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Latin America in the Modern World

Virginia Garrard, Peter V. N. Henderson, and Bryan McCann

Publication Date - February 2018

ISBN: 9780199340224

784 pages
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $49.99

A history of modern Latin America that places it in a wider global context


Latin America in the Modern World is the first text to situate the history of Latin America within a wider global narrative. Written by leading scholars, the book focuses on five themes: state formation; the construction of national identity through popular culture and religion; economics and commodities; race, class, and gender; and the environment. Emphasizing the distinct experiences of each of the Latin American countries, the book provides students with an entry point into understanding this vital region. Instead of suggesting that all Latin American nations have an interchangeable heritage, the authors seek to clearly identify themes, topics, people, and intellectual currents that help to knit the history of modern Latin America into a coherent category of study. While providing in-depth coverage of the history of the three largest Latin American countries (Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina), Latin America in the Modern World also offers case studies from almost all of the countries, including Central American and Andean nations.

Available to Instructors and Students

* A companion sourcebook, Sources for Latin America in the Modern World, edited by Nicola Foote of Florida Gulf Coast University, that matches the organization of Latin America in the Modern World
* A companion website that includes quizzes, flashcards, and chapter summaries
* An image bank of Power Point slides

About the Author(s)

Virginia Garrard is Professor of History at the University of Texas and Director of the Teresa Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies.

Peter V. N. Henderson is Emeritus Professor of History at Winona State University.

Bryan McCann is Chair of the History Department at Georgetown University and President of BRASA, the Brazilian Studies Association.


"The authors have written an engaging and insightful history of modern Latin America, one that draws in readers without oversimplifying or stereotyping. They cover the entire region--not reducing the analysis to a few countries--highlighting its diversity, richness, and dilemmas. In addition, they provide enticing vignettes, mini-biographies, and primary sources, while incorporating the most recent bibliography. I look forward to using Latin America in the Modern World in class."--Charles F. Walker, University of California, Davis

"Latin America in the Modern World successfully tackles one of the biggest challenges faced by students of Latin American history: how do we make sense of a region that is simultaneously a reality and a fiction? The authors show Latin America as a distinct regional identity even as it was pulled along in the broader currents of global history, and how it remained coherent even as it was splintered by local and national differences."--Jocelyn Olcott, Duke University

"Finally, a textbook on modern Latin America that balances the student's desire for narrative with the specialist's need for a nuanced and interdisciplinary approach to the region's history! Mixing an impressive array of teaching tools--including maps, timelines, bibliography, and primary sources--with sustained attention to core themes like modernization, political development, religion, race, U.S. intervention, global integration, gender, and the environment, the authors provide a highly usable and satisfying textbook for newcomers to Latin American Studies."--Elizabeth Hutchison, University of New Mexico

Table of Contents

    Each chapter includes a Conclusion, Timeline, and Key Terms and Selected Readings.

    List of Maps
    Note on Spellings
    About the Authors

    The Land and the People
    Topography and Basic Categories of People
    The Densely Populated Societies
    The Iberians and the Africans
    The Conquest (Encounter) and its Consequences
    The Conquest of Mexico
    The Conquest of Peru and Elsewhere in South America
    Brazil and Other Conquest Experiences
    The Consequences of the Conquest: The Columbian Exchange

    Colonial Administration and Economics
    The Colonial Administration
    The Colonial Economy
    Colonial Society
    The Elite, Middle Sectors and the Issue of Race
    Changes in the Eighteenth Century
    Piecemeal Reforms, 1713-1750
    The Later Reforms and the Enlightenment
    Selcted Readings


