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Introduction to Biotechnology

Ashim K. Chakravarty

Publication Date - January 2014

ISBN: 9780198081814

656 pages

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $34.95

Offering in-depth coverage of both fundamentals and techniques, Introduction to Biotechnology is ideal for courses in biotechnology and microbiology.


Offering in-depth coverage of both fundamentals and techniques, Introduction to Biotechnology is ideal for courses in biotechnology and microbiology. In the first part of the text, author Ashim K. Chakravarty discusses the basic structure and functioning of living organisms-including cells, organelles, chromosomes, replication, and biomolecules-and the key principles of biochemical reactions, genetics, and molecular biology. Giving students the practical tools that they will need in order to succeed in the real world, the remainder of the text covers biotechnological techniques including recombinant DNA technology, genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, enzyme biotechnology, microbiology, plant and animal biotechnology, immunology, and environmental biotechnology.

Key Features

--Includes numerous illustrations, color plates, and text boxes that bring topics to life
--Discusses the applications of biotechnology in agriculture, engineering, energy, and other related fields, helping students apply their knowledge to future careers
--Features chapters on " (Ch.16)
--Provides rich pedagogical features in each chapter, including chapter summaries, review questions, and biographies of famous biotechnologists
--Includes lab experiments for additional hands-on learning experience
--Features an extensive glossary at the end of the book

About the Author(s)

Ashim K. Chakravarty is Professor at the Immunology and Cell Biology Laboratory at the University of North Bengal, Siliguri. He has also served as a research scientist for the Molecular Biology Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Table of Contents

