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Cover

Invertebrates

Third Edition

Richard C. Brusca, Wendy Moore, and Stephen M. Shuster

Publication Date - January 2016

ISBN: 9781605353753

1104 pages
Hardcover
9 x 11.5 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $165.95

A benchmark volume on our modern views of invertebrate biology

Description

In the twelve years since publication of Invertebrates, Second Edition, fundamental shifts have occurred in our understanding of the origins and evolutionary relationships among protists and animals. These changes are largely due to the explosion of molecular phylogenetics and evo-devo research, emergence of the new field of animal genomics, major fossil discoveries in China, Australia, and elsewhere, and important new embryological and ultrastructural studies. As a result:

- New phyla have been described (e.g., Micrognathozoa, Xenacoelomorpha).
- Old phyla have been collapsed into others (e.g., Sipuncula and Echiura are now placed within Annelida; acanthocephalans are now known to be highly modified, parasitic rotifers).
- Phyla once thought to be deuterostomes are now part of the protostome clade (e.g., Chaetognatha, Phoronida, Bryozoa, Brachiopoda).
- The Protostomia has been reorganized into two major clades known as Ecdysozoa and Spiralia.

For each of the thirty-two currently recognized phyla, Invertebrates, Third Edition, presents detailed classifications, revised taxonomic synopses, updated information on general biology and anatomy, and current phylogenetic hypotheses, organized with boxes and tables, and illustrated with abundant line drawings and new color photos. The chapters are organized around the "new animal phylogeny," while introductory chapters provide basic background information on the general biology of invertebrates. Two new coauthors have been added to the writing team, and twenty-two additional invertebrate zoologists have contributed to chapter revisions. This benchmark volume on our modern views of invertebrate biology should be in every zoologist's library.

For Instructors

Instructor's Resource Library: Available to qualified adopters, the Instructor's Resource Library for Invertebrates, Third Edition, contains an extensive collection of images for use in teaching the course:

- Textbook Figures and Tables: All of the textbook's figures and tables are included as both high- and low-resolution JPEGs, for easy use in presentation software, learning management systems, and assessments. New for the Third Edition, this now includes all of the textbook's photographs.
- Supplemental Photo Collection: This collection of over 900 photographs depicts organisms that span the entire range of phyla covered in the textbook.
- PowerPoint Presentations: Two ready-to-use PowerPoint presentations are provided for each chapter of the textbook: one that contains all of the textbook figures and tables, and one that contains all of the relevant photos from the supplemental photo collection.

New to this Edition

  • Two new coauthors have been added to the writing team
  • Twenty-two additional invertebrate zoologists have contributed to chapter revisions
  • Offers revised taxonomic synopses, updated information on general biology and anatomy, and current phylogenetic hypotheses

About the Author(s)

Richard C. Brusca is Executive Director, Emeritus of the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum and a Research Scientist at the University of Arizona. Rick is the author of nearly 200 research publications and 13 books, including the popular field guides Common Intertidal Invertebrates of the Gulf of California, A Seashore Guide to the Northern Gulf of California, and A Natural History the Santa Catalina Mountains, with an Introduction to the Madrean Sky Islands. He has been the recipient of more than 100 research grants from the National Science Foundation, NOAA, the National Geographic Society, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and many other agencies and foundations. He has served on panels for the National Science Board, National Science Foundation, Smithsonian Institution, PEW Program in Conservation and the Environment, Public Broadcasting Service, IUCN Species Survival Commission, and many others. Rick has also served on many environmental non-profit boards, in the U.S. and abroad, and he has organized and conducted field expeditions throughout the world, on every continent. He is an elected Fellow in the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the Linnean Society of London (FLS), and the California Academy of Sciences.

Wendy Moore is Assistant Professor in the Department of Entomology at the University of Arizona and Curator of the University of Arizona Insect Collection. Her degrees were earned at Vanderbilt University (B.S., General Biology), the College of Charleston (M.S., Marine Biology), and the University of Arizona (Ph.D., Entomology/Ecology and Evolutionary Biology). Dr. Moore's long-term research interest is the evolution of biotic diversity--especially the evolution of symbiotic lifestyles and how major biotic, climatic, and tectonic events may have influenced the timing and patterns of diversification. Much of her current research is on the carabid beetle subfamily Paussinae, many species of which are obligate symbionts with ants. She is also deeply committed to collections care and enhancement, and the use of bioinformatics to make collections-based data widely available to diverse user communities.

