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Latin America in the Modern World

Second Edition

Virginia Garrard, Peter Henderson, and Bryan McCann

Publication Date - May 2022

ISBN: 9780197574096

560 pages

In Stock

With a thematic and chronological organization, Latin America in the Modern World covers all regions of Latin America and situates modern Latin American history in a global context.


Latin America in the Modern World is the first text to situate the history of Latin America within a wider global narrative. Written by leading scholars, the book focuses on five themes: state formation; the construction of national identity through popular culture and religion; economics and commodities; race, class, and gender; and the environment. Emphasizing the distinct experiences of each of the Latin American countries, the book provides students with an entry point into understanding this vital region. Instead of suggesting that all Latin American nations have an interchangeable heritage, the authors seek to clearly identify themes, topics, people, and intellectual currents that help to knit the history of modern Latin America into a coherent category of study. While providing in-depth coverage of the history of the three largest Latin American countries (Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina), Latin America in the Modern World also offers case studies from almost all of the countries, including Central American and Andean nations.

New to this Edition

  • In response to user feedback, the authors condensed the book considerably by saying more with fewer, well-chosen words and by compressing two of the immediate post-independence period chapters into one. Thus, Chapters 2 and 3 from the first edition is now Chapter Two in the second edition, entitled "Latin America: Regionalism and First Attempts at State Formation."
  • Several topics have been reorganized to improve the narrative flow.
  • The most recent scholarship appears in many of the chapters, and material about the new global actors in twenty-first century Latin America has been added.
  • The digital resources have been greatly expanded in the Second Edition. For instructors, we offer a computerized test-bank, image and map PowerPoints, and more than 100 primary sources edited specifically to accompany Latin America in the Modern World . Adopters also have access to Learning Link Direct, which allows for OUP's digital learning resources for Latin America in the Modern World to be available within their institution's own LMS. For students, we provide Oxford Learning Link with chapter quizzes, flashcards, interactive timelines, note-taking guides, summaries, primary sources, and Thematic Explorations.
  • Electronic versions of the sources are available at no extra charge to all students who purchase a new copy of the text.


  • "Global Connections" at the beginning of each chapter situate the history of Latin America within a wider global narrative.
  • Focuses on five themes: state formation; the construction of national identity through popular culture and religion; economics and commodities; race, class, and gender; and the environment.
  • Inclusive approach brings smaller nations into the story in addition to bigger countries like Mexico and Brazil that tend to dominate historical narratives
  • Exceptionally strong coverage of culture, religion, and gender provide alternate story-lines to the political narratives that traditionally frame the study of Modern Latin America
  • A companion sourcebook, Sources for Latin America in the Modern World, offers approximately six primary sources per chapter. Electronic versions of the sources are available to all students who purchase a new copy of the text.

About the Author(s)

Virginia Garrard is Director of the Teresa Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies and Collections and a member of the Department of History at the University of Texas, Austin.

Peter V. N. Henderson is Emeritus Professor of History at Winona State University.

Bryan McCann is Chair of the History Department at Georgetown University and President of BRASA, the Brazilian Studies Association.

Table of Contents

    List of Maps
    Note on Spellings
    About the Authors


    The Land and the People
    The Indigenous Peoples
    The Iberians and the Africans
    The Conquest (Encounter) and Its Consequences
    The Conquest of Mexico
    The Conquest of Peru
    Brazil's Conquest Experiences
    The Consequences of the Conquest: The Columbian Exchange
    Colonial Administration and Economics
    The Colonial Administration
    The Colonial Economy
    Colonial Society
    The Elite, the Middle Sectors, and the Issue of Race
    Changes in the Eighteenth Century
    The Bourbon Reforms and the Enlightenment, 1713-1808