    Chapter One: Latin America in the Age of Revolution, 1789-1820s
    Global Connections
    The Causes of Independence, 1789-1810
    The External Causes of Independence
    The Internal Grievances
    The Haitian Revolution, 1789-1804
    Slavery in Saint-Domingue
    The Great Slave Rebellion
    The Environment Assists the Haitian Revolutionaries
    Violence and New Racial Hierarchies at the Dawn of the Republic
    The United States and the Haitian Revolution
    Independence in Mexico, 1810-1822
    The Autonomy Movement versus the Hidalgo Rebellion
    Morelos's Insurgency
    The Triumph of Criollo Patriotism
    The Liberation Movement in Spanish South America, 1808-1825
    The Quest for Autonomy
    Independence in the Southern Cone
    The War in Northern South America, 1810-1816
    Patriot Success in the North and the Andes, 1816-1825
    Manuela Sáenz de Thorne
    "The Loyal Caribbean," 1800-1860s
    Sugar and Slavery in the Caribbean
    Retaining the Colonial Order
    Brazil's Path to Independent Empire, 1807-1822
    The Portuguese Court in Brazil
    José Bonifácio de Andrade e Silva

    Chapter Two: Latin America: Regionalism and Localism
    Global Connections
    The Breakdown of the Spanish Viceroyalties, 1825-1830
    Bolívar's Visionary Plans Fail
    Plans for Supra-States after Bolívar's Death
    Women Travelers in the Andean Nations
    The Breakdown of New Spain, 1821-1835
    Iturbide's Empire
    Mexican National Politics from Iturbide to the Texas Rebellion
    Independence Comes to the Isthmus of Central America
    Mexico Loses More Territory: The Effects of Manifest Destiny, 1835-1853
    The Idea of Manifest Destiny
    The Mexican War
    The San Patricios
    The Brazilian Counter-Example: Unity despite Regionalism, 1822-1845
    The Contours of Empire
    The Regency Revolts
    Domingos José de Almeida: Race and Rebellion in Nineteenth-Century
    The Viceroyalty of La Plata Continues to Fragment, 1820s-1850s
    Argentina's Unitarians and the Federalists
    Buenos Aires versus the Provinces; Rosas versus Sarmiento
    Regionalism and the Demise of the UPCA, 1830s-1840s
    Growing Tensions in the UPCA
    The Collapse of the Union
    The 1837 Cholera Epidemic
    Physical Geography and Popular Culture in Mexico, 1820s-1850s
    Regionalism and Caudillos, 1820s-1870s
    Characteristics of a Caudillo
    José Antonio Páez
    José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
    Abad Huachaca

    Chapter Three: First Attempts at State Formation: The Liberal-Conservative Debate, 1830-1875
    Global Connections
    Liberal and Conservative Visions of State Formation, 1830-1875
    An Overview of the Competing Visions
    Colombia's Liberal Experiment with Extreme Federalism
    Democratic Aspects of the Rionegro Constitution
    Chile, Diego Portales and Conservatives Centralism
    The Centralist Extreme: Ecuador's Constitution of 1869

    The Benefits (and Costs) of Moderation, 1830s-1880s
    Moderate Leadership Emerges in Costa Rica
    Moderation Prevails in Chile
    Brazil under Pedro II: A Third Example of Moderation
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Pedro II and the Sciences
    Economics and the Environment, 1830s-1880s
    Guano and Resource Depletion
    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Mandeponay, a Chiriguano Leader in Bolivia
    The Church-State Issue, 1830s-1880s
    Liberals, Conservatives, and the Church
    The Mexican Reforma
    Garcia Moreno and the Catholic Nation in Ecuador
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Sacred Heart of Jesus
    Gender, Families, and Liberal Lawmaking, 1830s-1880s
    The Family Structure
    Liberalism and Elite Women

    Foreign Influence, 1840s-1880s
    The Era of Filibusters: Narciso López in Cuba
    William Walker and Nicaragua
    The British and the Miskito Coast
    The British in the Southern Cone
    France, Latin Americans, and the
    Empire in Mexico
    The War of the Triple Alliance, 1864-1870
    The Conduct of the War
    Results of the Conflict