Stephen M. Shuster is Professor of Invertebrate Zoology and Curator of Marine Invertebrates and Molluscs at Northern Arizona University. He earned a B.S. in Zoology from the University of Michigan, an M.S. in Biology from the University of New Mexico, and a Ph.D. in Zoology from the University of California, Berkeley. The author or coauthor of over seventy-five journal articles, encyclopedia entries, book reviews, and contributed book chapters, Dr. Shuster collaborated with Michael J. Wade on the book Mating Systems and Strategies (2003). His research broadly concerns mating system evolution, male and female reproductive behavior, community and ecosystem genetics, and the population biology of marine organisms. His recent work focuses on the measurement of selection within and among species, and the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations of marine crustaceans and terrestrial arthropods.

Previous Publication Date(s)

December 2002
July 1990

Reviews

"A wonderful book, and one remains amazed at the perfection of this edition, full color, and the precision and detail of the figures. A masterpiece that will dominate the phylogeny for many, many years."--Pierre Jolivet, L'Entomologiste (from the original French)

"I am so thrilled that we finally getting a third edition of Invertebrates! I've been teaching invertebrate zoology for over fifteen years and this text is superior to any other on the market!"--Tamara J. Cook, Sam Houston State University

Table of Contents

    1. Introduction
    Keeping Track of Life
    Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
    Where Did Invertebrates Come From?
    The Dawn of Life
    The Ediacaran Period and the Origin of Animals
    The Paleozoic Era (541-252 Ma)
    The Mesozoic Era (252-66 Ma)
    The Cenozoic Era (66 Ma-present)
    Where Do Invertebrates Live?
    Marine Habitats
    Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands
    Freshwater Habitats
    Terrestrial Habitats
    A Special Type of Environment: Symbiosis
    Biodiversity Patterns
    New Views of Invertebrate Phylogeny
    Some Comments on Evolution
    A Final Introductory Message to the Reader

    2. Systematics, Phylogeny, and Classification
    Biological Classification
    Nomenclature
    Systematics
    Monophyly, Paraphyly, and Polyphyly
    Characters and the Concept of Homology
    Phylogenetic Trees
    Pleisiomorphy and Apomorphy
    Constructing Phylogenies and Classifications
    Molecular Phylogenetics

    3. The Protists: Kingdom Protista
    Taxonomic History and Classification
    Overviews of the Major Clades, or Groups
    The General Protistan Body Plan
    The Protist Phyla
    Group 1: Amoebozoa
    Phylum Amoebozoa: Amebas
    Group 2: Chromalveolata
    Phylum Dinoflagellata: Dinoflagellates
    Phylum Apicomplexa: Gregarines, Coccidians, Haemosporidians, and Their Kin
    Phylum Ciliata: The Ciliates
    Phylum Stramenopila: Diatoms, Brown Algae, Golden Algae, Slime Nets, Oomycetes, etc.
    Phylum Haptophyta: Coccolithophores
    Phylum Cryptomonada: Cryptomonads
    Group 3: Rhizaria
    Phylum Chlorarachniophyta: Chlorarachniophyte Algae
    Phylum Granuloreticulosa: Foraminiferans and Their Kin
    Phylum Radiolaria: Radiolarians
    Phylum Haplosporidia: Haplosporidians
    Group 4: Excavata
    Phylum Parabasalida: Trichomonads, Hypermastigotes, and Their Kin
    Phylum Diplomonadida: Diplomonads
    Phylum Heterolobosea: Heterolobosids
    Phylum Euglenida: Euglenids
    Phylum Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomes, Bodonids, and Their Kin
    Group 5: Opisthokonta
    Phylum Choanoflagellata: Choanoflagellates
    Protist Phylogeny
    The Origin of the Protista
    Relationships among the Protists

    4. Introduction to the Animal Kingdom: Animal Architecture and
    Body Plans
    Body Symmetry
    Cellularity, Body Size, Germ Layers, and Body Cavities
    Locomotion and Support
    Feeding and Digestion
    Excretion and Osmoregulation
    Circulation and Gas Exchange
    Nervous Systems and Sense Organs
    Bioluminescence
    Nervous Systems and Body Plans
    Hormones and Pheromones
    Reproduction
    Asexual Reproduction
    Sexual Reproduction
    Parthenogenesis

