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Introduction to Criminal Justice

A Brief Edition

Second Edition

John Randolph Fuller

Publication Date - 04 January 2021

ISBN: 9780197504048

496 pages
8 1/2 x 11 inches

In Stock

CLEAR. CURRENT. CONCISE. Examines the core concepts and fosters the essential critical-thinking and ethical decision-making skills that students need to unravel myths from realities in the criminal justice system.


Introduction to Criminal Justice: A Brief Edition provides students with coverage of core concepts supported by student-tested pedagogical tools that promote student engagement, thought-provoking classroom discussions, and critical-thinking skills. Presenting the latest available research, statistics, and developments in a comprehensive yet concise format, this second edition walks students through scenarios that reflect high pressure, on-the-job circumstances, preparing them to meet such challenges in both the classroom and the real world. Throughout, the learning design emphasizes the critical-thinking and ethical decision-making skills required to work in the criminal justice system.

New to this Edition

  • Presents the latest available research, statistics, and developments
  • Substantially revised to reflect both changes in the law and the patterns of crime in the United States
  • Features all new chapter-opening vignettes based on news stories, current events, and cases that capture the attention of students
  • Includes updated and revised examples that reflect criminal justice issues that have recently gained prominence, and new figures and tables
  • Includes an updated supplements package written by the author, available on Oxford Learning Link
  • A new video package features fourteen new videos (one per chapter) that help illustrate chapter issues and concepts
  • New "Fast-Class Mini-Lectures" feature short, five-minute lectures narrated by the author and supported by PowerPoint slides
  • New "Getting It Right" features highlight instances in which criminal justice practitioners have successfully implemented solutions
  • Updated "A Closer Look" features address recent issues and controversies

About the Author(s)

John Randolph Fuller is Professor Emeritus of Criminology at the University of West Georgia where he taught for more than thirty years. He is the author of several books, including Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, Third Edition (OUP, 2013).


"Introduction to Criminal Justice provides great historical background for all topics, with lots of material for engaging students--even online students. It is well written and has student support in mind."--Allan Barnes, University of Alaska Anchorage

"This is a comprehensive introductory text that enables students to explore and fully understand the foundations of our criminal justice system in the United States."--Doug Klutz, University of Alabama

Table of Contents


    Part I: Crime: Problems, Measurement, and Law

    Chapter 1: Crime and Criminal Justice

    1.1 What is Crime?
    1.2 The Criminal Justice System and Process
    1.2.1 The Criminal Justice Process
    Law Enforcement
    1.2.2 The Due Process and Crime Control Models
    1.2.3 How Cases Move Through the System
    1.2.4 The Perception of Crime and the Wedding-Cake Model of Criminal Justice
    1.3 Types of Crime
    1.3.1 Street Crime
    1.3.2 Corporate Crime and White-Collar Crime
    1.4 Offenses and Offenders
    1.4.1 Violent Crime
    1.4.2 Property Crime
    1.4.3 Public-Order Crime
    1.5 Summary

    A Closer Look 1.1: A Comparison of Federal, State, and Local Law Enforcement
    Focus on Ethics: A Balance of Interests

    Chapter 2: How Crime Is Measured and Who It Affects
    2.1 The Problems of Measuring Crime
    2.2 How Crime is Measured
    2.2.1 Uniform Crime Reports
    2.2.2 National Incident-Based Reporting System
    2.2.3 National Crime Victimization Survey
    2.2.4 Self-Report Studies
    2.3 Victims of Crime
    2.3.1 Typologies of Crime Victims
    2.3.2 The Incidence of Victimization
    2.3.3 Categories of Victims
    Victims of Violent Crime
    Victims of Hate Crime
    Victims of Financial Crime
    The Elderly and Children
    2.3.4 Victims' Rights and Assistance
    2.4 Summary

    CJ Reference 2.1: The Hierarchy Rule
    A Closer Look 2.1: Crime Apps: Reporting Crime or Reporting Fear?
    Focus on Ethics: To Report or Not to Report

