We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Find out more
  • Purchase
  • Send feedback
  • Also available as:



Introducing Philosophy

A Text with Integrated Readings

Eleventh Edition

Robert C. Solomon, Kathleen M. Higgins, and Clancy Martin

Publication Date - September 2015

ISBN: 9780190209452

736 pages
8 x 10 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $91.95

Combines exceptionally clear explanations with excerpts of works from Western philosophy and alternative perspectives


Introducing Philosophy: A Text with Integrated Readings, Eleventh Edition, is an exciting, accessible, and thorough introduction to the core questions of philosophy and the many ways in which they are, and have been, answered. The authors combine substantial selections from significant works in the history of philosophy with excerpts from current philosophy, clarifying the readings and providing context with their own detailed commentary and explanation. Spanning 2,500 years, the selections range from the oldest known fragments to cutting-edge contemporary essays. Organized topically, the chapters present alternative perspectives--including analytic, continental, feminist, and non-Western viewpoints--alongside the historical works of major Western philosophers.

New to this Edition

  • A separate chapter on "Truth and Relativism" (Chapter 4), introduces students to the major theories of truth through selections from Immanuel Kant, Brand Blanshard, Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and Alfred Tarski
  • Sixteen new readings including work by Simone de Beauvoir, Mary Daly, Victor A. Gunasekara, Cory Juhl, David Lewis, María Lugones, Dierdre McClosky, Derek Parfit, Jean-Paul Sartre, Tara Smith, and Elizabeth V. Spelman
  • Additional discussion of recent trends in analytic metaphysics (Chapter 1) and philosophical zombies (Chapter 5)


  • Approximately 280 images that illustrate key concepts and encapsulate famous philosophical figures
  • More than 100 brief profiles of philosophers interspersed throughout the text
  • Discussion questions, a summary, and a bibliography with suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter
  • Questions at the end of every subsection and additional chapter-ending review questions
  • Marginal quotations from the featured readings
  • Key philosophical terms, boldfaced in the text and collected at the end of each chapter

About the Author(s)

The late Robert C. Solomon was Quincy Lee Centennial Professor of Business and Philosophy and Distinguished Teaching Professor at the University of Texas at Austin. He is the author, coauthor, editor, or coeditor of more than forty books, including Honest Work, Third Edition (2013), Ethics Across the Professions (2009), and The Little Philosophy Book (2007), all published by OUP.

Kathleen M. Higgins is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin. She is the author, coauthor, editor, or coeditor of more than twenty books, including, with Robert C. Solomon, A Passion for Wisdom (1997) and A Short History of Philosophy (1996), both published by OUP.

Clancy Martin is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. A Guggenheim Fellow, he is the author, coauthor, editor, or coeditor of several books in philosophy, including Honest Work, Third Edition (2013), Ethics Across the Professions (2009), and The Philosophy Of Deception (2009), all published by OUP.

Previous Publication Date(s)

September 2011
December 2006
July 2004


"Introducing Philosophy's greatest strength is its vast, comprehensive scope. In most of its chapters it generally leaves no stone unturned, moving from Greco-Roman antiquity all the way to the living present, and incorporating elements from literary, theological, and Eastern religious-philosophic traditions."--Marcos Arandia, North Lake College

"I am most impressed with the diversity of authors and ideas. I was thrilled to see the traditional classic Western works, along with feminist and Eastern philosophy."--Jennifer Caseldine-Bracht, Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne

"This book is a fine mixture of both excellent primary text selection and commentary by the authors. The breadth of subject matter and variety of perspectives makes it accommodating for just about any approach (e.g, topical, existential, continental, analytic, etc.)."--Mark D. Sadler, Northeast Lakeview College

"The writing style is beautiful, fluid, and very accessible. It's one of the main reasons that I use this text. The coverage is great. I especially appreciate the many sections, in several chapters, on existentialist philosophers and Eastern philosophers."--Ellen B. Stansell, Austin Community College

