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Instrumental Analysis

Revised Edition

Revised Updated Edition

Robert M. Granger, Hank M. Yochum, Jill N. Granger, and Karl D. Sienerth

Publication Date - 15 July 2017

ISBN: 9780190865337

880 pages
8-1/2 x 11 inches

In Stock

Provides comprehensive, modern, and engaging coverage of chemical instrumentation


Instrumental Analysis provides a rigorous, modern, and engaging coverage of chemical instrumentation, written with the undergraduate student in mind. At its core, Instrumental Analysis includes the underlying theory, instrumental design, applications and operation of spectroscopic, electroanalytical, chromatographic, and mass spectral instrumentation. It provides students with the requisite skills to identify the comparative advantages and disadvantages in choosing one analytical technique over another by combining direct comparisons of the techniques with a discussion of how these choices affect the interpretation of the data in its final form.


  • Profiles: To capture the student's imagination, each chapter begins with a real world application, and additional profile boxes appear throughout the chapter
  • Activities: The text includes activity boxes that allow students to recreate a physical phenomenon or to build a working instrument component
  • Worked Examples: Each chapter contains several worked examples that walk the student through key calculations and exercises
  • "Compare and Contrast" Boxes: "Compare and Contrast" boxes directly compare different instrumental techniques to help students understand the trade-offs in choosing one technique over another
  • Exercises: Exercises that reinforce key concepts appear throughout the chapters and at the end of the chapters
  • Further Reading: Each chapter ends with a bibliography of influential texts and journal articles

About the Author(s)

Robert M. Granger II is Chair and Professor of Chemistry at Sweet Briar College.

Hank M. Yochum is Professor of Physics and Engineering and Director of the Margaret Jones Wyllie '45 Engineering Program at Sweet Briar College.

Jill N. Granger is Dean of the Honors College at Western Carolina University.

Karl D. Sienerth is Chair and Professor of Chemistry at Elon University.


I like this book's simplicity and the way it addresses its audience of predominantly undergraduate students. They key concepts were presented seamlessly with related topics for typical one-semester undergraduate instrumental analysis courses.--Dan Sykes, Pennsylvania State University

Instrumental Analysis is a much-needed introductory undergraduate textbook. It provides sufficient introductory information for undergraduates along with crucial emphasis on microscale, nano, portable, and other new instrumentation. This text covers everything, the organization is clear, and the writing is easy to understand.--Tami Lasseter Clare, Portland State University

Table of Contents

    CHAPTER 1 - The Analyst's Toolbox
    Profile - A Scenario
    1.2 - Introduction
    1.2 - Ultraviolet - visible Spectroscopy
    1.3 - Infrared Spectroscopy

    Compare and Contrast - UV-vis vs. FTIR in Quantitative Analysis
    1.4 - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry
    1.5 - Mass Spectrometry

    Profile - Putting it All Together
    1.6 - Chromatography
    Profile - Establishing a Forensic Protocol
    1.7 - Further Reading
    1.8 - Additional Exercise

    CHAPTER 2 - Quantum Mechanics and Spectroscopy
    Profile- The Brain Initiative and everyday spectroscopy
    2.1- Introduction
    2.2- The interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter - absorption and emission of light

    Profile - Erwin Schrödinger
    2.3- Molecular vibrations lead to quantized energy levels
    Profile - London's Millennium Bridge
    Profile- Mass Dampers
    2.4- Molecular rotation leads to quantized energy levels
    2.5- Transitions between vibrational and rotational states -the role of thermal energy and nonradiative decay

    Prelude - The Boltzmann Distribution
    2.6- Transitions between electronic, vibrational, and rotational states - putting it all together
    The Jablonski diagram
    Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
    2.7 Energy levels of a proton in a magnetic field - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
    2.8- Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 3 - An Introduction to Optics
    Profile: The diffraction grating is a key component for many optical instruments
    3.1 - An Introduction to the Properties of Light
    Wavelength, Energy, and Frequency
    Profile- The photoelectric effect shows the particle nature of light
    3.2- Controlling optical beams
    Mirrors and Reflection
    Lenses and Refraction
    Collecting and Collimating Light
    Focusing a Collimated Laser Beam
    3.3- Wavelength Selection
    Introduction to Prism and Grating Monochromators
    The Diffraction Grating
    Putting it all together- Details on the Grating Monochromator
    Profile- Optics that operate by diffraction- the Fresnel Zone Plate
    The Michelson Interferometer
    Optical Filters & Power Reduction
    3.4 - Common Optical Materials
    3.5- Beyond Linear Optics