    Chapter 3: Criminal Law
    3.1 The Development of the Criminal Law
    3.1.1 Early Legal Codes
    3.1.2 The Magna Carta
    3.1.3 Common Law
    3.2 Sources of Law
    3.2.1 Constitutions
    3.2.2 Statutes
    3.2.3 Case Law
    3.2.4 Administrative Rules and Executive Orders
    3.3 Types of Law
    3.3.1 Criminal Law and Civil Law
    3.3.2 Substantive Law and Procedural Law
    3.4 Types of Crime
    3.4.1 Felonies
    3.4.2 Misdemeanors
    3.4.3 Inchoate Offenses
    3.4.4 Infractions
    3.5 Features of Crime
    3.5.1 Actus reus
    3.5.2 Mens rea
    3.5.3 Strict Liability
    3.6 Criminal Responsibility and Criminal Defense
    3.6.1 My Client Did Not Do It
    3.6.2 My Client Did It, but My Client Is Not Responsible Because of Insanity
    3.6.3 My Client Did It but Has a Good Excuse
    3.6.4 My Client Did It but Has a Good Reason
    3.6.5 My Client Did It but Should Be Acquitted Because the Police or the Prosecutor Cheated
    3.6.6 My Client Did It but Was Influenced by Outside Forces
    3.7 Summary

    Getting It Right 3.1: Restoring the Vote to Felons
    CJ Reference 3.1: The Bill of Rights
    A Closer Look 3.1: Watson Murder
    Case in Point 3.1: Durham v. United States (1954)
    Focus on Ethics: Changing the Substantive Law

    Part II: Enforcing the Law

    Chapter 4: The History and Organization of Law Enforcement
    4.1 A Brief History of the Police
    4.1.1 Early Policing in England
    4.1.2 Early Policing in the United States
    4.1.3 The Introduction of Police Professionalism
    4.1.4 The End of the 20th Century to Today: Crime Control, Communities, and Homeland Security
    4.2 Levels of Law Enforcement
    4.2.1 Federal Level
    The Federal Bureau of Investigation
    The Secret Service
    4.2.2 State Level
    4.2.3 Local Level
    Sheriff's Offices
    Requirements to Become a Police Officer
    4.3 Strategies in Policing
    4.3.1 Wilson's Three Styles of Policing
    4.3.2 Community Policing
    4.3.3 Problem-Oriented Policing
    4.3.4 Zero-Tolerance Policing and Broken-Windows Perspective
    4.4 Summary

    CJ Reference 4.1: Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
    A Closer Look 4.1: Who Polices the Police?
    Focus on Ethics: Righteous Vengeance

    Chapter 5: Police Organization, Operation, and the Law
    5.1 What We Expect of the Police
    5.2 How the Police Are Organized
    5.3 What the Police Do
    5.3.1 Patrol
    5.3.2 Investigation
    5.3.3 Traffic Enforcement
    5.3.4 Peacemaking and Order Maintenance
    5.4 The Rules the Police Follow
    5.4.1 Police Discretion
    5.4.2 The Fourth Amendment
    Special-Needs Searches
    5.4.3 Interrogations and Confessions
    5.5 Summary

    Getting It Right 5.1: Solving Problems in Problem-Solving Policing
    CJ Reference 5.1: The Fourth Amendment
    Case in Point 5.1: Terry v. Ohio (1968)
    Case in Point 5.2: Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
    Focus on Ethics: It's Only Marijuana

    Chapter 6: Policing: Innovations and Controversies
    6.1 Use of Force
    6.2 The Militarization of Police
    6.2.1 The Evolution of Police Militarization
    6.3 Sources of Stress
    6.3.1 Dealing with the Stress of Policing
    6.3.2 The Police Subculture
    Police Unions
    6.3.3 Alcohol
    6.3.4 Family Problems
    6.3.5 Suicide
    6.3.6 Corruption
    6.4 Policing and Technology
    6.4.1 Body-Worn Cameras
    6.4.2 Police Surveillance
    6.4.3 Less-Than-Lethal Weapons
    6.4.4 DNA Databases
    6.5 Sex and Race
    6.5.1 Women as Police Officers
    6.5.2 Minorities as Police Officers
    6.6 Summary

