuration
    11.8.1 Use of Input Emitter Followers
    11.8.2 Use of Compound and Devices
    11.8.3 Short-Circuit Protection
    11.8.4 Thermal Shutdown
    11.9 IC Power Amplifiers
    11.9.1 A Fixed-Gain IC Power Amplifier
    11.9.2 Power Op Amps
    11.9.3 The Bridge Amplifier
    11.10 MOS Power Transistors
    11.10.1 Structure of the Power MOSFET
    11.10.2 Characteristics of Power MOSFETs
    11.10.3 Temperature Effects
    11.10.4 Comparison with BJTs
    11.10.5 A Class AB Output Stage Utilizing Power MOSFETs
    Chapter 12. Operational Amplifier Circuits
    12.1 The Two Stage CMOS Op Amp
    12.1.1 The Circuit
    12.1.2 Input Common-Mode Range and Output Swing
    12.1.3 Voltage Gain
    12.1.4 Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)
    12.1.5 Frequency Response
    12.1.6 Slew Rate
    12.1.7 Power-Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR)
    12.1.8 Design Tradeoffs
    12.2 The Folded Cascode CMOS Op Amp
    12.2.1 The Circuit
    12.2.2 Input Common-Mode Range and Output Swing
    12.2.3 Voltage Gain
    12.2.4 Frequency Response
    12.2.5 Slew Rate
    12.2.6 Increasing the Input Common-Mode Range: Rail-to-Rail Input Operation
    12.2.7 Increasing the Output Voltage Range: The Wide-Swing Current Mirror
    12.3 The 741 Op-Amp Circuit
    12.3.1 Bias Circuit
    12.3.2 Short-Circuit Protection Circuitry
    12.3.3 The Input Stage
    12.3.4 The Second Stage
    12.3.5 The Output Stage
    12.3.6 Device Parameters
    12.4 DC Analysis of the 741
    12.4.1 Reference Bias Current
    12.4.2 Input-Stage Bias
    12.4.3 Input Bias and Offset Currents
    12.4.4 Input Offset Voltage
    12.4.5 Input Common-Mode Range
    12.4.6 Second-Stage Bias
    12.4.7 Output-Stage Bias
    12.5 Small-Signal Analysis of the 741
    12.5.1 The Input Stage
    12.5.2 The Second Stage
    12.5.3 The Output Stage
    12.6 Gain Frequency Response, Slew Rage of the 741
    12.6.1 Small-Signal Gain
    12.6.2 Frequency Response
    12.6.3 A Simplified Model
    12.6.4 Slew Rate
    12.6.5 Relationship Between ft and SR
    12.7 Modern Techniques for the Design of BJT Op Amps
    12.7.1 Special Performance Requirements
    12.7.2 Bias Design
    12.7.3 Design of Input Stage to Obtain Rail-to-Rail ?ICM
    12.7.4 Common-Mode Feedback to Control the DC Voltage at the Output of the Input Stage
    12.7.5 Output-Stage Design for Near Rail-to-Rail Output Swing
    Part III. Digital Integrated Circuits
    Chapter 13. CMOS Digital Logic Circuits
    13.1 Digital Logic Inverters
    13.1.1 Function of the Inverter
    13.1.2 The Voltage Transfer Characteristic (VTC)
    13.1.3 Noise Margins
    13.1.4 The Ideal VTC
    13.1.5 Inverter Implementation
    13.1.6 Power Dissipation
    13.1.7 Propagation Delay
    13.1.8 Power-Delay and Energy-Delay Products
    13.1.9 Silicon Area
    13.1.10 Digital IC Technologies and Logic-Circuit Families
    13.1.11 Styles for Digital System Design
    13.1.12 Design Abstraction and Computer Aids
    13.2 The CMOS Inverter
    13.2.1 Circuit Operation
    13.2.2 The Voltage Transfer Characteristic
    13.2.3 The Situation When QN and QP are Not Matched
    13.3 Dynamic Operation of the CMOS Inverter
    13.3.1 Determining the Propagation Delay
    13.3.2 Determining the Equivalent Load Capacitance C
    13.3.3 Inverter Sizing
    13.3.4 Dynamic Power Dissipation