    Profile- Innovation and discovery in optics - metamaterials hold promise for the perfect lens, invisibility cloaks, and more
    3.6- Further Reading
    3.7 - Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 4 - An Introduction to Instrumental Electronics
    4.1 - Introduction
    Circuit Symbols
    4.2 - DC Circuits
    Current, Voltage, and Multimeter Basics
    Series Circuit Elements and the Voltage Divider
    Parallel Circuit Elements and the Current Divider
    The Multimeter
    Voltage and Current Loading Error
    Profile - Electronics for a Very Simple Light Sensing Instrument: Voltage Divider Photoresistor circuit
    4.3- Capacitors and RC Circuits
    4.4- AC Circuits

    Ohm's law for AC circuits
    Low-pass, High-pass, Band-pass, and Band Stop Filters
    Activity- RC Filter Spreadsheet Tool
    4.5 - Operational Amplifiers
    Inverting and Non-inverting op amps
    Summing op amp
    Current to Voltage Amplifier
    The Voltage Follower
    Op Amp Comparator
    Cascading op amps
    A Cascaded Op Amp Example- Instrumentation Op Amp
    Profile- Electronics for an Automatic Titrator: Cascaded Op Amps and the Differentiating Op Amp
    4.6 - Quick Survey of Components
    Profile- Electronics for a Simple Absorption Spectrophotometer: Op Amp Circuit as Current to Voltage Amplifier
    Profile- What if you need a constant voltage under varying loads? A basic schematic of a potentiostat
    4.7 - Analog and Digital Signals
    4.8 - Further Reading
    4.9 - Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 5 - Signals and Noise: An Introduction to Signal Processing
    Profile- Spectroscopy of single molecules?
    5.1 - Introduction to Signals
    5.2 - Sources and Characteristics of Noise
    5.3 - Signal to Noise Ratio and Ensemble Averaging
    5.4- Processing Signals with Hardware and Software

    Analog Filters
    Boxcar averaging with hardware
    Modulating Signals and the Lock-In Amplifier
    Digital Filters
    Rolling average, Boxcar average, Savitzky-Golay Filter, and Fourier Filtering
    5.5 - Sampling Rates, the Nyquist Frequency, and Aliasing
    5.6- Analog to Digital Conversion
    5.7- Further Reading
    5.8 - Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 6 - Molecular Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy.
    Profile - James Clerk Maxwell
    6.1 - Introduction
    6.2 - Electronic Excitation and Molecular
    Structure and "Color"
    DPK - A Case Study
    Solvent Polarity
    Transition Metal Coordination Compounds
    Vibronic Transitions
    Sidebar - The Spectroscopic Series
    6.3 - Quantitative Measurements
    Selection Rules
    Beer's Law
    Sidebar - Derivation of Beer's Law
    Deviations from Beer's Law
    Bandwidth Resolution
    Activity - Explore the effects on the relationship of A vs. c
    6.4 - Instrumentation Designs
    Fixed Wavelength Spectrometers
    Profile - HACH DR3900
    Scanning Spectrometers
    Compare and Constrast - Single & Dual Beam Spectrometers
    Array Spectrophotometers
    6.5 - Monochromators
    6.6 - Sources

