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Fourth Edition

Robert Baum

Publication Date - December 1995

ISBN: 9780195155013

694 pages
7-3/8 x 9-1/4 inches

Retail Price to Students: $109.95


For more than twenty years, introductory logic students have relied on this text to provide clear lessons as well as practical applications of the discipline. Robert Baum emphasizes formal logic and utilizes such elements of popular culture as cartoons and advertisements to illustrate technical concepts. Logic, 4/e addresses all the basic concepts, including informal analysis of statements, arguments, Aristotelian logic, propositional logic, quantificational logic, enumerative induction, the scientific method, probability, informal fallacies, definitions, and applied logic. As with previous editions, Logic, 4/e is extremely flexible--most of the chapters can be included or excluded from a particular course depending on the goals of the course and the time available. This fourth edition features hundreds of additional exercises throughout.

Previous Publication Date(s)

January 1989
May 1980
May 1975

Table of Contents

    1.1. The Value and Uses of Logic
    1.2. What Can Be Learned about Logic and How Can It Be Learned?
    1.3. Logic versus Psychology
    1.4. The Organization of This Book
    Chapter 1: Informal Analysis of Statements
    1.1. Sentences
    1.2. Cognitive and Noncognitive Uses of Sentences
    1.3. Statements
    1.4. Recognizing Sentences Used to Express Statements
    1.5. Self-Evident and Supported Statements
    1.6. Logical Relationships between Two (or More) Propositions
    1.7. Consistency
    1.8. Real versus Apparent Disagreements
    1.9. Verbal Disagreements
    1.10. Implication
    1.11. Logical Equivalence
    1.12. Independence
    Chapter 2: Informal Analysis of Arguments
    2.1. Inferences and Arguments
    2.2. The Logical Sense of "Argument"
    2.3. Premises and Conclusions
    2.4. Problems in Recognizing Intended Arguments
    2.5. Supplying Missing Statements
    2.6. Deductive and Inductive Arguments
    2.7. Criteria for Good Arguments
    2.8. Dealing with Enthymemes
    2.9. Complex Argument Structures
    2.10. Analyzing Sample Arguments
    2.11. Some Basic Elements of Argument Analysis
    Chapter 3: Aristotelian Logic: Statements
    3.1. Categorical Statements
    3.2. Abbreviations
    3.3. Schemas
    3.4. Venn Diagrams and Categorical Statements
    3.5. Logical Relations between Categorical Propositions
    3.6. Immediate Inferences
    3.7. The Traditional Square of Opposition
    3.8. The Boolean Interpretation
    Chapter 4: Aristotelian Logic: Arguments
    4.1. The Categorical Syllogism
    4.2. Standard-Form Syllogisms
    4.3. Mood and Figure
    4.4. Testing the Validity of Syllogisms
    4.5. Testing by Counterexamples
    4.6. Testing with Venn Diagrams
    4.7. Testing by Rules
    4.8. The Boolean Interpretation
    4.9. Syllogistic Arguments in Ordinary Language
    Chapter 5: Propositional Logic: Statements
    5.1. Compound Propositions and Logical Operators
    5.2. Truth-Functional Operators
    5.3. Propositional Abbreviations and Schemas
    5.4. Conjunction
    5.5. Truth Tables
    5.6. Negation
    5.7. Disjunction
    5.8. Material Implication
    5.9. Material Equivalence
    5.10. Propositions with More Than One Logical Operator
    5.11. Truth Table Construction
    5.12. Logically Equivalent Statements
    5.13. Logical Equivalence and Material Equivalence
    5.14. Tautologies
    5.15. Contradictions
    5.16. Contingent Statements
    Chapter 6: Propositional Logic: Arguments
    6.1. Truth-Functional Validity
    6.2. Contradictory Premises and Tautological Conclusions
    6.3. Abbreviating Truth-Functional Arguments
    6.4. Schematizing Truth-Functional Arguments
    6.5. Testing Validity by Truth Tables
    6.6. The Short Truth Table Method
    6.7. Truth-Functional Arguments and Corresponding Conditionals
    6.8. The Propositional Calculus
    6.9. Constructing a Formal Proof
    6.10. Inference Rules
    6.11. Rules of Thumb for Proof Construction
    6.12. The Rule of Rigor
    6.13. The Replacement Rule
    6.14. Conditions of Proof
    6.15. Indirect Proof
    6.16. Deductive Completeness
    Chapter 7: Quantificational Logic: Statements
    7.1. Predicates and Individuals
    7.2. Variables and Constants
    7.3. Compound Propositions
    7.4. Existential Quantifiers
    7.5. Universal Quantifiers
    7.6. Negation and Quantifier Exchange
    7.7. Multiple Quantifiers
    Chapter 8: Quantificational Logic: Arguments
    8.1. Universal Instantiation
    8.2. Existential Generalization
    8.3. Existential Instantiation
    8.4. Universal Generalization
    Chapter 9: Inductive Arguments
    9.1. Enumerative Inductions
    9.2. Relative Strength of Enumerative Inductions
    9.3. The Possible Elimination of Inductions by Analogy
    9.4. Statistical Inductions
    Chapter 10: Scientific Method
    10.1. The Hypothetico-Deductive Method
    10.2. Hypothetic-Deductive Method and Inductive Generalization
    10.3. Crucial Experiments
    10.4. Scientific Method
    10.5. Causal Explanations
    10.6. Kinds of Cause
    10.7. Mill's Method
    10.8. Replicability and Controls
    10.9. The Role of Logic in Science
    Chapter 11: Probability
    11.1. Some Basic Terminology
    11.2. Two General Principles of Probability
    11.3. Three Theories of Probability
    11.4. Independent and Mutually Exclusive Outcomes
    11.5. The Probability Calculus
    Chapter 12: Informal Fallacies
    12.1. Disguised Nonarguments
    12.2. Valid but Fallacious Arguments
    12.3. Other Informal Fallacies
    Chapter 13: Definitions
    13.1. Kinds of Definitions
    13.2. Uses of Definitions
    13.3. Criteria for Good Definitions
    Chapter 14: Applied Logic
    14.1. Burden of Proof
    14.2. The Principle of Induction
    14.3. Choosing the Appropriate System
    Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises