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Cover

Logic

An Emphasis on Formal Logic

Fifth Edition

Stan Baronett

Publication Date - November 2021

ISBN: 9780197602409

600 pages
Paperback
7 1/2 x 9 1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $94.95

Logic: An Emphasis on Formal Logic, Fifth Edition, includes Chapters 1, 4-9

Description

Featuring an exceptionally clear writing style and a wealth of real-world examples and exercises, Logic: An Emphasis on Formal Logic, Fifth Edition (Chapters 1, 4-9) shows how logic relates to everyday life, demonstrating its applications in such areas as the workplace, media and entertainment, politics, science and technology, student life, and elsewhere. The examples and exercises were chosen to be interesting, thought-provoking, and relevant to students.

New to this Edition

  • This volume includes Chapters 1, 4-9
  • Appendix A: Cognitive Bias has been created to provide coverage of a topic that many instructors have requested
  • Since many instructors have requested additional long proof exercises in Chapters 8 and 9, we have added 24 new long proof exercises (many requiring 30-50 lines). These exercises can be used to further challenge students' mastery of the rules, tactics, and strategies involved in natural deduction and predicate logic proofs.
  • Chapter 1: New extended discussion and example and to illustrate different ways to create counterexamples to arguments (section 1F).
  • Chapter 4: We clarified the discussion of false cause fallacies to help distinguish specific types of fallacies that fall under that heading.
  • Chapter 5: Additional information is offered to specify how members of the subject class for I-propositions and O-propositions are to be understood regarding class inclusion or exclusion (section 5B).
  • Chapter 13: In 13A, the details regarding statistical arguments have been expanded. The new discussion explains how asking a few simple questions can facilitate the extraction of specific information about the sample, population, and conclusion of a statistical argument.
  • Chapter 14: A new subsection in 14H, "Putting it All Together," offers a comprehensive illustration of how the three requirements for a fair test of a hypothesis can be applied to our understanding of a historical scientific case study.
  • A unique set of LSAT-type exercises has been created for Appendix B: The LSAT and Logical Reasoning. These special exercises provide an opportunity for students to directly test the skills presented in this appendix. The exercises can be found in Oxford Learning Cloud; they are auto-graded, with the results recorded in the instructor's gradebook.

Features

  • Each chapter opens with a preview, beginning with real-life examples and outlining the questions to be addressed.
  • Marginal definitions of key terms are provided for quick reference. Key terms appear in boldface when they are first introduced.
  • The use of reference boxes has been expanded, since they have proven useful to both students and instructors. They capture material that is spread out over a number of pages in one place for easy reference.
  • Profiles in Logic are short sketches of logicians, philosophers, mathematicians, and others associated with logic.
  • · Bulleted summaries are provided at the end of each chapter, as well as a list of key terms.
  • · The Exercises include a solution to the first problem in each set. Explanations are also provided where additional clarity is needed. This provides a model for students to follow, so they can see what is expected of their answers. In addition, approximately 25% of the exercises have answers provided at the back of the book.
  • End-of-chapter Logic Challenge problems are included for each chapter. These are the kind of puzzles-like the problem of the hats, the truth teller and the liar, and the scale and the coins-that have long kept people thinking.
  • · A full glossary and index are located at the end of the book.

About the Author(s)

Stan Baronett is a master teacher and the author of several books, including Why Did the Logician Cross the Road?: Finding Humor in Logical Reasoning (2021) and Journey Into Philosophy: An Introduction with Classic and Contemporary Readings (2016).

Table of Contents

    Preface

    Part I: Setting the Stage

    Chapter 1: What Logic Studies

    A. Statements and Arguments
    B. Recognizing Arguments
    Exercises 1B
    C. Arguments and Explanations
    Exercises 1C
    D. Truth and Logic
    E. Deductive and Inductive Arguments
    Exercises 1E
    F. Deductive Arguments: Validity and Soundness
    Argument Form
    Counterexamples
    Summary of Deductive Arguments
    Exercises 1F
    G. Inductive Arguments: Strength and Cogency
    Techniques of Analysis
    The Role of New Information
    Summary of Inductive Arguments
    Exercises 1G
    H. Reconstructing Arguments
    Exercises 1H
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Logic Challenge: The Problem of the Hats

    Part II: Informal Logic

    Chapter 4: Informal Fallacies

    A. Why Study Fallacies?
    B. Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks or Emotional Appeals
    Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks
    1. Ad Hominem Abusive
    2. Ad Hominem Circumstantial
    3. Poisoning the Well
    4. Tu Quoque
    Fallacies Based on Emotional Appeals
    5. Appeal to the People
    6. Appeal to Pity
    7. Appeal to Fear or Force
    Summary of Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks
    Summary of Fallacies Based on Emotional Appeals
    Exercises 4B
    C. Weak Inductive Argument Fallacies
    Generalization Fallacies
    8. Rigid Application of a Generalization
    9. Hasty Generalization
    10. Composition
    11. Division
    12. Biased Sample
    False Cause Fallacies
    13. Post Hoc
    14. Slippery Slope
    Summary of Weak Inductive Argument Fallacies
    Exercises 4C
    D. Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption or Diversion
    Unwarranted Assumption
    15. Begging the Question
    16. Complex Question
    17. Appeal to Ignorance
    18. Appeal to an Unqualified Authority
    19. False Dichotomy
    Fallacies of Diversion
    20. Equivocation
    21. Straw Man
    22. Red Herring
    23. Misleading Precision
    24. Missing the Point
    Summary of Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption and Diversion
    Exercises 4D
    E. Recognizing Fallacies in Ordinary Language
    Exercises 4E
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Logic Challenge: A Clever Problem