    CJ Reference 6.1: Police Use of Force
    Case in Point 6.1: Tennessee v. Garner (1985)
    Case in Point 6.2: Graham v. Connor (1989)
    A Closer Look 6.1: Policing is Getting Safer
    Focus on Ethics: To Trust a Partner

    Part III: The Role of the Courts

    Chapter 7: The Courts

    7.1 The Court System in the United States
    7.2 The Historical Foundation of Modern U.S. Courts
    7.2.1 Courts in England
    7.2.2 Courts in Colonial North America
    7.3 The Organization of Modern U.S. Criminal Courts
    7.3.1 The Nature of Jurisdiction
    7.3.2 The Structure of the Federal Courts
    U.S. District Courts
    U.S. Courts of Appeals
    U.S. Supreme Court
    Specialized Federal Courts
    7.3.3 The Structure of State Courts
    Juvenile Courts
    State Trial Courts
    State Intermediate Courts of Appeals
    State Supreme Courts
    Local and Community Courts
    7.4 Summary

    CJ Reference 7.1: What Makes the Supreme Court Supreme?
    Case in Point 7.1: Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006)
    Getting It Right 7.1: Marijuana Convictions Going Up in Smoke
    Focus On Ethics: Modern-Day Blood Feud

    Chapter 8: The Courtroom Work Group
    8.1 The Courtroom Work Group
    8.2 The Prosecutor
    8.2.1 The Prosecutor at Work
    8.2.2 Prosecution at the Federal Level
    8.2.3 Prosecution in State Courts
    8.3 The Defense Attorney
    8.3.1 The Defense Attorney and the Courtroom Work Group
    8.3.2 The Best Defense: Private Attorney or Public Defender?
    8.4 The Judge
    8.4.1 Judicial Selection: Executive Appointments
    8.4.2 Judicial Selection: Election of Judges
    8.4.3 Judicial Selection: Merit Selection
    8.5 The Participants
    8.5.1 Law Enforcement
    8.5.2 Court Support Staff
    8.5.3 Corrections
    8.5.4 The Public
    8.6 Defendants, Victims, and Witnesses
    8.6.1 Defendants
    8.6.2 Victims
    8.6.3 Witnesses
    8.6.4 Victim-Witness Programs
    8.7 Summary

    A Closer Look 8.1: Public Defender Salaries are Indefensible
    Case in Point 8.1: Argersinger v. Hamlin (1972) and Scott v. Illinois (1979)
    Case in Point 8.2: Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
    Focus on Ethics: Difficult Decisions for the Defense

    Chapter 9: The Disposition: Plea Bargaining, Trial, and Sentencing
    9.1 The Criminal Court Process
    9.2 Pre-trial Release Decisions
    9.3 The Plea Bargain
    9.3.1 Issues That Affect Plea Bargaining
    9.3.2 Types of Plea Bargains
    9.3.3 Should Plea Bargaining Be Abolished?
    9.4 The Trial
    9.4.1 The Pre-trial Phase
    Pre-trial Motions
    9.4.2 Opening Arguments
    9.4.3 The Prosecution's Presentation of Witnesses and Evidence
    9.4.4 The Case Goes to the Jury
    9.4.5 The Defense Doesn't Rest
    9.4.6 Appeal
    9.5 Sentencing
    9.5.1 Indeterminate Sentencing
    9.5.2 Determinate Sentencing
    9.5.3 Mandatory Minimum Sentences
    9.6 Summary

    Getting It Right 9.1: The Role of the Prosecutor and Conviction Review Units
    CJ Reference 9.1: What Are Grand Juries and How Do They Work?
    CJ Reference 9.2: The Exclusionary Rule
    Case in Point 9.1: Batson v. Kentucky (1986)
    Focus on Ethics: Letting the Big Ones Get Away

    Part IV: From Penology to Corrections and Back

    Chapter 10: A Brief History of Prisons and the Death Penalty in the United States