    Selected Readings

    Part One The Early Nineteenth-Century Search for National Identity to 1875

    Chapter 1: Latin America in the Age of Revolution, 1789-1820s

    Global Connections
    The Causes of Independence, 1789-1810
    The External Causes of Independence
    The Internal Grievances
    The Haitian Revolution, 1789-1804
    Slavery in Saint-Domingue
    The Great Slave Rebellion
    The Environment Assists the Haitian Revolutionaries
    Violence and New Racial Hierarchies at the Dawn of the Republic
    The Liberation Movement in Spanish South America, 1808-1825
    The Quest for Autonomy
    The War in Northern South America, 1810-1816
    Independence in the Southern Cone
    Patriot Success in the North and the Andes, 1816-1825
    Independence in Mexico, 1810-1822
    The Hidalgo Rebellion
    Morelos's Insurgency
    Iturbide and the Triumph of Criollo Patriotism
    Brazil's Path to Independent Empire, 1807-1822
    The Portuguese Court in Brazil
    "The Loyal Caribbean," 1800-1860s
    Sugar and Slavery in the Caribbean
    Retaining the Colonial Order

    Key Terms
    Selected Readings

    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: The United States and the Haitian Revolution
    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Manuela Sáenz de Thorne CULTURE: National Anthems
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva

    Chapter 2: Latin America: Regionalism and First Attempts at State Formation

    Global Connections
    The Breakdown of the Spanish Viceroyalties, 1825-1850s
    Bolívar's Visionary Plans Fail
    The Viceroyalty of La Plata Continues to Fragment, 1820s-1850s
    Argentina's Unitarians and the Federalists
    Buenos Aires versus the Provinces; Rosas versus Sarmiento
    The Brazilian Counterexample: Unity despite Regionalism, 1822-1845
    The Contours of Empire
    The Regency Revolts
    The Breakdown of New Spain and the Demise of the United Provinces of Central America, 1821-1835
    Iturbide's Empire
    Mexican National Politics from Iturbide to the Texas Rebellion
    Regionalism and the Demise of the UPCA, 1823-1840
    Growing Tensions in the UPCA
    The Collapse of the Union
    Regionalism and Caudillos, 1820s-1870s
    Characteristics of a Caudillo
    José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
    Antonio Abad Huachaca
    Mexico Loses More Territory: The Effects of Manifest Destiny, 1835-1853
    The Idea of Manifest Destiny
    The Mexican War
    The Era of Filibusters
    William Walker and Nicaragua
    Liberal and Conservative Visions of State Formation, 1830-1875
    An Overview of the Competing Visions
    The Colombian Constitution of 1863: Extreme Federalism
    Extreme Centralism: The Case of Chile, 1833-1860
    The Economic Debate: Free Trade versus Protectionism
    The War of the Triple Alliance, 1864-1870
    The Conduct of the War
    Results of the Conflict
    Liberals, Conservatives, and the Catholic Church, 1830s-1880s
    The Mexican Reforma
    García Morena and the Catholic Nation of Ecuador

    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Women Travelers in the Andean Nations
    ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: Domingos José de Almeida: Race and Rebellion in Nineteenth-Century Brazil
    THE ENVIRONMENT: The 1837 Cholera Epidemic

    Key Terms
    Selected Readings

    Chapter 3: Exclusion and Inclusion: Everyday People, 1825-1880s

    Global Connections
    Indian Subjects Become Indigenous Citizens, 1820s-1889
    The End of "Indian" Tribute
    Communal Land Issues in El Salvador and Guatemala
    Land Conflicts in Bolivia
    The End of the Transatlantic Slave Trade and the Long Path to the Abolition of Slavery in Latin America, 1820s-1880s
    Sugar in the Americas
    Environmental Factors Intensify Cuba's Sugar Production
    Slave Trade and Abolition in Cuba
    Abolition in Brazil, the End of Empire/Creation of the Old Republic
    The Rise of Popular Religion, 1830s-1890s
    The Emergence of Popular Catholicism
    Political, Social, and Economic Responses of the Popular Classes, 1840s-1880s
    Popular Liberalism and Conservativism in Mexico
    Popular Liberals and Popular Conservatives in Colombia
    The Popular Classes and the Economy
    Social Banditry in Mexico and Brazil
    Women and Families in Latin America, 1820s-1875
    Women, Social Expectations, and the Law
    Patriarchy and Poor Rural Women
    Patriarchy and Poor Urban Women
    Haciendas and Urban Life: The Role of Elites, 1830s-1880s
    Elites and Comparative Ranching in the Rio de la Plata Basin
    Mexican Haciendas
    Urban Life in Lima