    5. Introduction to the Animal Kingdom: Development, Life Histories,
    and Origin
    Evolutionary Developmental Biology-EvoDevo
    Developmental Tool Kits
    The Relationship Between Genotype and Phenotype
    The Evolution of Novel Gene Function
    Gene Regulatory Networks
    Eggs and Embryos
    Eggs
    Cleavage
    Orientation of Cleavage Planes
    Radial and Spiral Cleavage
    Cell Fates
    Blastula Types
    Gastrulation and Germ Layer Formation
    Mesoderm and Body Cavities
    Life Cycles: Sequences and Strategies
    Classification of Life Cycles
    Indirect Development
    Settling and Metamorphosis
    Direct Development
    Mixed Development
    Adaptations to Land and Fresh Water
    Parasite Life Cycles
    The Relationships Between Ontogeny and Phylogeny
    The Origin of the Metazoa

    6. Two Basal Metazoan Phyla: Porifera and Placozoa
    Phylum Placozoa
    Phylum Porifera: The Sponges
    Taxonomic History and Classification
    The Poriferan Body Plan
    Some Additional Aspects of Sponge Biology
    Distribution and Ecology
    Biochemical Agents
    Growth Rates
    Symbioses
    Poriferan Phylogeny
    The Origin of Sponges
    Evolution within the Porifera

    7. Phylum Cnidaria: Anemones, Corals, Jellyfish, and Their Kin
    Taxonomic History and Classification
    The Cnidarian Body Plan
    Cnidarian Phylogeny
    Ediacaran Cnidaria?
    Cnidarian Origins
    Relationships within Cnidaria

    8. Phylum Ctenophora: The Comb Jellies
    Taxonomic History and Classification
    The Ctenophoran Body Plan
    Ctenophoran Phylogeny

    9. Introduction to the Bilateria and the Phylum Xenacoelomorpha: Triploblasty and Bilateral Symmetry Provide New Avenues for Animal Radiation
    The Basal Bilaterian
    Protostomes and Deuterostomes
    Phylum Xenacoelomorpha
    Classification of Phylum Xenacoelomorph
    Class Acoela
    The Acoel Body Plan
    Class Nemertodermatida
    The Nemertodermatid Body Plan
    Subphylum Xenoturbellida
    The Xenoturbellid Body Plan

    10. Phylum Platyhelminthes: The Flatworms
    Taxonomic History and Classification
    The Platyhelminth Body Plan
    Platyhelminth Phylogeny

    11. Four Enigmatic Protostome Phyla: Rhombozoa, Orthonectida,
    Chaetognatha, Gastrotricha
    Phylum Rhombozoa
    The Dicyemida
    The Heterocyemida
    Phylum Orthonectida
    Phylum Chaetognatha
    Chaetognath Classification
    The Chaetognath Body Plan
    Phylum Gastrotricha: The Gastrotrichs
    Gastrotrich Classification
    The Gastrotrich Body Plan

    12. Phylum Nemertea: The Ribbon Worms
    Taxonomic History and Classification
    The Nemertean Body Plan
    Nemertean Phylogeny

    13. Phylum Mollusca
    Taxonomic History and Classification
    The Molluscan Body Plan
    Molluscan Evolution and Phylogeny

    14. Phylum Annelida: The Segmented (and Some Unsegmented)
    Worms
    Taxonomic History and Classification
    The Annelid Body Plan
    Sipuncula: The Peanut Worms
    Sipunculan Classification
    The Sipunculan Body Plan
    Echiuridae: The Spoon Worms
    Siboglinidae: Vent Worms and Their Kin
    Siboglinid Taxonomic History
    The Siboglinidae Body Plan
    Hirudinoidea: Leeches and Their Relatives
    The Hirudinoidean Body Plan
    Annelid Phylogeny

    15. Two Enigmatic Spiralian Phyla: Entoprocta and Cycliophora
    Phylum Entoprocta: The Entoprocts
    Entoproct Classification
    The Entoproct Body Plan
    Phylum Cycliophora: The Cycliophorans