Table of Contents

    *=New to this Edition
    Philosopher Biographies
    History of Philosophy
    A. Socrates
    Aristophanes, from Clouds
    Plato, from Apology; from Crito; from Phaedo; from Republic
    B. What Is Philosophy?
    Plato, from Apology
    Karl Jaspers, from "The 'Axial Period'"
    Laozi, from Dao De Jing
    C. A Modern Approach to Philosophy
    René Descartes, from Discourse on Method
    D. A Brief Introduction to Logic
    Key Terms
    Bibliography and Further Reading
    A. "The Way the World Really Is"
    Aristotle, from Metaphysics
    B. The First Greek Philosophers
    Parmenides, from Fragments
    C. Ultimate Reality in the East: India, Persia, and China
    From Upanishads
    From Zend-Avesta
    From The Confucian Analects
    Laozi, from Dao De Jing
    Buddha, from "Fire-Sermon"
    D. Two Kinds of Metaphysics: Plato and Aristotle
    Plato, from Symposium; from Republic; from Meno
    Aristotle, from Metaphysics; from Physics; from Metaphysics
    E. Modern Metaphysics
    René Descartes, On Substance; from "Meditation VI"
    Benedictus de Spinoza, from Ethics
    Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from Monadology
    * David Lewis, From Counterfactuals
    Martin Heidegger, from "The Fundamental Question of Metaphysics"
    A. What Is Religion?
    John Wisdom, from "Gods"
    Albert Einstein, On the Design of the Universe
    Keiji Nishitani, from "What Is Religion?"
    B. The Western Religions
    C. Proving God: The Ontological Argument
    St. Anselm, On The Ontological Argument
    René Descartes, On the Ontological Argument
    Immanuel Kant, Against the Ontological Argument
    D. God as Creator: Intelligence and Design
    St. Thomas Aquinas, Five Arguments for the Existence of God
    William Paley, from "The Watch and the Watchmaker"
    St. Thomas Aquinas, On the "Fifth Way"
    David Hume, from Dialogues on Natural Religion
    * Cory Juhl, On the "Fine-Tuning" Argument
    E. Religion, Morality, and Evil
    Immanuel Kant, On God and Morality
    William James, from "The Will to Believe"
    St. Augustine, from Confessions
    From the Bhagavadgita
    F. Beyond Reason: Faith and Irrationality
    Mohammad al-Ghazali, from The Deliverance from Error
    Søren Kierkegaard, On Subjective Truth
    Paul Tillich, On the Ultimate Concern
    G. Doubts about God and Religion
    Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from The Brothers Karamazov
    Karl Marx, from Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
    Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil; from The Antichrist; from The Gay Science
    Sigmund Freud, from The Future of an Illusion
    * Mary Daly, "Wanted: 'God' or 'the Goddess'?"
    * Victor A. Gunasekara, "The Buddhist Attitude to God"
    Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy
    * Plato, from Republic
    Plato, from Theatetus
    A. The Rationalist's Confidence: Descartes
    René Descartes, from "Meditation I"; from "Meditation II"; from "Meditation VI"
    B. Innate Ideas Concerning Human Understanding: John Locke
    John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays on Human Understanding
    C. Two Empiricist Theories of Knowledge
    John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    Bishop George Berkeley, from Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
    D. The Congenial Skeptic: David Hume
    David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature; from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
    * E. A Contemporary Conundrum: Knowledge as Justified True Belief
    A.What Is Truth?
    B.Theories of Truth
    * Brand Blanshard, On The Coherence Theory
    * Charles Peirce, from "How to Make Our Ideas Clear"
    * William James, On the Pragmatic Theory
    * Alfred Tarski, from "The Semantic Theory of Truth"
    C. Kant's Revolution
    Immanuel Kant, from The Critique of Pure Reason; from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
    D. The Battle in Europe After Kant: Relativism and Absolutism
    G. W. F. Hegel, from The Phenomenology of Spirit; from Reason in History
    Friedrich Nietzsche, On Truth
    E. Phenomenology
    Edmund Husserl, from "Philosophy as Rigorous Science"; from The 1929 Paris Lectures
    F. Hermeneutics and Pragmatism: Relativism Reconsidered
    Richard Rorty, from "Solidarity or Objectivity?"
    Isamu Nagami, from "Cultural Gaps: Why Do We Misunderstand?"
    G. The Analytic Turn
    Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy
    W. V. O. Quine, from "Epistemology Naturalized"
    H. Feminist Epistemology
    Elizabeth Grosz, On Feminist Knowledge
    Uma Narayan, On Feminist Epistemology
    A. What Is Consciousness?
    René Descartes, from "Meditation VI"; from "Meditation III"
    B. The Problem of Dualism
    René Descartes, from "The Passions of the Soul"
    C. The Rejection of Dualism
    Gilbert Ryle, from The Concept of Mind
    J. J. C. Smart, from "Sensations and Brain Processes"
    Jerome Shaffer, Against the Identity Theory
    Paul M. Churchland, On Eliminative Materialism
    David Braddon-Mitchell and Frank Jackson, from Philosophy of Mind and Cognition
    John R. Searle, from "The Myth of the Computer"; from Minds, Brains, and Science
    D. The Problem of Consciousness
    Sigmund Freud, On the "Unconscious"