    Features of the Book
    Brief Contents
    List of Colour Plates
    1. Biotechnology-An Overview
    1.1 History of Biotechnology
    1.2 New Age of Biotechnology
    1.3 Different Aspects of Biotechnology
    --1.3.1 Bioreactor
    --1.3.2 Genetic Engineering
    --1.3.3 Engineered DNA Molecules as Probe
    --1.3.4 Genomics and Bioinformatics
    --1.3.5 Protein Engineering
    --1.3.6 Cell Culture
    --1.3.7 Environmental Biotechnology
    --1.3.8 Horizon of Biotechnology
    --1.3.9 Bioethics and Biosafety
    --1.3.10 Intellectual Property Rights and Patents
    1.4 Scope, Importance, and Commercial Potential
    1.5 Biotechnology in India
    --1.5.1 Biotechnology Education
    --1.5.2 Biotechnology Research
    1.6 Conclusion
    2. Cells and Organelles
    2.1 Viruses
    --2.1.1 Characteristics
    --2.1.2 Entry and Multiplication in Host Cells
    2.2 Beginning of Cell Biology
    2.3 The Cell Theory
    2.4 Cell Size and Shape
    2.5 Cell Types
    --2.5.1 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
    2.6 Prokaryotes (Bacteria)
    --2.6.1 Cell Wall
    --2.6.2 Capsules
    --2.6.3 Flagella
    --2.6.4 Pili
    --2.6.5 Cytoplasmic Contents
    --2.6.6 Types of Bacteria
    2.7 Eukaryotic Cells and Organelles
    --2.7.1 Plasma Membrane
    --2.7.2 Gap Junctions
    --2.7.3 Plant Cell Wall
    --2.7.4 Nucleus
    --2.7.5 Chromatin Fibres
    --2.7.6 Nucleolus
    --2.7.7 Mitochondrion
    --2.7.8 Endoplasmic Reticulum
    --2.7.9 Golgi Complex
    --2.7.10 Lysosome and Cellular Digestion
    --2.7.11 Peroxisomes
    --2.7.12 Glyoxysomes
    --2.7.13 Vacuole
    --2.7.14 Ribosomes
    --2.7.15 Chloroplasts
    --2.7.16 Cytoskeleton
    --2.7.17 Centrosome
    3. Chromosome and DNA Replication
    3.1 Chromosome in Eukaryotic Cells
    --3.1.1 DNA and Protein Association in Eukaryotic Chromosomes
    --3.1.2 Nucleosomes-Building Units of Chromosomes
    --3.1.3 Nucleosome Assembly after DNA Replication
    --3.1.4 Compaction of DNA in Prokaryotic Chromosomes
    3.2 Entity of Genes
    --3.2.1 Gene in Viruses, Prokaryotes, and Eukaryotes
    --3.2.2 Genome
    3.3 Centromeres and Telomeres in Eukaryotic Chromosomes
    3.4 DNA Replication
    --3.4.1 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
    --3.4.2 Chromosome Duplication, Segregation, and the Cell Cycle in Eukaryotes
    --3.4.3 Chronological Events in the Replication Process
    --3.4.4 Directionality of DNA Synthesis
    --3.4.5 End Replication Problem for Linear DNA Molecules in Eukaryotes
    --3.4.6 DNA Polymerases
    3.5 Malignancy
    4. Biomolecules
    4.1 Fundamental Concepts of Biomolecules
    --4.1.1 Carbon-The Backbone of Biomolecules
    --4.1.2 Carbon Bonding-Determination of Specific Shapes and Dimensions of Organic Molecules (Biomolecules)
    --4.1.3 Three-dimensional Structure of Biomolecules
    --4.1.4 Chemical Reactivity of Organic Molecules
    --4.1.5 Monomeric Subunits-Constituents of Biological Macromolecules
    4.2 Carbohydrates
    --4.2.1 Classes of Carbohydrates
    4.3 Proteins and Amino Acids
    --4.3.1 Diverse Functions of Proteins
    --4.3.2 Protein Molecules
    --4.3.3 Amino Acids
    --4.3.4 Peptides
    4.4 Lipids
    --4.4.1 Fatty Acids
    --4.4.2 Classification of Lipids
    --4.4.3 Sterols (Derived Lipids)
    4.5 Nucleic Acids and Nucleotides
    --4.5.1 Types of Nucleic Acids
    --4.5.2 Nucleotides
    --4.5.3 Linear Polymer of DNA and RNA Formed through the Linkage of Phosphate Groups
    --4.5.4 Characteristics of Nucleic Acids
    5. Fundamentals of Biochemical Engineering
    5.1 Concept of pH
    --5.1.1 Effect of Temperature on pH
    --5.1.2 Acids and Bases Alter the pH of Water
    --5.1.3 Dissociation Constant
    --5.1.4 Effects of Changes in pH on Enzyme and Cellular Activities
    --5.1.5 Buffering to Maintain Constant pH in Biological Systems
    --5.1.6 Buffer
    --5.1.7 Henderson-Hasselbach Equation Relates pH, pK, and Buffer Concentration
    5.2 Physical Variables
    5.3 Units and Dimensions