    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Photographs of Enslaved Brazilians
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Virgin of the Angels: A US Protestant Missionary (Mattie Crawford) Views Popular Religion
    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Mandeponay, a Chiriguano Leader in Bolivia

    Key Terms
    Selected Readings

    Part Two Progress and Modernization: Commodities, Railroads, Neocolonialism, and Race, 1875-1929

    Chapter 4: Progress and Modernization: The Elite's Strategy, 1870-1929

    Global Connections
    Philosophy and Principles of Modernization: Positivism and Social Darwinism, 1870s-1900s
    The Ideas behind Positivism and Social Darwinism
    Positivism and Social Darwinism in Latin America
    The Quest for Order, 1870s-1900s
    Argentina under the Liberals
    Mexico under Porfirio Díaz
    Creating the Modern Latin American Military: The Case of Chile
    Foreign Investment, 1870s-1900s
    Foreign Investment in Mexico
    British Investment in Argentina
    Immigration, 1870s-1900s
    Immigration in the Southern Cone
    Immigrants and Race
    Products for Export, 1870s-1920s
    Beef and Wheat in Argentina and Uruguay
    Banana Cultivation and Its Consequences
    Bananas and the Environment
    Railroads and Other Technologies, 1870s-1900s
    Railroads in Brazil and Mexico
    Railroads in the Andean Nations
    Refrigeration and Other Technologies
    Elite Women in the Age of Progress, 1870s-1900
    Social Motherhood
    Post-independence Liberalism and Elite Women
    New Roles in Education and Healthcare


    Key Terms
    Selected Readings

    Chapter 5: Worlds Connecting: Latin America in an Imperial Age

    Global Connections
    The Growing Presence of the United States, 1890s-1920s
    The Cuban Independence Movement of 1895
    The US Intervention and the Spanish American War
    Cuba under the Platt Amendment, 1899-1934
    Protecting the “American Lake”
    The Panama Canal and the Conquest of the Tropics
    The US Occupations of the Dominican Republic and Haiti
    Augusto Sandino and the US Occupation of Nicaragua, 1909-1933
    The Latin American Reaction to US Aggression, 1890s-1920s
    The Baltimore Affair
    Latin Americans Reflect on the Yankee Menace
    Territorial Readjustments and South American Imperialism, 1878-1929
    Events Leading to the War of the Pacific
    The War of the Pacific: Conflict and Resolution
    Foreign Capital, the Automobile, and New Sources of Energy, 1900-1920s
    Petroleum in Venezuela
    Oil and Environmental Disaster in Mexico
    The Rubber Industry and Fordlândia
    The Formative Years of Middle-Class Feminism, 1900-1930
    Changing Social Behavior: The "Woman Question"
    Paulina Luisi: Feminist and Physician
    The Quest for Married Women's Property Rights in Argentina
    The Role of the United States during South America's "Roaring Twenties"
    The United States and the "Roaring Twenties" in Colombia
    The "Roaring Twenties" in Peru

    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Conflict between Elites and the Popular Class
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Soccer in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Protestant Missionaries

    Key Terms
    Selected Readings

    Chapter 6: Progress and Its Discontents, 1880-1929

    Global Connections
    Consequences of Urbanization, 1880-1920
    Urbanization in Argentina
    Urbanization in Uruguay
    The Old Republic and the Modernization of Rio de Janeiro
    The Urban Environment and Public Parks
    The Seamier Side of Urban Life in Mexico
    Crime and Disease in Andean Cities
    The Rise of the Middle Class, 1890s-1920s
    The Middle Class in Argentina
    The Middle Class in Peru
    Literary Giants: Machado de Assis and Rodó
    Indigenous People and Liberal Rule, 1880s-1920s
    Indigenous People in Mexico
    The Andean Republics
    Rural Conflict in Brazil: Canudos
    The Mexican Revolution: The Decade of Violence, 1910-1920
    The Failed Transition from the Porfiriato
    From Reform to Revolution
    Women at War: The Soldadera
    The Constitution of 1917

    CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Redemption of Ham
    COMMODITIES AND ECONOMICS: Brazil's Cacao Boom and Bust, 1870s-1930s
    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Sex Workers and the Banana Plantations

    Key Terms
    Selected Readings

    Part Three The Call for Change: Twentieth-Century Transformations, 1930-1980

    Chapter 7: The Great Depression and Authoritarian Populists, 1930-1950

    Global Connections
    The End of the Export Boom and Its Consequences, 1929-1935
    Mineral-Exporting Nations
    Export Agriculture and the Depression
    Everyday Life during the Depression, 1930-1940
    Depression-Era Dictatorships, 1930-1945
    The Dictators
    La Matanza in El Salvador
    The Good Neighbor Policy and World War II, 1934-1945
    The Good Neighbor Policy
    The Good Neighbor Policy in Practice
    Strategies for Change: ISI and Economic Nationalism, 1935-1960
    Light Industry
    Brazilian Industrialization
    Heavy Industry in Mexico
    The Expropriation of the Oil Industry in Mexico: Economic Nationalism
    Urbanization and the Emergence of Labor Movements, 1900-1945
    The Evolution of the Labor Movement
    Industrial Labor in Brazil
    Industrial Labor in Argentina
    The Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers and the Confederation of Mexican Workers
    Gender and Labor in a Chilean Copper Mine
    Andean Populism, 1930-1955
    Jorge Eliécer Gaitán of Colombia
    Populism in Peru and Ecuador
    Brazil's Populist: Getúlio Vargas, 1930-1945
    Vargas Comes to Power
    The Estado Novo
    Damming the São Francisco
    The Peróns: Argentine Populism, 1945-1955
    Perón's Ascension to Power
    Evita Perón

    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Rafael Leónidas Trujillo and the Parsley Massacre
    ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: The Early Tourism Industry in Mexico

    Key Terms
    Selected Readings

    Chapter 8: The Challenges of Modernity, 1930-1950

    Global Connections
    New Ideas about Race in Latin America, 1920-1935
    The Ideas about Mestizaje in Mexico
    Indigenismo in Mexico
    Indigenismo in Guatemala
    Pan-Africanism, Negritude, and New Ideas about Blackness in Latin America
    Cultural Nationalism: The Mexican Example, 1920-1955
    Artists and the Development of Mexican National Culture
    Frida Kahlo: Art and the Importance of Popular Culture
    Mass Media: Promoting Revolutionary Mexican Culture, 1935-1960
    The Golden Age of Cinema
    Comic Books
    Mexico's Practical Program to Reform National Culture, 1926-1940
    The Campaign against the Church and Its Consequences
    Destroying the Hacienda: The Agrarian Reform Program
    Indigenismo and Mestizaje in the Andean Nations, 1928-1980
    Andean Mestizaje
    Andean Indigenismo
    Cholas in the Andes
    Cholas in the Marketplace
    Indigenista Art and Literature in the Andean Region, 1940-1960
    Andean Literature
    Andean Visual Arts
    Land Use in Southern Chile, 1925-1960
    Early Efforts to Control Forest Usage
    Peasant Protest and Forest Development
    New Understandings of Race in Brazil, 1930-1960
    Women and the Quest for Equal Voting Rights, 1929-1960
    Suffrage in South America
    Mexico Belatedly Joins the First Wave of Feminism
    Popular Culture and the Spread of Modern Ideas, 1930-1960
    The Sources of Cultural Images
    Argentina and the Tango
    The Brazilian Samba
    Son and Rumba in Cuba

    ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: The Survival of Handicrafts: The Panama Hat
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Maracanaço
    Key Terms
    Selected Readings