    Chapter Four: Exclusion and Inclusion: Everyday People, 1825-1880s
    Global Connections
    Indian Subjects Become Indigenous Citizens, 1820s-1889
    The End of "Indian" Tribute
    Communal Land Issues in Central America: El Salvador and Guatemala
    Land Conflicts in Bolivia
    The End of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and the Long Path to the Abolition of Slavery in Latin America, 1820s-1880s
    Sugar in the Americas
    Environmental Factors Intensify Cuba's Sugar Production
    Slave Trade and Abolition in Cuba
    Abolition in Brazil, the End of Empire/Creation of the Old Republic
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Photographs of Brazilian Slaves
    The Rise of Popular Religion, 1830s-1890s
    The Emergence of Popular Catholicism
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Virgin of the Angels: A US Protestant Missionary (Mattie Crawford's) View, 1922
    Political, Social and Economic Responses of the Popular Classes, 1840s-1880s
    Popular Liberalism and Conservativism in Mexico
    Popular Liberals and Popular Conservatives in Colombia
    The Popular Classes and the Economy
    Social Banditry in Mexico and Brazil
    Poor Women in Latin America, 1820s-1880s
    Patriarchy and Poor Rural Women
    Patriarchy and Poor Urban Women
    Haciendas and Urban Life: The Role of Elites, 1830s-1880s
    Elites and Comparative Ranching in the Rio de la Plata Basin
    Mexican and Peruvian Haciendas
    ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: Foreign Travelers in Andean Marketplaces
    Urban Life in Lima


    Chapter Five: Progress and Modernization: The Elite's Strategy (1870-1929)

    Global Connections
    Philosophy and Principles of Modernization: Positivism and Social Darwinism, 1870s-1900s
    The Ideas behind Positivism and Social Darwinism
    Positivism and Social Darwinism in Latin America
    The Quest for Order, 1870s-1900s
    Argentina under the Liberals
    Mexico under Porfirio Díaz
    Creating the Modern Latin American Military:
    The Case of Chile
    Foreign Investment, 1870s-1900s
    Foreign Investment in Mexico
    British Investment in Argentina
    The Department Store
    Products for Export, 1870s-1900s
    Beef and Wheat in Argentina and Uruguay
    Banana Cultivation and its Consequences
    Bananas and the Environment
    Railroads and other Technologies, 1870s-1900s
    Railroads in Brazil and Mexico
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Chá Viaduct, Sao Paulo
    Railroads in the Andean Nations
    Refrigeration and other Technologies
    Immigration, 1870s-1900s
    Immigration in the Southern Cone
    Immigrants and Race
    Elite Women in the Age of Progress, 1870s-1900s
    Social Motherhood
    New Roles in Education and Health Care

    Chapter Six: Worlds Connecting: Latin America in an Imperial Age
    Global Connections
    The Growing Presence of the US in Latin America, 1890s-1920s
    The Cuban Independence Movement of 1895
    The US Intervention and the Spanish-American War
    Cuba under the Platt Amendment, 1899-1934
    The Roosevelt Corollary and "Dollar Diplomacy," 1900s-1920s
    Articulating the Roosevelt Corollary and Dollar Diplomacy
    The Panama Canal and the Conquest of the Tropics
    The US Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934
    Augusto Sandino and the US Occupation of Nicaragua, 1919-1933

    Territorial Readjustments and South American Imperialism, 1878-1929
    Events Leading to the War of the Pacific
    Conflict and Resolution
    Foreign Capital, the Automobile and New Sources of Energy, 1900-1920s
    Petroleum in Venezuela
    Oil and Environmental Disaster in Mexico

    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Conflict between Elites and the Popular Class
    The Rubber Industry and Fordlandia
    The Latin American Reaction to US Aggression, 1890s-1920s
    The Baltimore Affair
    Latin Americans Reflect on the Yankee Menace
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Soccer in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil
    The Formative Years of Middle Class Feminism, 1900-1930
    Changing Social Behavior: "The Woman Question"
    Paulina Luisi: Feminist and Physician
    The Quest for Married Women's Property Rights
    in Argentina
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Protestant Missionaries
    The Role of the US during South America's "Roaring Twenties," 1920s
    The US and the "Roaring Twenties" in Colombia
    The "Roaring Twenties" in Peru