    10.1 Prisons in the United States
    10.1.1 Control in the Colonies and Early United States: 1770-1860
    The Pennsylvania System
    The Auburn System
    10.1.2 Age of Reform: 1860-1900
    Alexander Maconochie
    Sir Walter Crofton
    Zebulon Brockway
    10.1.3 A New Emphasis on Prison Labor: 1900-1930
    10.1.4 Age of Rehabilitation: 1930-1970
    10.1.5 Retributive Era: 1970s to the Present
    10.2 Capital Punishment
    10.2.1 Capital Punishment in Historical Perspective
    10.2.2 The Search for Humane Execution
    Lethal Injection
    10.2.3 Arguments Supporting Capital Punishment
    10.2.4 Arguments against Capital Punishment
    10.2.5 Is the Death Penalty Dead?
    10.3 Summary

    A Closer Look 10.1: Closing Rikers
    Case in Point 10.1: Furman v. Georgia (1972)
    Case in Point 10.2: Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
    CJ Reference 10.1: States/Jurisdictions without a Death Penalty
    Focus on Ethics: Capital Punishment: Some Immodest Proposals

    Chapter 11: Prisons and Jails
    11.1 Prison Life
    11.1.1 How U.S. Prisons Work
    11.1.2 The Pains of Imprisonment
    11.1.3 Prison Gangs
    11.1.4 Supermax Prisons
    11.1.5 Violence and Overcrowding
    11.2 Women in Prison
    11.2.1 A Short History of Women's Prisons
    11.2.2 Life in Women's Prisons
    11.3 Courts and the Prison
    11.3.1 Eighth Amendment
    11.3.2 Fourteenth Amendment: Due Process and Equal Protection
    11.4 Working in the Prison
    11.5 For-Profit Prisons
    11.6 Jails
    11.7 Summary

    Getting It Right 11.1: Learning a Lesson
    CJ Reference 11.1: The Prison Litigation Reform Act
    Case in Point 11.1: Ross v. Blake (2016)
    CJ Reference 11.2: The Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments
    CJ Reference 11.3: What Jails Do
    Focus on Ethics: Keeping the Condemned Alive

    Chapter 12: Community Corrections
    12.1 Community Corrections in Context
    12.2 Diversion
    12.3 Probation
    12.3.1 Probation Officers at Work
    12.3.2 For-Profit Probation
    12.4 Parole
    12.4.1 When to Parole
    12.4.2 Re-entry and “Making It”
    12.5 Intermediate Sanctions
    12.5.1 Intensive-Supervision Probation
    12.5.2 Drug Testing
    12.5.3 House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring
    12.5.4 Fines
    12.5.5 Shock Probation
    12.6 Summary

    Getting It Right 12.1: To Bee: Reintegration Programs and Preparing for Life after Prison
    Focus on Ethics: Going Out on a Limb

    Part V: Contemporary Issues

    Chapter 13: Juvenile Justice

    13.1 The Juvenile Justice System
    13.1.1 The Pros and Cons of the Modern Juvenile Justice System
    13.1.2 Who Enters the Juvenile Justice System?
    13.1.3 Entering the System
    Pre-hearing Detention
    Determining Jurisdiction
    Adjudicatory Hearing
    13.2 Issues in Juvenile Justice
    13.2.1 Chronic Offenders
    13.2.2 Gangs
    13.2.3 Types and Conditions of Youth Confinement
    13.2.4 Juvenile Waiver: Treating Children as Adults
    13.3 Summary

    Getting It Right 13.1: Reading as Punishment
    CJ Reference 13.1: Waiver to Criminal Court
    Focus on Ethics: Widening the Net of Social Control

    Chapter 14: Criminal Justice in the Future: Issues and Concerns
    14.1 The Changing Criminal Justice System
    14.2 Technology and Surveillance
    14.2.1 The USA PATRIOT Act
    14.2.2 Privacy, Anonymity, and the Police
    14.3 The High Incarceration Rate
    14.3.1 Unintended Consequences of High Incarceration
    Children and Families
    Mental and Physical Health
    Employment and Earnings
    Society Overall
    14.4 The War on Drugs
    14.5 The Future of Criminal Justice and You
    14.6 Summary

    A Closer Look 14.1: Of Prisons and Pandemics
    Focus on Ethics: Changing the Law in the Future

    Appendix: Theories of Crime


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