    Chapter 9: Revolution and Reform in Latin America, 1950-1980

    Global Connections
    Latin American Follows Mexico's Path to Reform, 1948-1980
    The Bolivian National Revolution of 1952
    The Venezuelan Democratic Revolution
    José Figueres and the Costa Rican Revolution
    Guatemala's Ten Years of Spring, 1944-1954
    Arévalo and Spiritual Socialism
    The Arbenz Administration
    The Covert Operation in Guatemala
    Cuba and the Radical Left Model, 1959-1989
    The Batista Regime and Its Overthrow
    Fidel Castro and the Early Days of the Cuban Revolution
    The Cuban Revolution Enters the Cold War
    The Cuban Revolution at Home
    Exporting the Cuban Revolution to Africa and Latin America
    Aging Populists and Leftist Opposition in the Southern Cone, 1954-1970
    The Return of Getúlio Vargas in Brazil
    Goulart and the Unraveling of the Getulista Coalition
    Perón and Peronism: From Exile to Return
    The Montoneros and Urban Guerrillas in Argentina and Uruguay
    Salvador Allende and Electoral Socialism in Chile, 1970-1973
    The Chilean Presidential Election of 1970
    Allende's Controversial Policies and Their Consequences
    The Coup of September 11, 1973
    Latin America's Third Way: Authoritarian Reformers in Peru and Ecuador, 1967-1980
    The Peruvian Case
    The Ecuadorian Case
    The Revolution in Latin American Literature, 1950s-1980s

    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: A Pro-Arbenz Agrarian Reform Poster
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Iconography of Che Guevara
    ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: The Ten-Million-Ton Harvest
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Bob Marley and Reggae in Latin America

    Key Terms
    Selected Readings

    Chapter 10: Counterrevolution in Latin America, 1960-1980

    Global Connections
    The Alliance for Progress, 1961-1972
    The Creation of the Alliance
    The Alliance's Successes and Failures
    The National Security Doctrine, 1960-1980
    The Workings of the Doctrine
    The School of the Americas
    A National Security State: Guatemala in the 1960s
    Guatemala: 1960-1980
    Mexico: From Economic Miracle to the Dirty War, 1950-1964
    The Institutional Revolutionary Party and Dominant Party Politics
    Early Opposition to the Institutional Revolutionary Party
    The Dirty War in Mexico, 1964-1974
    Rural Protests
    The Tlatelolco Massacre
    Argentina, Uruguay, and the Dirty Wars in the Southern Cone, 1970s-1980s
    The Dirty War Begins
    Victims and Survivors
    The Military in Uruguay
    The Brazilian Military Dictatorship, 1964-1985
    The Lead-Up to the Coup
    Dictatorship in the Name of Democracy
    Soft and Hard Dictatorship
    The Military's Development Program and Its Consequences
    The Trans-Amazonian Highway: Threatening the Rainforest Environment
    Augusto Pinochet and the Dirty War in Chile, 1973-1990
    Pinochet Suppresses the Left and Imposes Order
    Pinochet, Neoliberalism and the "Chilean Miracle"
    Economic Collapse, the Recovery, and the Path toward Democracy
    Women's Participation in the Pinochet Regime

    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Death Comes to a Beauty Queen: Rogelia Cruz Martínez
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Popular Music, Mexican Youth, and the Counterculture Movement

    Key Terms
    Selected Readings

    Chapter 11: The Late Cold War in Latin America, 1970s to 1990

    Global Connections
    Liberation Theology in Latin America, 1962-1980
    The Crisis in the Catholic Church and the Reforms
    The Effect of Liberation Theology
    The Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua, 1972-1995
    The Continuing Somoza Dynasty
    The Sandinista Revolution and the Aftermath
    The Sandinista Government and Its Opposition
    Revolutionary Women in Nicaragua
    The Cold War in El Salvador and Guatemala, 1970-1992
    El Salvador
    The Sustainable Agriculture Movement in Central America
    Cuba in the Special Period, 1989-2016
    The Economic Effects of the Special Period
    Other Changes during the Special Period
    The Late Cold War in the Andes, 1960-2016
    The FARC and the ELN in Colombia
    The Shining Path: The Scourge of Peru

    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Latin American Baseball
    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Mario Vargas Llosa Contextualizes the Shining Path