    Deuterium Arc/Tungsten Halogen Bulb
    Xenon Arc Lamps
    Light Emitting Diodes
    Profile - The Jaz® by Ocean Optics
    6.7 - Detectors
    The PMT
    Photovoltaic Cells
    Charge Coupled Device
    6.8 - Noise
    Stray Light
    Detector Noise
    Profile - Walter Hermann Schottky
    Source Noise
    6.9 - Kinetic UV-vis Techniques
    Stop Flow UV-vis
    Flash Photolysis
    Profile - Building a functional monochromator
    6.10 - Useful Data
    6.11 - Further Reading
    6.12 - Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 7 - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
    7.1- Introduction
    Profile - The Birth of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
    7.2 - Molecular vs. Atomic Absorption
    Analytical Specificity
    7.3 - Spectral Bandwidth
    Lifetime Broadening
    Profile - Review of Term Symbols
    Magnetic Field Broadening
    Profile - Lightning over Salty Waters
    Pressure Broadening
    Note - IUPAC nomenclature for pressure broadening.
    Doppler Broadening
    7.4 -AAS Sources
    The Hollow-Cathode Lamp
    Profile - Nutritional Contents of Breast Milk
    Electrodeless Discharge Lamps
    Activity - Soil Analysis
    7.5 - Sample Introduction
    Flame - AAS
    The Flame
    The Flame Height
    Flame vs Electrothermal AAS
    Profile- AAS Analysis of Oil
    Hydride - AAS
    Cold Vapor-AAS
    Compare and Contrast - Detection Limit Ranges
    7.6 - Measuring Atomic Absorption
    Background Correction
    Zeeman Background Correction
    Smith-Hieftje background correction
    Spectral Interference
    Profile-Demystifying the Zeeman Effect
    7.7 - Sample Preparation
    Acid Digestion
    7.8 - Performing an AAS analysis
    7.9 - Further Reading
    7.10 - Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 8 - Luminescence Spectroscopy
    8.1 - Introduction
    8.2 - Theory

    Principles of Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
    Profile - Is your $100 bill real? Find out with time-resolved fluorescence
    Relating fluorescence and molecular structure
    Profile - Fluorescence quenching helps with aerodynamics
    8.3 -The Fluorescence Spectrometer
    Excitation sources
    Wavelength discrimination and instrument resolution
    Putting it all together- Walking through the luminescence system
    Excitation spectra
    Sample introduction
    Profile- Fluorescence pushes the limits of detection- single molecule detection and femtomolar concentrations
    8.4- Challenges with Fluorescence Spectroscopy
    Detector response correction
    Source intensity correction
    Stray light contamination
    Challenges with high absorbance
    8.5 -Additional Fluorescence based techniques
    Fluorescence polarization
    Resonance energy transfer spectroscopy
    Multiphoton excitation
    8.6 -Further Reading
    8.7 - Additional Exercises

    Profile - Using fluorescence to determine concentrations of DNA and RNA

    CHAPTER 9 - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
    9.1 - Introduction
    Profile - Get The Lead Out
    9.2 - The Atomizer and the Excitation Source
    Profile - Columbia
    Inductively Coupled Plasma Torch
    Direct Current Plasma Source
    Profile - The Plasma Torch
    Microwave Induced Plasma Source
    Profile - Atmospheric MP-AES
    Profile - LIBS in Space

    Laser Ablation
    Profile- Visualizing a Plasma
    9.3 - Sample Introduction
    Sources AAS vs. AES
    Sample preparation and interferences
    Zeeman Background Correction
    9.4 - Measuring Atomic Emission
    Compare and Contrast FAAS, GFAAS & ICP-AES
    9.5 -Further Reading
    9.6- Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 10 -X-Ray Related Techniques
    Profile - A modern day gold rush.
    10.1- Principles of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)
    Profile-W. C. Röntgen
    XRF Transitions: Terminology
    Photoelectric Absorption
    Compare and Contrast - Optical Absorption vs.Photoelectric Absorption
    Absorption of X-rays
    10.2- X-ray Sources
    X-ray tubes
    Synchrotron Radiation
    Profile -Lost Inscriptions
    10.3- X-ray Optics
    Profile -XRF Analysis of a 15th Painting
    Reflection Optics
    Diffraction Optics
    Profile - Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh
    10.4- Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometers
    Sequential and Simultaneous
    WDXRF Detectors
    10.5- Energy Dispersive Spectrometers
    EDXRF Detectors
    10.6- Direct Comparison: WDXRF & EDXRF
    Compare and Contrast- AAS, AES & XRF
    10.7- Sample Introduction
    10.8- Total Reflection XRF (TXRF)

    Profile - Christiaan Huygens
    Profile- Max Von Laue

    10.9- X-ray Induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy & Auger Electron Spectroscopy
    Compare and Contrast: XRF, XPS & AES
    Profile - Pierre Victor Auger
    XPS & AES Instrumentation
    10.10- Single Crystal X-ray Diffractometry
    X-ray Diffraction
    Bragg's Law
    Profile- Henry and Lawrence Bragg
    The Lattice
    Obtaining A Crystal Structure
    The Diffractometer
    10.10- Further Reading
    10.11- Additional Exercises