    --5.3.1 Unit
    --5.3.2 Systems of Units
    --5.3.3 Basis of Fundamental Units
    --5.3.4 Metric Prefixes to Standard Units
    --5.3.5 Symbols for SI Units
    5.4 Dimensions
    5.5 Measurement Conventions
    5.6 Stoichiometry
    --5.6.1 Stoichiometry of Microbial Growth
    --5.6.2 General Stoichiometric Representation
    5.7 Data and Calculations
    --5.7.1 Errors in Data
    --5.7.2 Types of Errors
    5.8 Statistical Analysis
    --5.8.1 Data Analysis
    --5.8.2 Collection of Data
    --5.8.3 Measures of Central Tendency
    --5.8.4 Measures of Dispersion
    --5.8.5 Data Presentation
    --5.8.6 Probability and Significance
    --5.8.7 Use of Graph Paper with Logarithmic Coordinates for Plotting Data
    5.9 Components in a 'Bioprocess' (Process Flow Diagram)
    5.10 Factors Considered in the Design of a Bioreactor
    5.11 Unit Operation
    --5.11.1 Growth Kinetics in the Fermentation Process
    --5.11.2 Effect of Temperature on Cell Growth
    --5.11.3 Effect of Substrate Concentration on Cell Growth
    --5.11.4 Design of Growth Media
    5.12 Bioreactors
    --5.12.1 Stirred Tank Bioreactor Design
    --5.12.2 Sterilization
    --5.12.3 Inoculum
    5.13 Other Types of Bioreactors
    6. Genetic Engineering
    6.1 Mendel and the Two Laws of Genetics
    --6.1.1 Experiment of Monohybrid Crosses-The Law of Dominance and Segregation
    --6.1.2 Experiment of Dihybrid Crosses-The Law of Independent Assortment
    --6.1.3 Post Script of Mendelism
    --6.1.4 Mendelian Laws in Human Genetics
    6.2 Isolation and Purification of Cellular DNA
    --6.2.1 Isolation and Purification of Total DNA from Bacterial Cells
    --6.2.2 Isolation and Purification of Genomic (Nuclear) DNA from Eukaryotes
    --6.2.3 Outline of Viral Nucleic Acid Precipitation
    6.3 Quantitation of Purified DNA
    --6.3.1 Spectrophotometric Measurement
    --6.3.2 Fluorescent Dye-based Method
    --6.3.3 Gel Electrophoresis
    6.4 Isolation and Purification of RNA
    6.5 Recombinant DNA (rDNA) Technology
    6.6 Restriction Endonucleases
    --6.6.1 Discovery
    --6.6.2 Characteristics
    --6.6.3 Nomenclature
    --6.6.4 Recognition Sites
    --6.6.5 Types of Ends Generated after Cleavage with Type II Endonucleases
    --6.6.6 Production of Recombinant DNA (rDNA) Molecules in Vitro
    6.7 Cloning Vectors for Amplification of rDNA Molecules
    --6.7.1 Types of Vectors
    --6.7.2 Synthesis of Complementary DNA (cDNA) for Cloning Vectors
    6.8 Construction of DNA Libraries
    --6.8.1 Genomic Libraries
    --6.8.2 cDNA Libraries
    6.9 Introduction of rDNA Vectors into Bacterial Cells
    --6.9.1 Chemical Method-CaCl2 and Heat Shock Technique
    --6.9.2 Physical Method-Transformation by Electroporation
    --6.9.3 Phage-mediated Transfer of rDNA
    6.10 Selection of Transformed Cells Harbouring rDNA
    6.11 Screening DNA Libraries (Clones) for Genes of Interest
    --6.11.1 DNA Sequence-based Screening
    --6.11.2 Other Techniques Developed on the Basis of Hybridization with Radioactive Probe
    6.12 Polymerase Chain Reaction to Amplify Specific DNA Sequences In Vitro
    --6.12.1 Applications of PCR
    --6.12.2 Components of PCR Reaction
    --6.12.3 Steps in PCR Reaction
    --6.12.4 DNA Polymerase in PCR Reaction
    --6.12.5 Variants of PCR
    --6.12.6 Site-directed Mutagenesis
    6.13 Transgenic Organisms (Plants and Animals)
    --6.13.1 Transformation of Yeast Cells
    --6.13.2 Transgenic Plants with the Help of Ti Plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens
    --6.13.3 Examples of Transgenic Plants and their Utility
    --6.13.4 P Element-based Transformation in Drosophila melanogaster
    --6.13.5 Transfection of Plants and Animals with Viral Vectors
    --6.13.6 Forced Introduction of DNA Sequences using Gene Gun
    --6.13.7 Plant Transformation by Electroporation
    --6.13.8 Laser Microbeam Irradiation and DNA Uptake
    --6.13.9 Microinjection of DNA
    --6.13.10 Other Techniques for Direct Gene Transfer in Plant Cells