    13.4 CMOS Logic-Gate Circuits
    13.4.1 Basic Structure
    13.4.2 The Two-Input NOR Gate
    13.4.3 The Two-Input NAND Gate
    13.4.4 A Complex Gate
    13.4.5 Obtaining the PUN from the PDN and Vice Versa
    13.4.6 The Exclusive-OR Function
    13.4.7 Summary of the Synthesis Method
    13.4.8 Transistor Sizing
    13.4.9 Effects of Fan-In and Fan-Out on Propagation Delay
    13.5 Implications of Technology Scaling: Issues in Deep-Submicron Design
    13.5.1 Scaling Implications
    13.5.2 Velocity Saturation
    13.5.3 Subthreshold Conduction
    13.5.4 Wiring-The Interconnect
    Chapter 14. Advanced MOS and Bipolar Logic Circuits
    14.1 Pseudo-NMOS Logic Circuits
    14.1.1 The Pseudo-NMOS Inverter
    14.1.2 Static Characteristics
    14.1.3 Derivation of the VTC
    14.1.4 Dynamic Operation
    14.1.5 Design
    14.1.6 Gate Circuits
    14.1.7 Concluding Remarks
    14.2 Pass-Transistor Logic Circuits
    14.2.1 An Essential Design Requirement
    14.2.2 Operation with NMOS Transistors as Switches
    14.2.3 Restoring the Value of VOH to VDD
    14.2.4 The Use of CMOS Transmission Gates as Switches
    14.2.5 Pass-Transistor Logic Circuit Examples
    14.2.6 A Final Remark
    14.3 Dynamic MOS Logic Circuits
    14.3.1 The Basic Principle
    14.3.2 Nonideal Effects
    14.3.3 Domino CMOS Logic
    14.3.4 Concluding Remarks
    14.4 Emitter-Coupled Logic (ECL)
    14.4.1 The Basic Principle
    14.4.2 ECL Families
    14.4.3 The Basic Gate Circuit
    14.4.4 Voltage Transfer Characteristics
    14.4.5 Fan-Out
    14.4.6 Speed of Operation and Signal Transmission
    14.4.7 Power Dissipation
    14.4.8 Thermal Effects
    14.4.9 The Wired-OR Capability
    14.4.10 Final Remarks
    14.5 BiCMOS Digital Circuits
    14.5.1 The BiCMOS Inverter
    14.5.2 Dynamic Operation
    14.5.3 BiCMOS Logic Gates
    Chapter 15. Memory Circuits
    15.1 Latches and Flip-Flops
    15.1.1 The Latch
    15.1.2 The SR Flip-Flop
    15.1.3 CMOS Implementation of SR Flip-Flops
    15.1.4 A Simpler CMOS Implementation of the Clocked SR Flip-Flop
    15.1.5 D Flip-Flop Circuits
    15.2 Semiconductor Memories: Types and Architectures
    15.2.1 Memory-Chip Organization
    15.2.2 Memory-Chip Timing
    15.3 Random-Access Memory (RAM) Cells
    15.3.1 Static Memory (SRAM) Cell
    15.3.2 Dynamic Memory (DRAM) Cell
    15.4 Sense Amplifiers and Address Decoders
    15.4.1 The Sense Amplifier
    15.4.2 The Row-Address Decoder
    15.4.3 The Column-Address Decoder
    15.4.4 Pulse-Generation Circuits
    15.5 Read-Only Memory (ROM)
    15.5.1 A MOS ROM
    15.5.2 Mask-Programmable ROMs
    15.5.3 Programmable ROMs (PROMs and EPROMs)
    Part IV. Filters and Oscillators
    Chapter 16. Filters and Tuned Amplifiers
    16.1 Filter Transmission, Types, and Specification
    16.1.1 Filter Transmission
    16.1.2 Filter Types
    16.1.3 Filter Specification
    16.2 The Filter Transfer Function
    16.3 Butterworth and Chebyshev Filters
    16.3.1 The Butterworth Filter
    16.3.2 The Chebyshev Filter
    16.4 First-Order and Second-Order Filter Functions
    16.4.1 First-Order Filters
    16.4.2 Second-Order Filter Functions
    16.5 The Second-Order LCR Resonator
    16.5.1 The Resonator Natural Modes
    16.5.2 Realization of Transmission Zeros
    16.5.3 Realization of the Low-Pass Function