    Key Terms
    Selected Readings

    Part Four Old and New Ideas: The Search for a Middle Ground, 1980-2016

    Chapter 12: Neoliberalism and Its Discontents, 1980-2015

    Global Connections
    The Return to Democracy in the Southern Cone, 1975-2015
    Argentina's Dirty War Ends
    Brazil's Return to Democracy
    Civil Society Mobilization and the End of Dictatorship
    Chile after Pinochet: Democracy, Economic Growth, and Justice
    Bait-and-Switch Populists
    Two Established Democracies Rejuvenated
    Mexico: The Failure of the PRI, 1982-2000
    Vicente Fox and the Fruition of Democracy
    Unsettling Circumstances for Venezuela's Democracy, 1970-1998
    From the Caracazo to the Breakdown of the Two Parties
    The Venezuelan Election of 1998
    The Debt Crisis, the IMF, and Neoliberalism, 1975-2000
    Rejecting the ISI Model
    The Debt Crisis of the 1980s
    Neoliberalism and Its Principles
    Ecotourism, Conservation, and National Parks
    The National Park System in Costa Rica
    The Galápagos Islands: From Darwin's Laboratory to Tourist Paradise
    The Drug Trade: Poisoning the Andean States, 1970-2000
    Producing Coca in Bolivia and Peru
    Drug Smuggling: The Medellín and Cali Cartels in Colombia
    The New Middle Class and Consumerism
    Who Joined the New Middle Class?
    New Venues for Middle-Class Consumption: The Shopping Mall
    Contemporary Feminist Issues, 1970-2020
    Divorce in the Southern Cone Nations
    Reproductive Rights
    Urban Poverty and the Informal Sector, 1960-2000
    Contemporary Ideas about Informal Urbanization
    The Environment and Development, 1960-2000
    Urban Environmental Issues: Electrification
    Brazil's Rolling Brownouts of 2001-2002
    Automobile Traffic and Pollution

    ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: The Privatization of the Rio Doce Valley Company
    ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: Coca before the Narcos
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Urban Poverty and the Informal Sector, 1960-2000

    Key Terms
    Selected Readings

    Chapter 13: New Identities, New Politics, 1980-2016

    Global Connections
    The Rejection of Mestizaje and Racial Democracy, 1980-2000
    New Racial and Ethnic Identities in Brazil
    Questioning Mestizaje in Latin America
    Identity Politics: The Indigenous Movements, 1980-2010
    The Zapatista Uprising of 1994 in Mexico
    The Ecuadorian Experience
    The Indigenous Movements in Bolivia and Peru
    The Maya Movement in Guatemala
    Identity Politics: Gender, Sexuality, and Women in Politics, 1990-2020
    Gender Issues: The LGBTQ+ Movement in Contemporary Latin America
    Identity Politics: Religious Pluralism and Pentecostalism, 1980-2020
    The Three Waves of the Pentecostal Movement
    Why Pentecostalism?
    Brazilian Neo-Pentecostalism
    The Flood and the Ebb of the Pink Tide, 1999-2020
    Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian Revolution, 1999-2020
    Criticism Mounts as the Revolution Falters
    The Pink Tide in Bolivia, 2005-2019
    The Pink Tide in Ecuador, 2006-2017
    The Moderate Pink Tide Elsewhere and Its Ebb
    The Response of the Pacific Alliance, 2000-2020
    Chile and Peru, 2006-2020
    Colombia and Mexico, 2000-2020
    New Global Players in Latin America, 2003-2020
    The China Boom, 2003-2014
    Russia and Iran, 2000-2020
    General Tenets of Latin America's Environmental Movement, 1980-2020
    Ecological Policy Debates in Peru
    Popular Cultural Traditions, 1980-2000
    New Popular Music Genres
    Other Forms of Popular Culture

    ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: Otavalan Weaving and Global Entrepreneurship
    SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Rigoberta Menchú Tum
    CULTURE AND IDEAS: Argentina's Naval Mechanics School Museum

    Key Terms
    Selected Readings
    Covid-19 in Latin America
    Environmental Issues
    Commodities in the Twenty-First Century
    Porous Borders and Transnational Crime: Gangs
    The Latin Americanization of the United States

    Key Terms

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