    Chapter Seven: Progress and its Discontents, 1880-1920
    Global Connections
    Consequences of Urbanization, 1880-1920
    Urbanization in Argentina
    Urbanization in Uruguay
    The Old Republic and the Modernization of Rio de Janeiro
    The Urban Environment and Public Parks
    The Seamier Side of Urban Life in Mexico
    Crime and Disease in Andean Cities
    The Rise of the Middle Class, 1890s-1920s
    The Middle Class in Argentina
    The Middle Class in Peru
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: "The Redemption of Ham"
    Literary Visions and Transitions, 1870s-1920s
    From Romanticism to Realism
    José Enrique Rodó and Anti-Positivism
    Indigenous People and Liberal Rule, 1880s-1920s
    Indigenous People in Mexico
    Brazil's Cacao Boom and Bust, 1870s-1930s
    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Sex Workers and the Banana Plantations
    The Andean Republics
    Rural Conflict in Brazil: Canudos
    The Mexican Revolution: The Decade of Violence, 1910-1920
    The Failed Transition from the Porfiriato
    From Reform to Revolution
    Women at War: The
    The Constitution of 1917


    Chapter Eight: The Great Depression and Authoritarian Populists, 1930-1950

    Global Connections
    The End of the Export Boom and its Consequences, 1929-1935
    Mineral Exporting Nations
    Export Agriculture and the Depression
    Everyday Life during the Depression, 1930-1940
    Strategies for Change: ISI and Economic Nationalism, 1935-1960
    Light Industry
    Brazilian Industrialization
    Heavy Industry in Mexico
    The Expropriation of the Oil Industry in Mexico: Economic Nationalism
    The Early Tourism Industry in Mexico
    Urbanization and the Emergence of Labor Movements, 1900-1945
    The Evolution of the Labor Movement
    Industrial Labor
    in Brazil
    Industrial Labor in Argentina
    The Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers and the Confederation of Mexican Workers
    Gender and Labor in a Chilean Copper Mine
    Andean Populism, 1930-1955
    Jorge Eliécer Gaitán of Colombia
    Populism in Peru and Ecuador
    Brazil and Getúlio Vargas, 1930-1945
    Vargas Comes to Power
    The Estado Novo
    The Peróns: Argentine Populism, 1945-1955
    Perón's Ascension to Power
    Evita Perón
    Depression Era Dictatorships, 1930-1945
    The Dictators
    La Matanza in El Salvador
    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Rafael Trujillo and the Parsley Massacre
    The Good Neighbor Policy and World War II
    The Good Neighbor Policy
    The Good Neighbor Policy in

    Chapter Nine: The Challenges of Modernity, 1930-1950
    Global Connections
    New Ideas about Race in Latin America, 1925-1935
    The Ideas about Mestizaje in Mexico
    Indigenismo in Mexico
    Indigenismo in Guatemala
    Pan-Africanism, Negritude, and New Ideas about Blackness in Latin America
    Cultural Nationalism: The Mexican Example, 1920-1955
    Artists and the Development of Mexican National Culture
    Frida Kahlo: Art and the Importance of Popular Culture
    Mass Media: Promoting Revolutionary Mexican Culture, 1935-1960
    The Golden Age of Cinema
    Comic Books
    Mexico's Practical Program to Reform National Culture, 1926-1940
    The Campaign against the Church and its Consequences
    Destroying the Hacienda: The Agrarian Reform Program
    The Campaign against Vice
    Indigenismo and Mestizaje in the Andean Nations, 1928-1980
    Andean Mestizaje
    Andean Indigenismo
    Cholas in the Andes
    Cholas in the Marketplace
    Cholas in Bolivia
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Survival of Handicrafts: The Panama Hat
    Indigenista Art and Literature in the Andean Republics
    Andean Literature
    Andean Visual Arts

    Land Use in Southern Chile, 1925-1960
    Early Efforts to Control Forest Usage
    Peasant Protest and Forest Development
    New Understandings of Race in Brazil, 1930-1960
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Maracanaco
    Women and the Quest for Equal Legal Rights, 1929-1960
    Suffrage in South America
    Mexico Belatedly Joins the First Wave of Feminism
    Popular Culture and the Spread of Modern Ideas, 1930-1960
    The Sources of Cultural Images
    Argentina and the Tango
    The Brazilian Samba
    Son and Rumba in Cuba