    16. The Gnathifera: Phyla Gnathostomulida, Rotifera (including
    Acanthocephala), and Micrognathozoa
    Phylum Gnathostomulida: The Gnathostomulids
    Gnathostomulid Classification
    The Gnathostomulid Body Plan
    Phylum Rotifera: The Free-Living Rotifers
    Rotifer Classification
    The Rotifer Body Plan
    Phylum Rotifera, Subclass Acanthocephala: The Acanthocephalans
    The Acanthocephalan Body Plan
    Phylum Micrognathozoa: The Micrognathozoans
    The Micrognathozoan Body Plan

    17. The Lophophorates: Phyla Phoronida, Bryozoa, and Brachiopoda
    Taxonomic History of the Lophophorates
    The Lophophorate Body Plan
    Phylum Phoronida: The Phoronids
    The Phoronid Body Plan
    Phylum Bryozoa: The Moss Animals
    The Bryozoan Body Plan
    Phylum Brachiopoda: The Lamp Shells
    The Brachiopod Body Plan

    19. The Nematoida: Phyla Nematoda and Nematomorpha
    Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms and Threadworms
    Nematode Classification
    The Nematode Body Plan
    Life Cycles of Some Parasitic Nematodes
    Phylum Nematomorpha: Horsehair Worms and Their Kin
    The Nematomorphan Body Plan

    19. The Scalidophora: Phyla Kinorhyncha, Priapula, and Loricifera
    Phylum Kinorhyncha: The Kinorhynchs
    Kinorhynch Classification
    The Kinorhynch Body Plan
    Phylum Priapula: The Priapulans
    Priapulan Classification
    The Priapulan Body Plan
    Phylum Loricifera: The Loriciferans

    20. The Emergence of the Arthropods: Tardigrades, Onychophorans,
    and the Arthropod Body Plan
    Phylum Tardigrada
    The Tardigrade Body Plan
    Phylum Onychophora
    The Onychophoran Body Plan
    An Introduction to the Arthropods
    Taxonomic History and Classification
    The Arthropod Body Plan and Arthropodization
    The Evolution of Arthropods
    The Origin of Arthropods
    Evolution within the Arthropoda

    21. Phylum Arthropoda: Crustacea: Crabs, Shrimps, and Their Kin
    Classification of The Crustacea
    Synopses of Crustacean Taxa
    The Crustacean Body Plan
    Crustacean Phylogeny

    22. Phylum Arthropoda: The Hexapoda: Insects and Their Kin
    Hexapod Classification
    The Hexapod Body Plan
    Hexapod Evolution

    23. Phylum Arthropoda: The Myriapods: Centipedes, Millipedes,
    and Their Kin
    Myriapod Classification
    The Myriapod Body Plan
    Myriapod Phylogeny

    24. Phylum Arthropoda: The Chelicerata
    Chelicerate Classification
    The Euchelicerate Body Plan
    The Class Pycnogonida
    The Pycnogonid Body Plan
    Chelicerate Phylogeny

    25. Introduction to the Deuterostomes and the Phylum
    Echinodermata
    Phylum Echinodermata
    Taxonomic History and Classification
    The Echinoderm Body Plan
    Echinoderm Phylogeny
    First Echinoderms
    Modern Echinoderms

    26. Phylum Hemichordata: Acorn Worms and Pterobranchs
    Hemichordate Classification
    The Hemichordate Body Plan
    Enteropneusta (Acorn Worms)
    Pterobranchs
    Hemichordate Fossil Record and Phylogeny

    27. Phylum Chordata: Cephalochordata and Urochordata
    Chordate Classification
    Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Cephalochordata: The Lancelets (Amphioxus)
    The Cephalochordate Body Plan
    Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Urochordata: The Tunicates
    The Tunicate Body Plan
    Chordate Phylogeny

    28. Perspectives on Invertebrate Phylogeny

    Illustration Credits
    Index

Teaching Resources

For Instructors

Instructor's Resource Library: Available to qualified adopters, the Instructor's Resource Library for Invertebrates, Third Edition, contains an extensive collection of images for use in teaching the course:

- Textbook Figures and Tables: All of the textbook's figures and tables are included as both high- and low-resolution JPEGs, for easy use in presentation software, learning management systems, and assessments. New for the Third Edition, this now includes all of the textbook's photographs.
- Supplemental Photo Collection: This collection of over 900 photographs depicts organisms that span the entire range of phyla covered in the textbook.
- PowerPoint Presentations: Two ready-to-use PowerPoint presentations are provided for each chapter of the textbook: one that contains all of the textbook figures and tables, and one that contains all of the relevant photos from the supplemental photo collection.

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