    --6.13.11 Overview of Genetic Transformation of Animals
    --6.13.12 Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) in an Enucleated Ovum
    6.14 Applications of Genetic Engineering
    --6.14.1 Applications of Recombinant Microorganisms
    --6.14.2 Applications of Transgenic Plant Technology
    --6.14.3 Applications of Transgenic Animals
    7. Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics
    7.1 Genomics
    --7.1.1 Three Types of Genomes in Eukaryotic Cells
    7.2 Genome Sequencing
    --7.2.1 Development of Techniques for Sequencing DNA
    7.3 DNA Sequencing Techniques
    --7.3.1 Maxam and Gilbert's Technique (Chemical Degradation)
    --7.3.2 Sanger's Chain Termination Method (Dideoxy Method)
    --7.3.3 Automatic Sequencing Machine
    --7.3.4 Shotgun Sequencing
    --7.3.5 Sequencing of Genome of Various Organisms
    --7.3.6 Gains from Genome Sequencing
    --7.3.7 Gene Prediction and Counting
    --7.3.8 Identifying the Functional Groups of Genes
    7.4 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)
    --7.4.1 SNPs in Studying Ancestry and Evolution in Human Population and Disease Associations (HapMap Project)
    --7.4.2 Pharmacogenomics
    --7.4.3 Detection of SNPs-Microarray Hybridization and 'Gene-chip' Technology
    7.5 Functional Genomics
    7.6 Comparative Genomics
    7.7 Proteomics
    --7.7.1 Contributions of Proteomics
    7.8 Bioinformatics
    --7.8.1 What is Bioinformatics?
    --7.8.2 History of Bioinformatics-Establishment of Databases
    --7.8.3 DNA Sequence Database
    --7.8.4 FASTA and BLAST Programs for Rapid Database Searches
    7.9 Sequences and Nomenclature
    --7.9.1 DNA Sequences
    --7.9.2 Amino Acid Sequence of Proteins
    --7.9.3 Types of Sequences in Nucleotide Sequence Databases
    7.10 Databases
    --7.10.1 Utilization of Databases and Analysis Tools
    --7.10.2 Types of BLAST Programs
    7.11 Bioinformatics Tools in the Detection of Genes and Function of a New Gene
    8. Enzyme Biotechnology
    8.1 Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes
    8.2 Non-traditional Enzymes
    --8.2.1 Ribozymes
    --8.2.2 Abzymes
    8.3 Mechanism of Enzyme Action
    8.4 Traditional Uses of Enzymes
    8.5 Multiple Uses of Enzymes
    --8.5.1 Detergent Enzymes
    --8.5.2 Enzymes for Processing Starch and Production of Fuel
    --8.5.3 Improving Fermented Alcoholic Drinks
    --8.5.4 Enzymes Used in Baking
    --8.5.5 Fruit and Vegetable Processing
    --8.5.6 Forest Product and Paper Industry
    --8.5.7 Dairy Products
    --8.5.8 Enzymes Used in Animal Feed
    8.6 Recent Expansion of the Enzyme Industry
    8.7 Enzyme Production
    --8.7.1 Selection and Development of the Producer Strains of Microorganisms
    --8.7.2 Large-scale Production of Enzymes
    8.8 Enzyme Purification
    8.9 Immobilization of Enzymes
    --8.9.1 Methods of Enzyme Immobilization
    --8.9.2 Advantages of Immobilization
    --8.9.3 Applications of Immobilized Enzymes
    9. Protein Structure and Engineering
    9.1 Three-dimensional (3D) Structure of Proteins
    --9.1.1 Peptide Bond, and phi (?) and psi (?) Angles of Rotation
    9.2 Structural Organization of a Polypeptide Chain
    --9.2.1 Secondary Structure of Protein and the ?-Helix
    --9.2.2 ?-Conformation-Polypeptide Chains Organized into a Sheet
    --9.2.3 Structure-Function Relationship in Proteins
    9.3 Conjugated Proteins-Proteins Containing Chemical Groups Other Than Amino Acids
    9.4 Purification of Proteins
    --9.4.1 Protein Source
    --9.4.2 Methods of Purification of Proteins
    9.5 Characterization of Proteins
    9.6 Protein-based Products
    --9.6.1 Milk Products
    --9.6.2 Enzymes Used in the Food Industry
    --9.6.3 Recombinant Therapeutic Proteins
    9.7 Protein Engineering
    --9.7.1 Some Examples of Protein Engineering
    --9.7.2 Basic Consideration for Protein Engineering
    --9.7.3 Methods of Protein Engineering
    9.8 Protein Design