    Chapter Ten: Revolution and Reform in Latin America, 1950-1980
    Global Connections
    Latin American Follows Mexico's Path to Reform, 1948-1980
    The Bolivian National Revolution of 1952
    The Venezuelan Democratic Revolution
    José Figueres and the Costa Rican Revolution
    Guatemala's Ten Years of Spring, 1944-1954
    Arévalo and Spiritual Socialism
    The Arbenz Administration
    The Covert Operation in Guatemala
    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Opposition to the Arbenz Regime in a Poster
    The Cuban Revolution, 1959-1989
    The Batista Regime and its Overthrow
    Fidel Castro and the Early Days of the Cuban Revolution
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Iconography of Che Guevara
    The Cuban Revolution Enters the Cold War
    The Cuban Revolution at Home
    Exporting the Cuban Revolution to Africa and Latin America
    The Ten-Million Ton Harvest
    Aging Populists and Leftist Opposition in the Southern Cone, 1954-1970
    The Return of Getúlio Vargas
    Goulart and the Unravelling of the Getulista Coalition
    Perón and Peronism: From Exile to Return
    The Montoneros and Urban Guerrillas in Argentina and
    Ernesto "Che" Guevara's Misadventure in Bolivia
    The Expeditionaries in Bolivia
    Che Guevara's Capture and Death

    Salvador Allende and Electoral Socialism in Chile, 1970-1973
    The Historic Chilean Presidential Election of 1970
    Allende's Controversial Policies and their Consequences
    The Coup of September 11, 1973
    Latin America's Third Way: Authoritarian Reformers in Peru and Ecuador, 1967-1980
    The Military and Economic Nationalism
    Agrarian Reform and Policies Affecting other Sectors of Society
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Bob Marley and Reggae in Latin America
    The Revolution in Latin American Literature, 1950s-1980s
    The Authors
    Their Best Known Novels

    Chapter Eleven: Counter-Revolution in Latin America, 1960-1980
    Global Connections
    The Alliance for Progress, 1961-1972
    The Creation of the Alliance
    The Alliance's Successes and Failures
    The National Security Doctrine, 1960-1980
    The Workings of the Doctrine
    The School of the Americas
    The National Security State: Guatemala in the 1960s
    Death Comes to the Beauty Queen: Rogelia Cruz Martínez
    The Brazilian Military Dictatorship, 1964-1967
    The Lead-up to the Coup
    Dictatorship in the Name of Democracy
    Soft and Hard Dictatorship
    The Trans-Amazonian Highway

    The Brazilian Military Dictatorship, 1964-1974
    The Lead-up to the Coup
    Dictatorship in the Name of
    Soft and Hard Dictatorships
    The Trans-Amazonian Highway

    Argentina, Uruguay and the Dirty Wars in the Southern Cone, 1970s-1980s
    The Dirty War Begins
    Victims and Survivors

    Augusto Pinochet and the Dirty War in Chile, 1973-1990
    Pinochet Suppresses the Left and Imposes Order
    Pinochet, Neo-Liberalism and the "Chilean Miracle"
    Economic Collapse, the Recovery, and the Path toward Democracy
    Women's Participation in the Pinochet Regime
    Mexico: From Economic Miracle to the Dirty War, 1950-1964
    PRI and Dominant Party Politics
    Early Opposition to PRI

    The Dirty War in Mexico, 1964-1974
    Rural Protests
    The Tlatelolco
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Popular Music, Mexican Youth, and the Counterculture Movement
    Conservation and National Parks in Latin America, 1964-2000
    The National Park System in Costa Rica
    The Galápagos Islands: Darwin's Laboratory


    Chapter Twelve: The Late Cold War in Latin America, 1970s to 1990

    Global Connections
    Liberation Theology in Latin America, 1962-1980
    The Crisis in the Catholic Church and the Reforms
    The Effect of Liberation Theology
    The Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua, 1972-1995
    The Continuing Somoza Dynasty
    The Sandinista Revolution and the Aftermath
    Sandinista Government and its Opposition
    Revolutionary Women in Nicaragua

