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Mechanical Assemblies

Their Design, Manufacture, and Role in Product Development

Daniel E. Whitney

Publication Date - February 2004

ISBN: 9780195157826

544 pages
8 x 10 inches

Retail Price to Students: $244.99


Assembly is the process by which parts become products that do useful things. It is therefore fundamental to the work of every mechanical engineer. Yet the design of assemblies and the process of assembling them are rarely taught in universities. In Mechanical Assemblies: Their Design, Manufacture, and Role in Product Development, author Daniel E. Whitney draws on more than thirty years of academic and industry experience to fill this significant gap in the mechanical engineering curriculum.

The first book to develop a systematic approach to the modeling and design of assemblies, this text addresses the subject on two levels. Assembly in the Small develops a systematic theory for the design of assemblies with their functions in mind, starting from the basic principles of mechanical constraint and including methods for representing assemblies mathematically. In addition, important assembly analysis techniques such as predicting variation and generating assembly sequences are covered using a consistent mathematical formulation. Assembly in the Large deals with the role of assemblies in product development, including product architecture, design for assembly, and manufacturing strategy, as well as design and evaluation of assembly processes and systems.

Mechanical Assemblies: Their Design, Manufacture, and Role in Product Development is ideal for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses in design, production, or manufacturing systems. Engineering professionals will find a new way to view the relationship between design and manufacturing and theoretical support for their experience.

About the Author(s)

DANIEL E. WHITNEY is Senior Research Scientist and Senior Lecturer in the Engineering Systems Division and Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is a fellow of the ASME and the IEEE.