    --9.8.1 Computer Programs
    --9.8.2 Design of Peptide and Protein Mimics
    --9.8.3 Benefits of Protein Design
    9.9 Protein Engineering-Future
    10. Microbial Biotechnology
    10.1 Microbial Culture
    --10.1.1 Requirements for Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
    --10.1.2 Nutritional Types of Microorganisms
    --10.1.3 Culture Media
    10.2 Establishing a Pure Culture
    --10.2.1 Cell Growth in Colonies
    --10.2.2 Enrichment and Isolation of Pure Cultures
    --10.2.3 Improvement of Strains for Biotechnology
    10.3 Microbial Growth
    --10.3.1 Four Phases of Microbial Growth
    --10.3.2 Measurement and Kinetics of Microbial Growth
    --10.3.3 Quantitation of Microbial Growth
    10.4 Scale-up of Microbial Culture for Industrial Purpose
    --10.4.1 Culture Medium for Mass Culture
    --10.4.2 Alternate Methods of Mass Culture
    --10.4.3 Industrial Microbial Products
    10.5 Strain Isolation and Improvement
    10.6 Bioethics in Microbial Technology
    11. Plant Biotechnology
    11.1 Development of Plant Tissue Culture
    11.2 Objectives of Plant Cell and Tissue Culture
    11.3 Tissue Culture
    --11.3.1 General Aseptic Measures to be Followed
    --11.3.2 Tissue Culture Laboratory
    --11.3.3 Plant Tissue Culture Media
    --11.3.4 Media Preparation
    --11.3.5 Types of Culture Media
    11.4 Explant Preparation and Tissue Culture Initiation
    --11.4.1 Collection of Explants
    --11.4.2 Disinfection of Explants
    --11.4.3 Transfer of Explants into the Growth Medium
    11.5 Plant Tissue Culture for In-vitro Micropropagation
    --11.5.1 Morphogenesis and Organogenic Differentiation
    --11.5.2 Subculture
    --11.5.3 Stages of Micropropagation
    --11.5.4 Hardening Off for Greenhouse or Field Transfer
    11.6 Regeneration of Plants using Various Plant Materials through Tissue Culture
    --11.6.1 Seed Culture
    --11.6.2 Embryo Culture
    --11.6.3 Ovary and Ovule Culture
    --11.6.4 Flower Bud Culture
    --11.6.5 Meristem Culture
    11.7 Suspension Culture
    --11.7.1 Types of Suspension Cultures
    --11.7.2 Single Cell Culture (for Single Cell Clones)
    11.8 Protoplast Culture
    --11.8.1 Protoplast Fusion (Somatic Hybridization)
    --11.8.2 Protoplast Fusion Techniques
    11.9 Anther Culture
    --11.9.1 Androgenesis
    --11.9.2 Diploidization
    --11.9.3 Applications of Anther Culture
    11.10 Pollen Culture
    11.11 Storage of Plant Materials
    --11.11.1 Cryopreservation
    12. Animal Biotechnology
    12.1 Cell Culture
    12.2 Cell Culture and Cell Lines
    --12.2.1 Primary Cultures
    --12.2.2 Cell Lines
    --12.2.3 Types of Tissue Culture
    --12.2.4 Cell Dissociation
    --12.2.5 Aseptic Measures for Cell Culture
    --12.2.6 Laminar Flow Hood
    12.3 Cell Culture Techniques
    --12.3.1 Culture Vessels
    --12.3.2 Culture Media
    --12.3.3 Sterilization
    --12.3.4 Atmosphere and Gas Phase
    --12.3.5 Serum-free Media
    --12.3.6 Cell Density in Culture
    --12.3.7 Contamination
    --12.3.8 Eradication of Contamination
    12.4 Cell Synchronization
    --12.4.1 Fractionation
    --12.4.2 Metabolic Blockade
    12.5 Scale-up of Cell Culture for Biotechnology Industry
    --12.5.1 Suspension Cell Culture
    --12.5.2 Large Stirrer Culture Flask
    --12.5.3 Biostat
    --12.5.4 Air-lift Fermenter
    --12.5.5 Rotating Chamber
    --12.5.6 Hollow-fibre Perfusion Bioreactor
    --12.5.7 Fluidized Bed Reactors for Suspension Cultures
    --12.5.8 Bioreactor Process Control
    12.6 Monolayer Cell Culture (Scale-up)
    --12.6.1 Multisurface Propagator
    12.7 Microcarriers
    12.8 Perfused Monolayer Culture
    --12.8.1 Hollow-fibre Perfusion
    --12.8.2 Fixed-bed Reactor
    --12.8.3 Fluidized-bed Reactor
    12.9 Applications of Cell Culture
    12.10 Cryopreservation of Cell Lines
    12.11 Raising Monoclonal Antibodies from a Culture of Hybridoma Cells
    12.12 Vaccines Raised from Cell Culture
    12.13 In-vitro Tissue Engineering
    --12.13.1 Skin