    Part III: Formal Logic

    Chapter 5: Categorical Propositions

    A. Categorical Propositions
    Exercises 5A
    B. Quantity, Quality, and Distribution
    Exercises 5B
    C. Existential Import
    D. The Modern Square of Opposition and Venn Diagrams
    Venn Diagrams
    Exercises 5D
    E. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition in the Modern Square
    Conversion
    Obversion
    Contraposition
    Diagrams
    Summary of Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition
    Exercises 5E
    F. The Traditional Square of Opposition and Venn Diagrams
    Exercises 5F.1
    Venn Diagrams and the Traditional Square
    Exercises 5F.2
    G. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition in the Traditional Square
    Summary of Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition
    Conversion
    Obversion
    Contraposition
    Exercises 5G
    H. Translating Ordinary Language into Categorical Propositions
    Missing Plural Nouns
    Nonstandard Verbs
    Singular Propositions
    Adverbs and Pronouns
    "It Is False That . . ."
    Implied Quantifiers
    Nonstandard Quantifiers
    Conditional Statements
    Exclusive Propositions
    "The Only"
    Propositions Requiring Two Translations
    Exercises 5H
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Logic Challenge: Group Relationship

    Chapter 6: Categorical Syllogisms
    A. Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms
    B. Mood and Figure
    Exercises 6B
    C. Diagramming in the Modern Interpretation
    Diagramming A-Propositions
    Diagramming E-Propositions
    Diagramming I-Propositions
    Diagramming O-Propositions
    Wrapping Up the X
    Is the Syllogism Valid?
    Exercises 6C
    D. Rules and Fallacies Under the Modern Interpretation
    Rule 1: The middle term must be distributed in at least one premise.
    Associated Fallacy: Undistributed Middle
    Rule 2: If a term is distributed in the conclusion, then it must be distributed in a premise.
    Associated Fallacies: Illicit Major/Illicit Minor
    Rule 3: A categorical syllogism cannot have two negative premises.
    Associated Fallacy: Exclusive Premises
    Rule 4: A negative premise must have a negative conclusion.
    Associated Fallacy: Affirmative Conclusion/Negative Premise
    Rule 5: A negative conclusion must have a negative premise.
    Associated Fallacy: Negative Conclusion/Affirmative Premises
    Rule 6: Two universal premises cannot have a particular conclusion.
    Associated Fallacy: Existential Fallacy
    Summary of Rules
    Exercises 6D
    E. Diagramming in the Traditional Interpretation
    A-Propositions
    E-Propositions
    Exercises 6E
    F. Rules and Fallacies Under the Traditional Interpretation
    Exercises 6F
    G. Ordinary Language Arguments
    Reducing the Number of Terms in an Argument
    Exercises 6G.1
    Paraphrasing Ordinary Language Arguments
    Categorical Propositions and Multiple Arguments
    Exercises 6G.2
    H. Enthymemes
    Exercises 6H
    I. Sorites
    Exercises 6I
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Logic Challenge: Relationships Revisited

    Chapter 7: Propositional Logic
    A. Logical Operators and Translations
    Simple and Compound Statements
    Negation
    Conjunction
    Disjunction
    Conditional
    Distinguishing "If" from "Only If"
    Sufficient and Necessary Conditions
    Biconditional
    Summary of Operators and Ordinary Language
    Exercises 7A
    B. Compound Statements
    Well-Formed Formulas
    Exercises 7B.1
    Main Operator
    Exercises 7B.2
    Translations and the Main Operator
    Exercises 7B.3
    C. Truth Functions
    Defining the Five Logical Operators
    Negation
    Conjunction
    Disjunction
    Conditional
    Biconditional
    Exercises 7C.1
    Operator Truth Tables and Ordinary Language
    Propositions with Assigned Truth Values
    Exercises 7C.2
    D. Truth Tables for Propositions
    Arranging the Truth Values
    The Order of Operations
    Exercises 7D
    E. Contingent and Noncontingent Statements
    Tautology
    Self-Contradiction
    Exercises 7E
    F. Logical Equivalence and Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent Statements
    Logical Equivalence
    Exercises 7F.1
    Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent Statements
    Exercises 7F.2
    G. Truth Tables for Arguments
    Validity
    Analyzing Sufficient and Necessary Conditions in Arguments
    Technical Validity
    Exercises 7G.1
    Argument Forms
    Exercises 7G.2
    H. Indirect Truth Tables
    Thinking Through an Argument
    A Shorter Truth Table
    Exercises 7H.1
    Using Indirect Truth Tables to Examine Statements for Consistency
    Exercises 7H.2
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Logic Challenge: A Card Problem