    Advanced Exercises

    CHAPTER 11 -Infrared Spectroscopy
    11.1 -Chemical Structure and Molecular Vibrations
    Profile - The Future of FTIR
    Group Frequencies
    Normal Modes
    Vibrational Categories
    Profile - Olive Oil
    The Selection Rules and Molecular Symmetry
    Vibronic Coupling
    11.2 - Time Domain vs. Frequency Domain Spectroscopy: The Fourier Transformation
    Activity: Creating a Beat Pattern
    Activity: Performing a Fourier Transform

    11.3 -FTIR & Wavelength Discrimination
    The Michelson Interferometer
    Activity: Exploring Resolution
    11.4 -Sources
    The Nernst Glower
    The Globar
    Coiled Wire Sources
    Solid State Sources
    11.5 -Detectors
    Thermal Detectors
    Pyroelectric Detectors
    Profile- PZT Ceramics
    Photoconductive Detectors
    Profile- MCT Detectors
    Quantum Well Detectors
    11.6 -Spectral Output
    Transmittance vs. Absorbance
    Quantitative Measurements and Deviations from Beer's Law
    11.7- Developments; Two Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy
    11.8 - Sample Introduction

    Optical Materials
    Solution IR Spectroscopy
    Neat Liquids
    Compare and Contrast: UV-vis versus FTIR in Quantitative & Qualitative Analysis
    11.9 - Useful Data
    11.10 - Further
    11.11- Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 12 - Raman Spectroscopy
    Profile - Raman Applications in Art and Medicine
    12.1 -Introduction
    Rayleigh Scattering
    12.2 - Theory of Raman Scattering
    Selection Rules
    Case Study - Vibrations in the linear molecule CO2
    Case Study- Raman spectroscopy of a tetrahedral molecule; CCl4

    12.3 -The Raman Spectrometer
    Instrument Basics
    Radiant Source
    Wavelength Discrimination and Raman
    Spectrometer Resolution
    Compare and Contrast - A side-by-side evaluation of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy.
    Handheld Raman Analyzers
    Profile - Drug detection using commercial handheld Raman spectrometers
    Fiber optic probes
    12.4- Additional Raman based techniques
    Raman Imaging
    Polarized Raman Spectroscopy
    Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman)
    Surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)
    Profile - Using Raman spectroscopy to identify compounds from a distance
    12.5 - Further Reading
    12.6 - Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 13 - Mass Spectrometry
    13.1 - Basic Principles & Comparisons to an Optical Spectrophotometer
    Profile - Puffer MS
    13.2 - Ion sources
    Electron Ionization
    Profile - J. J. Thomson
    Chemical Ionization
    Electrospray Ionization
    Profile - John Fenn
    Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization
    Secondary Ion
    Thermal Ionization
    Inductively Coupled Plasma
    Compare & Contrast - Elemental Methods
    Profile - TOF-MS in Space
    13.3 - Mass Analyzers
    Sector & Double-focusing
    Profile - Eugen Goldstein Quadrupole
    Profile - R. Graham Cooks

    FT Ion Cyclotron Resonance
    13.4 - Detectors
    Activity - Selected Ion Game
    13.5 - Additional Techniques
    Tandem Techniques
    Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
    Profile - 10Be as a Geological Clock
    Profile - Human Scent Fingerprinting

    13.6 - Further Reading
    13.7 - Additional Exercises
    Advanced Exercises

    CHAPTER 14 - An Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    14.1 - Introduction
    Profile - NMR versus HIV
    Spectral Analysis - A Quick Review
    14.2 - NMR Spectroscopy is all about the Nucleus
    Nuclear Quantum Numbers
    A Nucleus in a Magnetic Field
    Tesla vs. MHz
    14.3 - The NMR Signal
    Compare and Contrast - Population distribution for common spectroscopic methods
    Profile - Felix Bloch
    14.4 - The RF Pulse: Inducing nuclear magnetic resonance
    FT-NMR: Time Domain vs. Frequency Domain Spectroscopy & The Fourier Transformation
    Free Induction Decay (FID): The FT-NMR "Beat Pattern"
    14.5 - Chemical Shift and Resolution
    Profile - Richard R. Ernst
    The Chemical Shift (ppm)
    Chemical Shift Reference
    14.6 - The Instrument
    14.7 - Signal Processing
    Increasing the signal to noise ratio
    Profile - Angela Gronenborn
    14.8 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Profile - MRI and Brain Concussion
    14.9 - Further Reading
    On Line Resources