    --12.13.2 Cartilage and Bone
    --12.13.3 Liver
    12.14 Clinical Uses of Stem Cell Culture
    13. Environmental Biotechnology
    13.1 Environment
    --13.1.1 Components of Environment
    --13.1.2 Interacting Subsystems
    13.2 Environmental Pollution
    --13.2.1 Nature and Source of Pollutants
    --13.2.2 Major Pollutants and Sources
    13.3 World Conventions on Environment
    13.4 Greenhouse Gases (mainly CO2) and Global Warming
    13.5 Kyoto Protocol (1997)
    13.6 Remedy for Pollution and Role of Biotechnology
    --13.6.1 Waste Treatment and Biotechnology
    --13.6.2 Biofilters for Pollutant Gases
    --13.6.3 Solid Waste Treatment
    --13.6.4 Waste Water Treatment
    --13.6.5 Processes of Waste Water Treatment
    --13.6.6 Other Methods of Aeration
    --13.6.7 Anaerobic Process in Waste Water Treatment
    --13.6.8 Bioremediation of Contaminated Land and Water
    --13.6.9 Heavy Metal Bioremediation
    --13.6.10 Biohydrometallurgy
    --13.6.11 Biomineralization
    14. Horizon of Biotechnology
    14.1 Agricultural Biotechnology
    --14.1.1 Biofertilizer
    --14.1.2 Biopesticides
    14.2 Biomass
    --14.2.1 Single Cell Protein-As a Food Additive
    --14.2.2 Algal Biomass
    --14.2.3 Plant Biomass
    14.3 Aquatic Biotechnology
    --14.3.1 Aquaculture
    --14.3.2 New Developments in Aquatic Biotechnology
    --14.3.3 Improving Strains for Aquaculture
    --14.3.4 Antifreeze Protein Gene
    --14.3.5 Reporter Gene-Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)
    --14.3.6 Enhancing Safety for Aquaculture and its Products
    --14.3.7 Cloning the Genomes of Marine Pathogens
    --14.3.8 Polyploidy for Rapid Growth in Fish
    --14.3.9 Aquatic Biotechnology-Medical Applications
    --14.3.10 Other Utilities
    --14.3.11 Aquatic Biotechnology for Certain Environmental Applications
    14.4 Biomimetic
    14.5 Biotransformation
    14.6 Biofuels
    --14.6.1 Biogas
    14.7 Biosensors
    --14.7.1 Ion-sensitive Field-effect Transistor (ISFET)
    --14.7.2 Thermal Sensors (Physical)
    --14.7.3 Enzyme Electrode
    --14.7.4 Immobilized Cell Biosensor
    --14.7.5 Immunosensors
    --14.7.6 Optical Biosensors
    --14.7.7 DNA Probes
    14.8 DNA Fingerprinting
    14.9 Monoclonal Antibody
    --14.9.1 Uses of Monoclonal Antibodies
    14.10 Vaccines
    --14.10.1 Live, Attenuated Bacterial and Viral Vaccines
    --14.10.2 Killed Microorganisms as Vaccines
    --14.10.3 Toxoid Vaccines
    --14.10.4 Purified Antigen Vaccines
    --14.10.5 Synthetic Peptides
    --14.10.6 Recombinant Vector Vaccines
    --14.10.7 Anti-idiotype Antibodies as Vaccines
    --14.10.8 Edible Vaccines
    14.11 Stem Cell
    15. Bioethics and Biosafety
    15.1 Biotechnology and Ethics
    15.2 Biotechnology and Society
    15.3 Bioethics and Biosafety
    --15.3.1 Biosafety in the Application of Biotechnology
    --15.3.2 Introduction of Genetically Manipulated Organisms (GMOs)
    --15.3.3 Regulation of Introduction of GMOs and Biotechnological Products
    15.4 Introduction of GMOs in India
    15.5 Control over Human DNA
    16. Intellectual Property Rights and Biopatents
    16.1 History of Patent for Biotechnology Discoveries
    16.2 Protection of Intellectual Property Rights
    --16.2.1 Patent
    --16.2.2 Trade Secrets
    --16.2.3 Copyright
    --16.2.4 Trademarks
    --16.2.5 Plant Breeder's Rights (PBR)
    16.3 Other Views about IPR
    16.4 Broad Patent Coverage in Biotechnology
    --16.4.1 Farmer's Rights
    16.5 International Organizations and Conventions for Patents
    16.6 Patenting Strategies
    16.7 International Patenting
    16.8 International Harmony for Patent Laws
    --16.8.1 GATT, 'Uruguay Round' of Negotiations, and TRIPs
    --16.8.2 WTO and 'Doha Round' of Negotiations
    16.9 Scenario of Patenting in India
    --16.9.1 India in the Context of TRIPs
    16.10 Biodiversity in the Light of IPR
    --16.10.1 Biodiversity Act, 2002
    Appendix I- Lab Work
    Appendix II- Fun Experiments