    Chapter 8: Natural Deduction
    A. Natural Deduction
    B. Implication Rules I
    Modus Ponens (MP)
    Modus Tollens (MT)
    Hypothetical Syllogism (HS)
    Disjunctive Syllogism (DS)
    Justification: Applying the Rules of Inference
    Exercises 8B
    C. Tactics and Strategy
    Applying the First Four Implication Rules
    Exercises 8C
    D. Implication Rules II
    Simplification (Simp)
    Conjunction (Conj)
    Addition (Add)
    Constructive Dilemma (CD)
    Applying the Second Four Implication Rules
    Exercises 8D
    E. Replacement Rules I
    De Morgan (DM)
    Double Negation (DN)
    Commutation (Com)
    Association (Assoc)
    Distribution (Dist)
    Applying the First Five Replacement Rules
    Exercises 8E
    F. Replacement Rules II
    Transposition (Trans)
    Material Implication (Impl)
    Material Equivalence (Equiv)
    Exportation (Exp)
    Tautology (Taut)
    Applying the Second Five Replacement Rules
    Exercises 8F
    G. Conditional Proof
    Exercises 8G
    H. Indirect Proof
    Exercises 8H
    I. Proving Logical Truths
    Exercises 8I
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Logic Challenge: The Truth

    Chapter 9: Predicate Logic
    A. Translating Ordinary Language
    Singular Statements
    Universal Statements
    Particular Statements
    Summary of Predicate Logic Symbols
    Paying Attention to Meaning
    Exercises 9A
    B. Four New Rules of Inference
    Universal Instantiation (UI)
    Universal Generalization (UG)
    Existential Generalization (EG)
    Existential Instantiation (EI)
    Summary of the Four Rules
    Tactics and Strategy
    Exercises 9B
    C. Change of Quantifier (CQ)
    Exercises 9C
    D. Conditional and Indirect Proof
    Conditional Proof (CP)
    Indirect Proof (IP)
    Exercises 9D
    E. Demonstrating Invalidity
    Counterexample Method
    Finite Universe Method
    Indirect Truth Tables
    Exercises 9E
    F. Relational Predicates
    Translations
    Exercises 9F.1
    Proofs
    A New Restriction
    Change of Quantifier
    Conditional Proof and Indirect Proof
    Exercises 9F.2
    G. Identity
    Simple Identity Statements
    "Only"
    "The Only"
    "No . . . Except"
    "All Except"
    Superlatives
    "At Most"
    "At Least"
    "Exactly"
    Definite Descriptions
    Summary of Identity Translations
    Exercises 9G.1
    Proofs
    Exercises 9G.2
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Logic Challenge: Your Name and Age, Please

    Chapter 15, located on the companion website.
    Online Chapter 15: Analyzing a Long Essay
    A. Childbed Fever
    B. Vienna
    Exercises 15B
    C. Miasm and Contagion
    Exercises 15C
    D. Semmelweis's Account of the Discovery
    Exercises 15D
    E. Initial Questions
    Exercises 15E
    F. A New Interpretation
    Exercises 15F
    Summary
    Bibliography

    Appendix A: Cognitive Bias
    A. Introduction
    B. Heuristics
    C. Heuristics and Algorithms
    D. The Link Between Heuristics and Cognitive Biases
    E. Theories of Judgment
    F. Cognitive Biases
    1. Belief bias
    2. Confirmation bias
    3. Status quo bias
    4. Availability bias
    5. Halo bias
    6. Functional fixedness bias
    7. Anchoring bias
    8. Gambling biases
    9. Frequency bias
    10. Ingroup bias
    11. Fundamental attribution bias
    G. Can We Overcome Cognitive Biases?

    Appendix B: The LSAT and Logical Reasoning
    Introduction
    1. Logical Reasoning
    2. Deductive and Inductive Arguments
    3. Identifying Conclusions and Premises
    A. Identifying the Conclusion
    B. Choosing the Best Missing Conclusion
    C. Assumptions: Choosing the Best Missing Premise
    4. Additional Information That Strengthens or Weakens an Argument
    5. Arguments That Use Either Analogical, Statistical, or Causal Reasoning
    A. Analogical Reasoning
    B. Statistical Reasoning
    C. Causal Reasoning
    6. Explaining or Resolving Given Information
    7. Argument Flaws
    A. Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks or Emotional Appeals
    B. Weak Inductive Argument Fallacies
    C. Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption or Diversion
    8. Recognizing Reasoning Patterns
    A. Class Terms
    B. Conditional Statements
    C. Translating Conditional Statements
    D. Distinguishing "If" from "Only If"
    E. Conditionals and Arguments
    F. Sufficient and Necessary Conditions
    9. Continuing the Process

    Glossary
    Answers to Selected Exercises
    Index