    Some interesting laboratory experiments
    14.10 - Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 15 - Liquid Chromatography
    15.1 - Introduction
    Profile- Mikhail S. Tswett
    15.2 - Theory
    Distribution Equilibrium
    Profile - Other Applications of Partition Coefficients
    Principles of Chromatography
    Activity: TLC at home
    The Retention Factor
    Resolution and Theoretical Plates
    Band Broadening
    15.3 - Basic Method Development
    Thermodynamics and Kinetics Factors
    Isocratic vs. Gradient
    Profile: The Role of Temperature
    Qualitative vs. Quantitative
    Profile: Analysis of Wine - Qualitative and Quantitative
    15.4 - Stationary Phase Materials and Modes of Separation
    Profile: LC-MS in Athletic Doping
    Normal Phase
    Reversed Phase
    Ion Exchange
    Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HIC)
    Chiral Chromatography
    Profile - The Chiral Medicine Cabinet
    Size Exclusion
    15.5 - Instrumentation
    HPLC Components
    Profile -Ultrahigh Pressure LC
    Mobile Phase
    Profile- Major Players, the Chromatography Industry
    15.7 - Further Reading
    15.8 - Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 16 - Gas Chromatography
    Profile - Odorants, Pheromones, and Chemosignals
    16.1 - Introduction
    Profile - Gas Chromatography on Mars
    16.2 - Basic GC Instrument Design
    16.3 - Method Development: a case study

    A Case Study - Peanut Butter
    Profile - The NIST 14 Gas Chromatography (GC) Library with Search Software
    16.4 - Modes of Separation
    Isothermal vs. Temperature gradients
    The Column
    16.5 - Carrier Gas and Injector
    Carrier Gases
    16.6 - Detectors
    Ionizing Detectors
    Optical Detectors
    Thermal Conductivity Detectors
    Electrochemical Detectors
    Tandem Instrument Detection
    Quantitative and Qualitative Considerations
    16.7 - New Developments and Directions in GC
    Multidimensional GC Techniques
    Profile - Breath and Air Quality
    Miniaturization, Portability, Speed, and Throughput
    16.8 - Extended Theory
    Evaluation of the GC Separation
    The Relationship between VN, k, and Selectivity
    The General Elution Problem
    16.9 - Useful Information
    Table 16.3 - GC column Manufacturers
    16.10 - Further Reading
    16.11 - Additional

    CHAPTER 17 - Electrophoresis
    17.1 - Introduction
    Profile - The Father of Electrophoresis
    17.2 - Fundamental Principles
    17.3 - The Basic Apparatus

    Profile - DNA Markers
    17.4 - Paper Electrophoresis
    Activity -Demystifying Electrophoresis: Build Your Own Electrophoresis Apparatus
    17.5 - Gel Electrophoresis
    Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE)
    Agarose Gel Electrophoresis
    17.6 - Ending the Analysis: The Time Factor
    17.7 - Gel Sample Detection

    Quantitative Electrophoresis
    17.8 - Enhancing Resolution
    Disc Electrophoresis
    Isoelectric Focusing
    2D Gel Electrophoresis Techniques
    Profile - 2D Success
    17.9 - Capillary Electrophoresis
    Profile - Capillary Electrophoresis and the Human Genome Project
    Introduction to Capillary Electrophoresis
    The Instrument
    Separation Efficiency
    Electroosmotic Flow
    Sample Loading and Throughput
    Dynamic Coating
    Recent Developments in CE
    Compare and Contrast: A look back at four different separation techniques
    17.10 - Useful Data
    Table 17.1 - Polyacrylamide Gel Separation Ranges
    Table 17.2 - Stains for Gels
    17.11 - Further Reading
    17.12 - Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 18 - Potentiometry & Probes
    18.1 -Basic Principles: Probes and Biosensors
    Profile- Handheld water quality probe
    18.2 - Potentiometric Probes
    Profile - The Standard Hydrogen Electrode
    The pH Probe
    Profile - Nano-scale pH probe for in-vivo use
    The Nitrate Probe
    Profile - Construction of a Salicylate ISE
    The Oxygen Probe
    18.3 - Non-potentiometric probes
    The Dissolved Oxygen
    The Chloride Probe
    The Total Salinity Probe
    18.4 - Probes for Measurements in the Human Body
    The Glucose Probe - a Biosensor
    Profile- The Number of Adults Treated for Diabetes Doubled in a Decade
    The Alcohol Fuel Cell Probe
    Profile - "Smart" Toilets
    18.5 - Further Reading
    18.6 - Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 19 - Analytical Voltammetry
    Profile - Behind Frankenstein
    19.1 - Basic Principles
    Profile -Parsing Method Names
    19.2 - The Three-Cell Electrode Cell
    19.3 - Chronoamperometry