Table of Contents

    Each chapter ends with problems and Thought Questions, Further Reading, a Summary and an Index. Most chapters include Appendices.
    1. What is Assembly and Why is it Important?
    1.1. Introduction
    1.2. Some Examples
    1.3. Assembly in the Context of Product Development
    1.4. Assembling a Product
    1.5. History and Present Status of Assembly
    1.6. Assemblies Are Systems
    2. Assembly Requirements and Key Characteristics
    2.1. Prolog
    2.2. Product Requirements and Top-Down Design
    2.3. The Chain of Delivery of Quality
    2.4. Key Characteristics
    2.5. Variation Risk Management
    2.6. Examples
    2.7. Key Characteristics Conflict
    3. Mathematical and Feature Models of Assemblies
    3.1. Introduction
    3.2. Types of Assemblies
    3.3. Matrix Transformations
    3.4. Assembly Features and Feature-based Design
    3.5. Mathematical Models of Assemblies
    3.6. Example Assembly Models
    4. Constraint in Assembly
    4.1. Introduction
    4.2. The Stapler
    4.3. Kinematic Design
    4.4. Features as Carriers of Constraint
    4.5. Use of Screw Theory to Represent and Analyze Constraint
    4.6. Design and Analysis of Assembly Features Using Screw Theory
    5. Dimensioning and Tolerancing Parts and Assemblies
    5.1. Introduction
    5.2. History of Dimensional Accuracy in Manufacturing
    5.3. KCs and Tolerance Flowdown From Assemblies to Parts: An Example
    5.4. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
    5.5. Statistical and Worst Case Tolerancing
    6. Modeling and Managing Variation Buildup in Assemblies.
    6.1. Introduction
    6.2. Nominal and Varied Models of Assemblies Represented by Chains of Frames
    6.3. Representation of GD&T Part Specifications as 4x4 Transforms
    6.4. Examples
    6.5. Tolerance Allocation
    6.6. Variation Buildup in Sheet Metal Parts
    6.7. Variation Reduction Strategies
    7. Assembly Sequence Analysis
    7.1. Introduction
    7.2. History of Assembly Sequence Analysis
    7.3. The Assembly Sequence Design Process
    7.4. The Bourjault Method of Generating All Feasible Sequences
    7.5. The Cutset Method
    7.6. Checking the Stability of Subassemblies
    7.7. Software for Deriving Assembly Sequences
    7.8. Examples
    8. The Datum Flow Chain
    8.1. Introduction
    8.2. History and Related Work
    8.3. Summary of the Method for Designing Assemblies
    8.4. Definition of a DFC
    8.5. Mates and Contacts
    8.6. Type-1 and Type-2 Assemblies Example
    8.7. KC Conflict and Its Relation to Assembly Sequence and KC Priorities
    8.8. Example Type-1 Assemblies
    8.9. Example Type-2 Assemblies
    8.10. Summary of Assembly Situations That Are Addressed by The DFC Method
    8.11. Assembly Precedence Constraints
    8.12. DFCs, Tolerances, and Constraint
    8.13. A Design Procedure for Assemblies
    8.14. Summary of Kinematic Assembly
    9. Assembly Gross and Fine Motions
    9.1. Prolog
    9.2. Kinds of Assembly Motions
    9.3. Force Feedback in Fine Motions
    9.4. Problems
    10. Assembly of Compliantly Supported Rigid Parts
    10.1. Introduction
    10.2. Types of Rigid Parts and Mating Conditions
    10.3. Part Mating Theory for Round Parts with Clearance and Chamfers
    10.4. Chamberless Assembly
    10.5. Screw Thread Mating
    10.6. Gear Mating
    11. Assembly of Compliant Parts
    11.1. Introduction
    11.2. Design Criteria and Considerations
    11.3. Rigid Peg/Compliant Hole Case
    11.4. Design of Chamfers
    11.5. Correlation of Experimental and Theoretical Results
    12. Assembly in the Large: The Impact of Assembly on Product Development
    12.1. Introduction
    12.2. Concurrent Engineering
    12.3. Product Design and Development Decisions Related to Assembly
    12.4. Steps in Assembly in the Large
    13. How To Analyze Existing Products in Detail
    13.1. How to Take a Product Apart and Figure Out How It Works
    13.2. How to Identify the Assembly Issues in a Product
    13.3. Examples
    14. Product Architecture
    14.1. Introduction
    14.2. Definition and Role of Architecture in Product Development
    14.3. Interaction of Architecture Decisions and Assembly in the Large
    14.4. Examples
    15. Design for Assembly and Other Ilities
    15.1. Introduction
    15.2. History
    15.3. General Approach to DFM/DFA
    15.4. Traditional DFM/DFA (DFx in the Small)
    15.3. DFx in the Large
    15.4. Example DFA Analysis
    15.5. DFx's Place in Product Design
    16. Assembly System Design
    16.1. Introduction
    16.2. Basic Factors in System Design
    16.3. Available System Design Methods
    16.4. Average Capacity Equations
    16.5. Three Generic Resource Alternatives
    16.6. Assembly System Architectures
    16.7. Quality Assurance and Quality Control
    16.8. Buffers
    16.9. The Toyota Production System
    16.10. Discrete Event Simulation
    16.11. Heuristic Manual Design Technique for Assembly Systems
    16.12. Analytical Design Technique
    16.13. Example Lines from Industry: Sony
    16.14. Example Lines from Industry - Denso
    16.15. Example Lines from Industry - Aircraft
    17. Assembly Workstation Design Issues
    17.1. Introduction
    17.2. What Happens in an Assembly Workstation
    17.3. Major Issues in Assembly Workstation Design
    17.4. Workstation Layout
    17.5. Some Important Decisions
    17.6. Other Important Decisions
    17.7. Assembly Station Error Analysis
    17.8. Design Methods
    17.9. Examples
    18. Economic Analysis of Assembly Systems
    18.1. Introduction
    18.2. Kinds of Cost
    18.3. The Time Value of Money
    18.4. Interest Rate, Risk, and Cost of Capital
    18.5. Combining Fixed and Variable Costs
    18.6. Cost Models of Different Assembly Resources
    18.7. Comparing Different Investment Alternatives
    19. Case Study of Aircraft Wing Manufacture
    19.1. Introduction
    19.2. Boeing 767 Wing Skin Subassembly Case
    19.3. Type-1 and Type-2 Methods of Final Wing Assembly

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