    The Cold War in El Salvador and Guatemala, 1970-1992
    El Salvador

    Cuba in the Special Period, 1989-2016
    The Economic Effects of the Special Period
    Other Changes during the Special Period
    The Sustainable Agriculture Movement in Mexico and Central America
    Latin American Baseball
    The Late Cold War in the Andes, 1960-2016
    The FARC and the ELN in Colombia
    The Shining Path: The Scourge of Peru
    Mario Vargas Llosa Contextualizes the Shining Path

    Chapter Thirteen: Neo-Liberalism and its Discontents, 1980-2015
    Global Connections
    The Return to Democracy in the Southern Cone, 1975-2015
    Argentina's Dirty War Ends
    Brazil's Return to Democracy
    Civil Society Mobilization and the End of Dictatorship
    Chile after Pinochet: Democracy, Economic Growth, and Justice
    The International Debt Crisis, the IMF, and Neoliberalism, 1975-2000
    The Debt Crisis and Neoliberalism in Latin America
    Bait and Switch Populists
    The Privatization of the Rio Doce Valley Company
    Contemporary Feminist Issues, 1970-2017
    Divorce in the Southern Cone Nations
    Reproductive Rights
    Mexico: New Challenges and Protests, 1970-2000
    The Failure of the Institutional Revolutionary Party after Tlatelolco
    The Zapatista Uprising of 1994
    AND COMMODITIES: Coca before the Narcos
    The Drug Trade: Poisoning the Andean States, 1970-2000
    Producing Coca in Bolivia and Peru
    Drug Smuggling: The Medellín and Cali Cartels in Colombia
    Urban Poverty and the Informal Sector, 1960-2000
    The Resurgence of Urbanization in the 1960s
    Contemporary Ideas about Informal Urbanization
    The Environment and Development, 1960-2000
    Urban Environmental Issues: Electrification
    Brazil's Rolling Brownouts of 2001-2002
    Automobile Traffic and Pollution

    Unsettling Circumstances for Venezuela's Democracy, 1970-1998
    From the Caracazo to the Breakdown of the Two Parties
    The Venezuelan Election of 1998

    Chapter Fourteen: New Identities, New Politics, 1980-2016
    Global Connections
    The Rejection of Mestizaje and Racial Democracy, 1980-2000
    The Evolution of New Thinking about Race, Class, and Gender
    New Racial and Cultural Identities in Brazil
    Questioning Mestizaje in the Andean Nations

    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Otavalan Weaving and Global Entrepreneurship
    The Indigenous Movements in Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, 1980-2010
    The Ecuadorian Experience
    The Indigenous Movement in Bolivia
    The Maya Movement in Guatemala
    Rigoberto Menchú Tum
    Contemporary Mexico: Competitive Democracy, Drugs, and State Violence, 2000-present
    Vicente Fox and the Fruition of Democracy
    The Drug
    Trafficking Issue
    Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian Revolution, 1998-2016
    The Chavista Revolutionary Program
    Criticism Mounts as the Revolution Falters
    The Changing Role of Women in Politics, 1990-2016
    The Evolving Ecological Debate, 1980-2000
    General Tenets of the Environmental Movement in Latin America
    Ecological Policy Debates in Peru
    Religious Pluralism: Pentecostalism in Latin America, 1960-2010
    The Rise of Protestantism
    The Three Waves of the Protestant Movement
    Why Pentecostalism?
    Brazilian Neo-Pentecostalism

    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Argentina's Naval Mechanic School Museum
    Popular Cultural Traditions, 1970-2000
    New Popular Music Genres
    Other Forms of
    Popular Culture

    The Zika Epidemic
    Environmental Issues
    Commodities in the Twenty-First Century
    Gender Issues: The LGBT Movement in Contemporary Latin America
    Porous Borders and Transnational Crime: Gangs
    The Latin Americanization of the US

    Appendix: Table of Contents for Sources in Latin America in the Modern World

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