    Thomas Nagel, from Mortal Questions
    E. Changing Our Minds: Holism and Consciousness
    Aristotle, from De Anima
    Galen Strawson, On "Cognitive Experience"
    F. The Politics of the Mind-Body Problem
    * Elizabeth V. Spelman, from "Woman as Body: Ancient and Contemporary Views"
    A. Consciousness and the Self: From Descartes to Kant
    René Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
    John Locke, On Personal Identity
    David Hume, On the Idea of the Self
    Immanuel Kant, Against the Soul as Substance
    Meredith Michaels, On "Personal Identity"
    * Derek Parfit, from Reasons and Persons
    B. Existentialism: Self-Identity and the Responsibility of Choice
    Jean-Paul Sartre, On Existentialism; * On Bad Faith; from No Exit
    C. The Individual and the Community
    Søren Kierkegaard, On "The Public"; On Self and Passion
    Martin Heidegger, On "Dasein" and the "They"
    David Reisman, On Individualism
    Malcolm X, On Being "African"; from "At the Audubon"
    Sherry Ortner, from "Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?"
    Ann Ferguson, On Androgyny
    * Deirdre McClosky, from Crossing
    D. One Self? Any Self? Questioning the Concept of Personal "Essence"
    Hermann Hesse, from Steppenwolf
    Luce Irigaray, from This Sex Which Is Not One
    Genevieve Lloyd, from "The Man of Reason"
    From the Dhammapada
    Laozi, from Dao De Jing
    A. Fatalism and Karma
    Sophocles, from Oedipus the King
    Keiji Nishitani, On Fate
    B. Predestination
    St. Augustine, from On Free Choice of the Will
    Muhammad Iqbal, from The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
    Jacqueline Trimier, On the Yoruba Ori
    Jonathan Edwards, from "Freedom of the Will"
    C. Determinism
    Baron Paul Henri d'Holbach, from System of Nature
    Daniel Dennett, from Elbow Room
    Robert Kane, On Indeterminism
    John Stuart Mill, On Causation and Necessity
    David Hume, On Causation and Character
    Robert Kane, On "Wiggle Room"
    Harry Frankfurt, from "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person"
    D. Compulsion and Ignorance
    Aristotle, On Voluntary Action
    Judith Orr, "Sex, Ignorance, and Freedom"
    John Hospers, from "What Means This Freedom?"
    B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom
    B. F. Skinner, from Walden Two
    Robert Kane, Beyond Skinner
    Anthony Burgess, from A Clockwork Orange
    Catharine MacKinnon, On Coercion of Women's Sexuality
    E. Freedom in Practice: Kant's Solution
    F. Radical Freedom: Existentialism
    Jean-Paul Sartre, On "Absolute Freedom"
    Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from "The Most Advantageous Advantage"
    Thich Nhat Hanh, from "Turning on the Television"
    A. Morality
    B. Is Morality Relative?
    Gilbert Harman, from "Moral Relativism Defended"
    St. Thomas Aquinas, from The Summa Theologica
    John Corvino, from Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality
    C. Egoism and Altruism
    Plato, from Republic
    * Tara Smith, The Necessity of Egoism (Ayn Rand)
    D. Are We Naturally Selfish? A Debate
    Mencius, On Human Nature: Man Is Good
    Xunzi, from "Human Nature Is Evil"
    Joseph Butler, Against Egoism
    E. Morality as Virtue: Aristotle
    Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
    F. Morality and Sentiment: Hume and Rousseau
    David Hume, On "Reason as Slave of the Passions"
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from Émile
    G. Morality and Practical Reason: Kant
    Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
    H. Utilitarianism
    Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
    John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
    I. The Creation of Morality: Nietzsche and Existentialism
    Friedrich Nietzsche, On "Morality as Herd-Instinct"; On "Master and Slave Morality"
    Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism Is a Humanism
    * Simone de Beauvoir, from The Ethics of Ambiguity
    J. Ethics and Gender
    Virginia Held, On Feminist Ethics
    A. The Problem of Justice
    B. Two Ancient Theories of Justice: Plato and Aristotle
    Plato, from Republic
    Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
    C. Two Modern Theories of Justice: Hume and Mill on Utility and Rights
    David Hume, On "Justice and Utility"
    John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
    D. The Social Contract
    Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from The Social Contract
    Thomas Jefferson et al., from The Declaration of Independence
    E. Fairness and Entitlement
    John Rawls, from "Justice as Fairness"
    Robert Nozick, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia
    F. Justice or Care: A Feminist Perspective
    Cheshire Calhoun, from "Justice, Care, Gender Bias"
    * María Lugones, from "Playfulness, 'World'-Traveling, and Loving Perception"
    G. Individual Rights and Freedom
    John Locke, from The Second Treatise on Government;
    John Stuart Mill, from On Liberty
    Malcolm X, On Civil and Human Rights
    Amartya Sen, from "Property and Hunger"
    H. Fighting for Rights and Justice: Civil Disobedience
    Henry David Thoreau, from "Resistance to Civil Government" ("Civil Disobedience")
    Martin Luther King, Jr., from "Letter from Birmingham Jail"