    16.5.4 Realization of the High-Pass Function
    16.5.5 Realization of the Bandpass Function
    16.5.6 Realization of the Notch Functions
    16.5.7 Realization of the All-Pass Function
    16.6 Second-Order Active Filters Based on Inductor Replacement
    16.6.1 The Antoniou Inductance-Simulation Circuit
    16.6.2 The Op Amp-RC Resonator
    16.6.3 Realization of the Various Filter Types
    16.6.4 The All-Pass Circuit
    16.7 Second-Order Active Filters Based on the Two-Integrator-Loop Topology
    16.7.1 Derivation of the Two-Integrator-Loop Biquad
    16.7.2 Circuit Implementation
    16.7.3 An Alternative Two-Integrator-Loop Biquad Circuit
    16.7.4 Final Remarks
    16.8 Single-Amplifier Biquadratic Active Filters
    16.8.1 Synthesis of the Feedback Loop
    16.8.2 Injecting the Input Signal
    16.8.3 Generation of Equivalent Feedback Loops
    16.9 Sensitivity
    16.9.1 A Concluding Remark
    16.10 Switched-Capacitor Filters
    16.10.1 The Basic Principle
    16.10.2 Practical Circuits
    16.10.3 A Final Remark
    16.11 Tuned Amplifiers
    16.11.1 The Basic Principle
    16.11.2 Inductor Losses
    16.11.3 Use of Transformers
    16.11.4 Amplifiers with Multiple Tuned Circuits
    16.11.5 The Cascode and the CC-CB Cascade
    16.11.6 Synchronous Tuning
    16.11.7 Stagger-tuning
    Chapter 17. Signal Generators and Waveform-Shaping Circuits
    17.1 Basic Principles of Sinusoidal Oscillators
    17.1.1 The Oscillator Feedback Loop
    17.1.2 The Oscillation Criterion
    17.1.3 Nonlinear Amplitude Control
    17.1.4 A Popular Limiter Circuit for Amplitude Control
    17.2 Op-Amp-RC Oscillator Circuits
    17.2.1 The Wien-Bridge Oscillator
    17.2.2 The Phase-Shift Oscillator
    17.2.3 The Quadrature Oscillator
    17.2.4 The Active-Filter-Tuned Oscillator
    17.2.5 A Final Remark
    17.3 LC and Crystal Oscillators
    17.3.1 LC-Tuned Oscillators
    17.3.2 Crystal Oscillators
    17.4 Bistable Multivibrators
    17.4.1 The Feedback Loop
    17.4.2 Transfer Characteristics of the Bistable Circuit
    17.4.3 Triggering the Bistable Circuit
    17.4.4 The Bistable Circuit as a Memory Element
    17.4.5 A Bistable Circuit with Noninverting Transfer Characteristics
    17.4.6 Application of the Bistable Circuit as a Comparator
    17.4.7 Making the Output Levels More Precise
    17.5 Generation of Square and Triangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators
    17.5.1 Operation of the Astable Multivibrator
    17.5.2 Generation of Triangular Waveforms
    17.6 Generation of a Standardized Pulse-The Monostable Multivibrator
    17.7 Integrated-Circuit Timers
    17.7.1 The 555 Circuit
    17.7.2 Implementing a Monostable Multivibrator Using the 555 IC
    17.7.3 An Astable Multivibrator Using the 555 IC
    17.8 Nonlinear Waveform-Shaping Circuits
    17.8.1 The Breakpoint Method
    17.8.2 The Nonlinear-Amplification Method
    17.9 Precision Rectifier Circuits
    17.9.1 Precision Half-Wave Rectifier-The 17.9.2 An Alternative Circuit
    17.9.3 An Application: Measuring AC Voltages
    17.9.4 Precision Full-Wave Rectifier
    17.9.5 A Precision Bridge Rectifier for Instrumentation Applications
    17.9.6 Precision Peak Rectifiers
    17.9.7 A Buffered Precision Peak Detector
    17.9.8 A Precision Clamping Circuit

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