    The Experiment
    Noise in CA and Related Methods
    Charging Current
    Mass Transport
    Controlling Mass Transport
    Profile - Chronoamperometric Nerve Gas Sensor
    The Cottrell Equation
    Profile - VX Probe
    19.4 - Linear Sweep and Cyclic Voltammetry
    Profile - The International Space Station Electronic Tongue
    The Experiment
    Quantitative Analysis with CV - The Randles-Sevcik Equation
    Qualitative Analysis with CV
    Solvents, Electrolytes and the Electrochemical Window
    19.5 - Square Wave Voltammetry
    19.6 - Working Electrodes

    Common Working Electrodes
    Ultramicroelectrodes and Nanoelectrodes
    Profile - Cyclic Voltammetry in a Single Cell
    19.7 - Useful Data
    Temperature Dependence of Reference Electrodes
    Temperature Dependence of
    Solvent Drying Techniques
    19.8 - Further Reading
    19.9 -Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 20 - Material and Surface Analysis Techniques
    20.1- Introduction
    Profile - Characterizing metal nanoparticles for water purification: electron microscopy in action
    20.2- Microscopy
    Profile - Microscopy and the Nobel Prize in Physics
    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
    Profile - Controlling the shape of silver nanoparticles with pH- AFM in action
    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
    Compare and Contrast - Resolutions for different microscopy techniques
    20.3: Thermoanalytic Techniques
    Profile-Thermogravimetric Analysis
    Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)
    Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)
    Profile- TG/MS
    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)
    Compare and Contrast: DTA, TGA, & DSC
    Profile - A Crime Scene Analysis
    20.4 - Mechanical Stress Analysis
    Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
    20.5- Further reading
    20.6- Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 21 - Advanced Topics in NMR: Understanding the NMR Experiment
    21.1 - Introduction
    Profile - Adriaan "Ad" Bax
    21.2 - Resonance in the Rotating Frame
    21.3 - The Pulse Experiment

    Relaxation of the excited state
    Longitudinal Relaxation (Spin-Lattice): T1
    Measuring T1: Inversion Recovery
    Transverse Relaxation (Spin-Spin): T2
    Measuring T2: Spin-Echo
    21.4 - The Influence of Nuclear Neighbors:
    Dipolar Coupling and The Nuclear Overhauser Effect
    Profile- Albert W. Overhauser
    Profile - Jean Jeener

    21.5 - Introduction to 2D NMR
    COSY and TOSCY
    Profile - G. Marius Clore
    Profile - Kurt Wuthrich

    21.6 - Special Topics in NMR
    Variable Temperature NMR
    Solid State NMR
    Other Spin-Active Nuclei
    21.7 - Useful Data
    21.8 - Further Reading
    21.9 - Additional Exercises

    CHAPTER 22: Statistical Data Analysis
    22.2 -Types of Error

    Gross Error
    Systematic Error
    Random Error
    22.3 -Precision vs. Accuracy
    22.4 -Statistical Tools

    Population vs. Sample
    Standard Deviation and Variance
    Standard Error and Error Bars.
    Normal Distributions
    Confidence Limits
    Using Spreadsheets to Determine Confidence Limits
    Propagation of Error
    Data Sets
    Identifying Outliers: The Q-Test
    Identifying Outliers: The Grubb's Test
    Analyzing Variance: The F-Test
    ANOVA: A 2-Dimenstional F-Test
    22.5 -Linear Regression Analysis
    22.6 -LOD, LOQ, and LDR
    22.7 -Further Reading
    22.8 - Additional Exercises

    Appendix: Table of Acronyms and Abreviations


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